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THE 



PENNY CYCLOPEDIA 



OP 



THE SOCIETY 



FOR THE 



DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



• •«• • • • »_• 

• • • • • i> ' 

• • • •• • Mm 

• «• •• • 
i • • • • « 






' » 



• • •• 

• •• . 



* c • * • 



VOLUME XII 



• •• •• •• •»• •• 



HADLEY, JOHN INTESTINA. 




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1" jy\v-Y^> 




LONDON: 



CHARLES KNIGHT AND Co.. 22, LUDGATE STREET. 



MDCGCXXXVIII. 



P»Tce Seven ShWingt md SUpencCf bifmd in cloth 



Rlfbt Hob. LORD BftOUOHAM. F.II.S. If ember efthe NaUoaal iMtltaU Of Fri 

i—JOHN WOOD. Km|. 



W. AIIm, Hhq., F.R. «Bd R.A.9. ' 

Cftptala Beaufort. R.N., F.R. And R.A.8.« 

Rydroirrapher to the Adairaltj. 
FraacU Boott, M.D. 
O. Bvrroira, M.L>. 
Peter SUflbrd Carey, Btq.» A.M. 
William CoulaoR, Eiq. 
R. L>. Cralf , Esq. 
J. F. Davla, Raq., F.R.S. 
H. T. Dela Bcche. Etq.. F.R.9. 
The Rlfht Hon. Lord Denman. 
Samuel DnekirorUi, Esq.* M.P. 
R. F. Dnppa. Eaq. 

The Rlffht Rev. the Blahop of Durham, D.D. 
Sir Henry Ellla. Prln. Lih. Briu Una. 
T. F. Etna. Kaq., A.M., F.R.A.8. 
John Elllotaon, M.D.. F.R.a. 
OeoTfte Erana, Eaq^ U.P. 
Thomaa Falconer, Eiq. 



Trfatarer— WILLIAM TOOKE. Eaq.. F.R.S. 

I. Xm Goldamid. Eaq., F.R. and R.A.8. 

Francia Henry Ooldamid, Eaq. 

B. Oompertt, Esq., F.R. and R.A.9. 

O. B. Greenotjgh, £aq.« F.R. and LS, 

M. D. Hill, Efto. 

Rowland Hill, Eaq., F.R.A.S. 

Right Hon. Sir J. C. Hobhoute, Bart., M.P. 

David Jardine, Eaq., A.M. 

Henry B. Kcr, Rtq. 

Thomaa Hewitt Kef, Eaq., A.M. 

Geor^ C. Lcwia, Eaq.. A.M. 

Thomaa Henry Liater, Esq. 

Jamea Loch, Kaq., M.P., F.G.S. 

George Long. Eaq.. A.M. 

H. Maiden, B«q. A.M. 

A. T. Malkin, E^q. A.M. 

James Manning, Raq. 

R. I. Murehiaoa, Esq., F.R.a, F.0.9. 



The RI?ht Hon. Lord Kitfeot.** 

Wm. Smith 0*Brien. Esq.. M.P. 

The Klfflit lion. Sir Henry Fariiell, Rt, M.P. 

Richard Qiiain. Eaq. 

I>r. Rofet. Sec. R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Edward Romilly. Esq.. A.M. 

The Kiflfht Hon. Lord John Rnaatll, M.P. 

Sir M. A. Sliee. P.R.A., F.K.8. 

John Abet Smith, E«q., M.P. 

The RlKltt Hon. Earl Spencer. 

John Taylor, Eaq. F.R.M. 

Dr. A. T. llioniBon. F.L.S. 

Thomaa V'ardon. Esq. 

H. Way mouth, Esq. 

J. Whishaw, K*q.. A.BI., F.R.S. 

The Hon. John Wrotteaivy, A.M., F.B.A.8. 

Thomaa Wyae. Eaq., M.P. 

J. A. Yatca, Eaq., M.P. 



jUh»t Rq#briiAtf ■ R t. J. P. Jooti*' 
^nflaaeo— Hot. £. Wllllaraa. 

Rev. W. JtfhoaoB* 

Mr. Miller. 
^thhmrtcn'^J. F. Kingston, Esq. 
BamrtapU.'— — Bancraft, Esq. 

Winiam Grlbble, Esq. 
Btl/iut— Dr. Drummond. * 

HtnnliHrAaaa— J.Corrie,Esq.F.R.S. Chalrwum. 

Paul Moon James. Eaq.. Treaturer, 
RrMpert— ^apea Williams. Esq. 
^THilaf— /.N.6aiMlera. K«q.' f.ii,< Chairman, 
: :J^ R«y,\^lda. Ejfq«;Tr«*i|i**r; 
•j;ji: EMlIn, £sii.;F.Ji.8i, iedTelory. 

Cfllcv^ta-rSlr^, H >I^lkiA. 

Jaaca You'^g. Esq* ., 

C. Xl Caoicros.'.E*^. ' • 
C«m^r/<is>^-1te^.'Jai1i»s Bdwttead, M.A. 

Re7.*Pr9f. Hr«ial«w,M.A.: F.L.S.IcO.S. 
• ReT.:L«oaar.lichyc»,M>A., F.L.S. 

.lUl.'Geo. Peacocs, M.A., F.R.8.& G.S. 

Robert w. Birthmsn gt<uM.A.,P.R.A.8. 
& O.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwlch. M.A., F.R.S.& 0.8. 

Rer. C.Thlrlwall. M.A. 
Caa(crftiiry<— John Brent, Esq., Alderman. 

William Masters, Esq. 
Giafoa— Wm. Jardine. Esq.. Prtsident, 

Robert Inglls, Esq., Treasurer. 

RcT. C. BriiiKinan, ) 

RcT. (*. Guttlaff, >Se4relariei, 

J. R. Morrison, Esq., ' 
Cardigna^ner. J. Blackwell, M.A. 
t'oriij^tf— Thomaa Barnes, M.D., F.R.8.B* 
Cmrmmrwm^R. A. Poole, Esq. 

William RoberU, Eaq. 
CA«s<er~Hayea Lyon. Eaq. 

Henry Potta, Esq. 
CAicAeffer— John Forbca, M.D., F.R.8.. 

C. C. Dendy, Kaq. 
OpdbmostA— Rev. J. Whitrldgc. 
Cerfm — John Crawford. Esq. 

Mr. Plato Petridca 
Coftentrf^ATthnr Grpforv, Eaq. 
PawAfcA-— John MadockK, kaq, 

Thoaaa Evana, Eaq. 



ZiOCJLZi COSMSMZTTfiSS. 

Derfty— Joaeph Strutt, Eaq. 

Edward Strutt, Esq.. M.P. 
DweonpoTt and Stemehoust'^ohn Cole, Esq. 

— Norman, Kaq. 

Lt. Col. C. Hamilton Smith, F.R.S. 
D«Wi»— T. Drummond. Esq. R.E., F.ll.A.S. 
EdMmrgh^aXr C. Bell. F.U.S.L. and E, 
f frwia— Jos. Wedgwood, Eaq. 
ITjrefer— >J. Tyrrell, Eaq. 

John Milford. Eso. (Coaver.) 
OtoMorpaai/are— Dr. Malkin, Cowbrldge. 

W. Williams, Esq., Aberpergwm. 
atoMgow—K. FIniay, Eaq. 

Professor Mylne. 

Aleiander McGrlgor, Kaq. 

Charles Teanant, Ksq. 

Jamea Cowper, Eso. 
Omermsey^V, C. Lukls, Eaq. 
HuU—3. C. Parker, Eaq. 
Leamingtom Spa^Vr. London, M.D. 
Leeds— J, Marahall, Eaq. 
Lewes~-J. W. Woollgar, Eaq. 
Liverpool lAte. At.—W, W. Currfe, Esq. Ch. 

J. Mulleneox, Rao., Treasmrar, 

i««v. i>r. Sbcphero. 
Ladlow—T. A. Knight, Eaq., P.H.8. 
Maidenhead— R. Goolden, Eaq., F.L.S. 
Jtfauii/</iM— Clement T. Smyth, Esq. 

John Case, Eaq. 
Alalmeeimrf^B. C. Tlkonaa, Eaq. 
Manchester Loc. Am,—G, W. Wood, Eaq.. CA. 

Benjamin Heywood, Eaq., Treaswer, 

T. W. Winsunley, Esq., Hon, 6ee. 

Sir G. Philips, Bait, M.P. 

Bcnj. Gott, Eaq. 
Mfasham—Ker, Geoora Waddiogtoo, M.A. 
Alerthyr Tydri/— J. J. Guest. Esq., M.P. 
Miinekinkampton — John G. Ball, Esq. 
Monmomth—J. H. Moggridge, Eaq. 
ATea^A— John Rowland, Eaq. 
Aeveiulle—ReT. W. Turner. 

T. Sopwith, E«q.. F.G.S. 
Newport, Isle ef Wighi^Ab, Clukc, Baq. 

T. Cookt. Jun., Eaq. 

R. O. Kirkpatrick, Eaq. 
Kewport PagneO—J. Bllllar, Eaq. 
Newtown, Itontgoaur^tktro-^Yf, Pugb, Eaq. 



ATorir/cA— Richard Bacon, Kaq. 

Wm. Forater. Eaq. 
Orsett, a$e*—DT. Cirbctf, M.D. 
Orjord—Dr, Daubeny, F.R.:}. Prof, of Chen* 

Rev. Prof. Powell. 

Rev. Johu Jordan, B.A. 

E. W. Head, Esq., M.A. 
Peslht Haagary — Count Ssecbtnyl. 
Pl^mouth—H. Woollcombe, Eaq., F.A.8., Vk, 

Snow Harria. Eso.. F.R.S. 

E. Moore, M.I)., F.L.S.,6*acr«l«r«. 

G. WIghtwick, Ksq. 
Pref/ciya— Dr. A. W. Uavla, M.D. 
Aipoa— Rev. H. P. Hamilton, M.A., F.R.S. 
and G.S. 

Rev. P. Ewart, M.A. 
RalAia—Rev. the Warden of 

Humphreys Jones, Esq. 
Rfde, /. ofiright^SXt Rd. Simeon, Bl. 
So/utery^Rev. J. Barfitt. 
Shefieid—J. H. Abrahams, Eaq. 
Shepiom Mallet'— G. F. Bnrrougha, Ra%. 
Shrewtbmry— R. A . ^aney, Esq.. M. P. 
South PetherUm— John Niclioletts, Eaq. 
St. Aaaph — Rev. George Strong. 
Stockport— H. Maraland, Esq., TVeoaarar, 

Henry Coppock. Esq., Sacralojjr. 
Sjfda^. New South fFaiet— 

WllUam M. Manning. Eaq. 
Toiputocjr— Rev. W. Evana. 

John Bundle, Esq. 
rmre—Rlchard Taunton. M.D.. F.R.8. 

Henry S«well Stokea, Eaq. 
TuHlmdge We/U^Dr. Ycala. M.D. 
C7/o;re<er— Robert Blurton, Ka^ 
Warwick— Dr. Conolly. 

The Rev. Wiuiam Field. iLomnbut^n,) 
WaterfordSlr John Newport, Bt. 
1Fo/verAam|»<uii-"J. Pearaon, Eaq. 
VForcei/ar^Dr. HaaUnga,M.D. 

C. H. Hebb, Esq. 
IFrc»A4im— Thomas Edgworth, Kaq. 

J. E. Bowman, Esq.. FX.8. 

Major WlUlam Lloyd. 
ranaoacA— C. E. Rumbold, Kaq, 

DawaoQ Tamer, Eaq. 
rorA^Rev. J. Kearick, M.A. 

J. PhiUlpt, Stq., F.R.8^ F.03. 



THOMAS C0ATX8, Eaq., Sccrt tary, Mo. ft». UflcolB*i laa Fitldi, 



KMdon { Priatad by Wojluh Cmwsi tad SoiQ^ SUaiind Scntlj^ 



THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA 



OF 



THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF 

USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



HAD 

IIADLEY. JOHN, the reputed inventor of the sextant 
which bears his name, became a Fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety in 1717, and died February 15, 1744. He was author 
of several useful papers, which appear in the Transactions 
of the Society, from vol. 32 to vol. 39. He was also upon 
intimate terms with Sir Isaac Newton, ^m whom it is sup- 
posed he borrowed, without acknowledgment, the idea of the 
sextant. It is now generally believed that Newton and God- 
frey were the original and independent inventors of that 
instrument. [Godfrky.] Hadley gave an account of the 
instrument in the 'Philosophical Transactions' for 1731 ; but 
Newton, previous to his death in 1727, had given a descnp- 
tioQ of the instrument to Dr. Halley, by whom it was, for 
some unknown reason, suppressed, though it was commu- 
nicated to the Royal Society in the year 1 742, after Halley 's 
death, by his executor, Mr. Jones. (Hutton's Dictionary, 
1815; Herschel's Astronomy, p. 102; and Trans, qf the 
American Society, vol. i., p. 21, Appendix.) 

HADRAMAUT. [Arabia.] 

HADRIA^US, ^LIUS, son of iClius Hadrianus 
Afer, a cousin of Trajan, and a native of Hatria Picena, 
but of Spanish descent, and of Domitia Paulina of Cadiz, 
vas born at Rome, in January, a.d. 76. He was left 
an orphan at ten years of age, under the guardianship 
nf Trajan and of Tatianus, a Roman knight. He made great 
progress in literature, especially in the study of Greek. In 
the reign of Domitian he served as commander of an auxi- 
liary legion in MsBsia. Trajan gave him his niece Sabina in 
marriage, and he accompanied the emperor in his Dacian 
and Extern campaigns. When Trajan died at Selinus, 
in Cilicia, in Augfust, 117, Hadrbn, whom he had left in 
charge of the army in Syria, was proclaimed emperor by the 
soldiers at Antioch, and he wrote to the senate, Requesting 
their confirmation. Plautina, Trajan's widow, favoured his 
Views by pretending that Trajan on his death-bed had ap- 
ptnnted him his successor, and for this service Hadrian 
showed his gratitude to Plautina to the end of her life. 
The iact of Hadrian being adopted by Trajan a year before 
hL<i death has been asserted by some writers and denied by 
others. His election being confirmed by the senate, 
Hadrian, after withdrawing the troops from the countries 
ca^t of the Euphrates and making peace with the Parthians 
and the Armenians, set off for Rome, where he assumed the 
consulship in the following year (a.d. 118) with T. Fuscus 
Salinator. He refused to appropriate to himself the tri- 
umph which had been destined lor Trajan, and he caused 
the image of the deceased emperor to be carried in the tri- 
umph : according to Spartianus he himself carried it. He 
remitted all the arreare due to the public treasury by indi- 
nduiJs in Rome and the rest of Italy, and all that was due 
from the provinces for sixteen years past ; and he burnt in the 
Forum of Trajan the schedtdes of the debts, which are said 
to have amouited to several millions sterling. Medals were 
ttiQckon this occasion with the figure of Hadrian holding a 
P- C^ No. 724 



HAD 

torch and setting fire to the heap, and the legend ' He 
enriches the whole world/ In the foUowinf; year Hadnan 
was consul again with Rusticus; and hearing that ihe 
Sarmatians and the Roxolani had made an irruption into 
Illyricura, he repaired to Mssia, defeated the invadei-s, obliged 
them to recross the Ddnube, and to sue for peace. H.* ap- 
pointed Marcius Turbo governor of Pannoriia and Dacia. 
From his camp in the lUyricum he wrote to the senate, ac- 
cusing of high treason four senators of consular families, wlio 
were ordered for immediate execution. Other persons were 
arrested and put to death as accomplices in the alleged cuii- 
spiracy, and a general alarm spread at Rome, when Hadrian 
hurried back and affected to blame the precipitancy of the 
senate. He compelled Tatianus, his former guardian, whom 
he had made prssfect of the Prsstorian soldiers, and who 
had abused his power, and had advised the proscriptions, to 
resign his office. The year after, Titus Aurelius Fulvius, 
afterwards the Emperor Antoninus Pius, was made consul ; 
and in the same year Hadrian began his travels tlirou^h 
the various parts of the empire, which may be said to have 
occupied, with few interruptions, the remainder of his reign, 
a period of about eighteen years. We have memorials of 
his travels in numerous medals, struck in the various pro- 
vinces on the occasion of his visit, which form an interesting 
series. An Italian medalist, Mezzabarba Birago, has put 
these medals in order and illustrated them. Hadrian began 
with Campania, where he distributed sums of money to 
the poor of the various towns which he visited. Indeed 
liberality in this respect was one of the most conspicuous 
qualities of this emperor. He next went to Gaul, where 
he visited all the principal towns and fortresses; from 
thence he proceeded to Germany, where the best legions of 
the empire were stationed, and he remained a considerable 
time among them for the purpose of restoring the discipline, 
which had oecome relaxed. He himself set the example 
by living as a soldier among the soldiera. Hadrian was 
not fond of pomp or show, and he went about with as 
little state as possible. He drew up a series of military 
constitutions or laws, which remained long in use after his 
time, and are quoted by Vegetius. He attached to every 
cohort a certain number of builders, masons, and other 
workmen. 

In the following year, in the consulship of Annius Verus. 
grandfather of Marcus Aurelius, he left Germany, and le- 
turned to Gaul, from whence he passed into Britain, where 
he is said by Spartianus to have reformed many abuses. 
Although Hadrian did not live on very good terms with his 
wife Sabina, he punished those who presumed to fail in respect 
to the empress ; among others Suetonius IVanquillus, the 
biographer, who was Hadrian's epistolographer, or secretary* 
whom he dismissed, as well as Clams, the prcefect of the 
Prstorium. While in Britain he constructea a rampart of 
earth, extending from the Sol way Firth to the German Ocean 
near the mouth of the Tyne, » little to the south of the 

Vol. Xn.— B 



HAD 



HAD 



more »ub*tantiai nail ftftorwanU raised by Severut. On 
his return to Gaul, Hadrian built a magnificent paboe at 
Numea fur Plautina, Trajana widow. He tbenco pro- 
ctsJed into Spain, and apent some time at Tarrmco (Tanra- 

Sna), where he held a general assembly of the deputies of 
e various pruvtiic-trs of Spain, and settled several disputes 
and complaints. While walking in the palace garden at 
Tarraci) a hlskxe attempted to kill him. The emperor par- 
ried tho blow, and cun«»i:rniHl the assassin to his euards, but 
on hraniiK thai the man was insane, he ordered him to be 
takiMi cure of by hi<i phy<»irians. Hadrian returned to 
Rome HI the c<>n>\iUhip of Aulhis A viola and Cornelius 
Paii%a« A.o. I i2 ; but lie IcA it again soon after, and the 
next >c.irwellnd luin at Athens, aniy to which he was much 
at I ached. He orilirv'd the embankment of the Cephisus, 
which had damai;cd I he town of Eleusis, and the construc- 
tion and reparatiun of \aru)ii« edifl(H*s. Fn>m thence he 
Went to Sjria, and had a conference with the king of tlic 
Fat thianaj when \H*dcv vna* ronfirrocd betWi*en tlio two em- 
pirt's. In the \car fulloMinif be visited various parts of 
Asia Minor, and afivr buii'lin^' temples and other edifices 
at NuMiiKMlia. C\7icuni. Nictea, and other towns, be sailed 
to till* isl.uidH of the ^i*I;(ean hea, and returned to spend the 
XK.ndT at AtheiiN uhi-iv ho uas initiatetl in the Kleusiniau 
m\Mcru'*, pn^sKhHl at the public games, and showed many 
niatk«> of fa\our to the Athenians, He next went to Sicily, 
and asreiiflid the summit of ^i^tna to sec the sun hac. He 
rcluriu'd to Rome under the ci-u^uUlnp of Verus and Ju- 
nius Kibulus, A.a l*i6« and we know nothing of his move- 
inen(« for the two followini; }i>:irs. lie appi-ars to have 
bivn at Rome in the year I'JV. under tlie coiiauUhip of Ju* 
Tent 1 us CvUus and Julius Baibus, when a violent earth- 
quake ItaMng destroyed the tonus of Nicomcdia and Nica*a 
in Hithynia, and others, lie ordered them to be rebuilt at 
his own expense, for«hirh he is st}led on some medals the 
Re»ioror of Bitbynia. In tlie same year he set off fur 
Africa, wliere be' distingui%hed himself, as be had done 
on hi« previoua travels, by his mumflcenee. PUutina liav> 
ing dn^i meantime, Hadrian returned to Rome, and cele- 
bratfd ber ftmeral with great coremony. and bad her num- 
bered among the gods. In the following year, 130, ho 
raised a magnificent temple in honour of Venus and Rome, 
aome remains of which are still seen near the arch of Tit us. 
The plan of the building was made by Roman architects, 
an! tent by the emperor to Apollodorus, a celebrated Gre- 
cian architect, fbr hi% opinion. Apollodorus observed that 
the buthhng appeared too low fi>r the sue of the statues of 
Venus and Rome, which were intended to be placed 
therein, and which it would appear were represented seated, 
as ApolltMloruj remarked that those divinities, when once 
witbm, could not stand upnght or walkout of the templo, if 
tbo should take a fiincy to do so. Hadrian, atung ui this 
aarca^m, sent Apollodorus into exile ; and it is added by 
aome wntcrt that he afterwards ordered him to be put to 
death on some frivolous pretence. In that >ear Hadrian 
aet off again f>r the Rast« He visited Cappadoeia, where 
he held a conference with several kings or chieia of the 
Caucasian tnbes, the Abaxi, Zidretea, ^e., whom he sent 
hack loaded with present^. Even theBactri4na sent an em- 
hasay to propf*^ an alliance with Rome. He next 
prureeded to S)na, Palestine, and Rgypt, in which last 
eotintry he rrmained two years. While he was in Rgypt, 
and under the consulship of Lsmas Pontianua and Ante- 
nius RuOnus, AJk 131, the jurist Salviua Juliaoua com- 
pletrd. by his order, the Per}»elual Kdict, which nay be 
eonsidrrrd as the flrat genetml code of Roman law published 
by authmty. 

There ts a letter of Hadnan, written from Alexandria, to 
Berviantts, his bruiher-tn law. m which he de«cnbea the 
state of tU* pomiUtion of Kir>pt, and speaks of the various 
srrts« Jens Chnstians. Samaritans, t&c, who wero very 
numcnus m that country ; be ^a>% that they all adored but 
one ^ d, namely, their own iiitrrest. He aln) notice* as 
an rxtr^ordinary ihing« that at Alexandna e\er)'n(xly, even 
the hi I. <!. fnl lowed si ue trade or occupation ; a circtiuutance 
w hich t ri'lubW vtrurk htm by (x>ntni%t with the Imbitual idlo- 
nra* of the p«^>pk* of Riime. He restored the palan* ami 
mu«rum of Alexandria, and held disputations with the 
kerned men tt.rre. AlsMit this time hw favourite Antinous 
died; sume say he drowned him*elf in the Nile, and Ha* 
dnan d;*grar«| hitntelf \ry the ap>tbe^is and other absurd 
honouri which he paid to hi* ittrmor>. He next went to 
C*ymMl9| vbere be is said to ba^e kiUod enlarge Uutk 



Hadrian was an expert sportsman, and is aaid to have k 11 -d 
many wild beasts in his travels. Under the consul*! i \> "( 
Hiberus and Sisenna, a.d. 133, Hadrian refmired to S;.n.t. 
from whence he set off for Tliracc and Macedonia^ niA 
lastly stopped at Athens. The insurrection of the Jeu* of 
Palestine under Barcochebas ra^d about this time. I'hi \ 
took Jerusalem, and spread all over Syria, and Hadn.m 
was obliged to send for his best general, Julius Se\er-,i*, 
who was in Britain, to assume the direction of the sur 
against them, which lasted about three )ears. [Bajic<»- 
CHKBAs] Hadrian raised a new city on the ruinsof Jen.-i- 
lem, which he called >EUi Cap itoliiia, and he peopled it wi.U 
a Roman colony, forbidding; b\ an e<hct all Jews fruoi sett xus 
their feet within it. The Christians, who were still c*.ri- 
founded with the Jews by the Romans, were included m 
the prohibition. Haiirian meantime made another l**ri,; 
, residence at Athens, and in the festivals of Bacchus be ajr- 
' peared in the dress of an archon. and distributed m« luy 
I and com to the people. Ho ^reatly embellishe<l that «ii>, 
- a district of which was called by the name of Hadriano|^ ►;.%. 
[Athens] He alivi completed the temple of Juf.ier 
Olympicus, which had been commenced a long time bt t>re. 
Ho rotumcd to Rome under the consulship of Lupenus 
I Pontianus and Rufus AquiUanus, a.ix 135, where lie re- 
! ceived the visit of Pharasmanes, king of Ibena, who rai^u- 
' to answer several complaints laid against bim by Vol<*^t*^i.v 
j king of Armenia. An exchange of rich presents took place, 
and Hadrian took care that his should exceed in value fh.i^ 
I brought to him by his visitor. Soon after, falUng ill ho 
I thought of choosing a successor, and he fixed bis ch< n o 
I upon L»liu8 Aurelius Ceionius Commodus Verus, wN'n 
he adopted and appointed Cesar by the name of <.fC - « 
Verus. In the to 11 owing vear Hadrian retired to tl..* 
neighbourhood of Tibur, where he built a roai;niflc«-'t 
vdla, many remains of which are still exiting, and «h*< h 
contained representations of the wonders of nature and t 
art which he bad seen in his travels. Protracted illnr^ 
seems to have soured his naturally susuicious temper, a. I 
he condemned several individuals to death, among others 
hi^ brothel^in-law Servianus, a man far advanced in ak'«*. 
JSliua Verus having died in the second year aHer hi« a;*- 
pointment aa CsDsar, Hadrian now fixed hio choice upon Tit .i % 
Aurelius Antoninus, on condition that be abould adopt Lu- 
cius Verus. son of ^lius Verus. Alter some debberate u 
Antoninus accepted the proposal, and the double adopt i. u 
was bolemniied with the usual ceremonies in Februarx. 
137. Sabina, Hadrian's consort, died about this time, aif^i 
was numbered among the gods. Hadrian still Andiug htm 
dlness increasing, at last removed to Baie, where, in spite «.f 
the prescriptions of his physicians, he began to eat and dr.t k 
according to his pleasure. Seeing his end approach, !>• 
eomposed some lines addressed to bis soul, which show K.a 
doubts and fears concerning another existence : 

' AsimuU vac^tU bisailulji. 
lluaiiTB cuairM|u# curi>urt«,* Ice 

He died in Jalv. a.u 13(i, in his sixty-third >eftr, and tb^ 
twenty-first of ins reign/ (Simrtianus, Life qf Hadnam • 
Dion; Aurelius Victor; Eusebiiis.) 

In bis pcr»onal character Hadrian had many TmIual*U 
qtialitiea, tarnished by some vices. Aa emperor, his rx-ucu 
may upon the whole be considered a happv one for tl e 
emphre, which enjoied almost uninterrupted p«ece. Lr^m 
warlike than Trajan, he made himself roapected by tof^^zx 
petiona without having occasion to resort to arms. H . • 
extenanre travels form an important epoch in the hisUrfy « f 
Roman dvilixation, which they must ba«e tended to s^tbmI, 
while he eorrvcted many abusi*s of provincial adainistrc- 
tion,and thus cft*mented the union between Rone and it a 
vast dependencies. He used to say that an enspcwc oDi;bt 
to be like the sao« visiting by turns all the ngioiu of tb« 
earth. He bmlt numerous towns, embellished oUicfm, ai. i 
peopled them with fresh rtdonies. Dion, nhn is m getMr*! 
not favouralde to Hadn«n*s character, admits tlial he bcxee 
appropriated to himself other tHH»p1e*s prupertx. Mid tb^x 
he would not receive anything left him by wdl «heti tl.«- 
te^tator had chdilren. I lad nan gave no poeer to his Ubcrt «. 
and J) un IS bed thoM? about him w bo boasted of ihew inlluctw^ 
fiir tne purpo«e of extorting money. He wae aticntitw ; • • 
busini^^s, and an enemy to pomp and paradt If h» eMftnci>% 
be counted one of the best emperun^ be eertaml> mu»t 
not be reckoned among the bad. He had m\ extmrtdinary 
men*ory ; waa a good orator, gnteetffien* |Hiei ead 
aiQiAu; \»ae acquainiod with "*^*h^m*rt ttl 



H ^ M 

and ilelisfated in tbe companj or learned men ; lie was also 
a gtwiC m«nd to the arts of sculpture and arcbitecture. He 
wai the Antomperor who let hU beard grow— in order, it '' 
•aid. to conceal aome bleniiah in hia face. 

Tbe boita, statuea, and medals of Hodnon ore very ni 
meroua, and all bear a striking resemblaoM to each other 
in the charaetar of the countenance. There ia a (uU-len^th 
ttaiue of bim and two bnata in tbe Townle; Gallery, Brituh 
Museum. 




RarcoM af CoUu af Hiidrlu. 

ILSHATB'MESIS (ftnra ol/io, blood and tnim to 
TOinit), a bleeding fhim or mto the stomach [Hjbuok- 

H.£MATO'CELE (from alfta, blood, and icqXq, a tumour), 
an efTtision of blood into the ecrotum. 

HjCHATOFS, a name giTen by Mr. Gould to a gmm 
at binla inhabiting Van Diemen'a Land and New South 
Wslea, and thui characterised by him in * ZooL Ptoo.' Ibt 
Itin (Dee. 37). 

BiU shorter than tbe bead, slightly curved, without any 
denticile at the apex, rather oompreised. Nottritt longitu- 
dinal, and covered by an operculum; Dobrittles at the gape. 
H'ine* moderate, Brat quill short, third and fourth neailj 
Hiual and longeit T'cnV moderate, equal or aligbtlj forked. 
TtTti moderate, the rather strong kallax and claw equalling 
ihe middle loe and claw; external toet equal in length. 
Ensanguined spot* or marks (ntmi tanguinoienii) ahave 

Ur. Oould recorded two species, fI»rnatopr valdirostrit, 
H inchea in length (Van Diemen's Land), and H. gtUaris, 
C inches long (New South Wales). 

Tfae*e were amnng the ipcciment from which drawings 
fai^l been taken for the first part of Mr. Gould's new work 
nn the Birds of Australia. The name, in sound, comes 
rather near to Htematoput. 
H.BMA'TOPUS. [Oyb«r-Catcb8B.] 
H>«MAT0Rm8. [Falcowid*, voI.jc., p. 174.] 
H.EMATOTtYLON CAMPECHIA'NUM (Logwood), 
t tree native of Campeachy, but cultivated also In Jamaica. 
The finest wood is the produce of the former place. The 
hark and alburnnm being removed, there is within a dark 
t^ eoane-fibred doiamen, having a violet-like odour, and 
alaite at first sweetish, afterwards astringent. It dyes the 
•iIiTB violet-colonred, and produces a similar chan^ on 
man* of the other secretions. Specific gravity 1*057. Ten 
loutids of wood yield 16-lB ounces of extract. Its chief 
'nnsiituenta are t^atile oil, resinous or (atty matter, and a 
principle termed hamatoxyline, which is occasionally found 
in the wood in tbe form of crystals. 

l»s;wood acts as a mild astringent in hemorrhages or in- 
ciea!«d secretions ; and in some forms of diarrhma it often 
efl«c<a a cure where more powerful astringents fail. (See 
Abcmrombie on ' Diseases of the Stomach, &c.') It miiy be 
Inhibited in the form of infusion or of extract: the former 
u prefeiaUa. Logwood ia alio nscd extensively in the arts, 
npeciallj (br dynng. It gives the peculiar colour to the 
paper in which sugai'loavn are always mapped. 



KSMATCRIA (from aifta, blood, and oS,>«i, orine), 
voiding of bloody urine. [HxnoitRBAflB ; Kidnxts, Dit- 

"*IL«MO'CHARIS. [Lbbchbs.] 

BLEHODORA'CEiE. Under this name Dr. Robert 
Brown proposed, in the year 1 8 1 0, to separate from the natu- 
ral order Iridacew. the genera Hatmodorum, Conostylis, Ani- 
p)xanthoe, Phlebocarya, Dilatris, Lanaria, Heritiera, and 
Wachendorfia. He remarked that they are abundantly 
different, especially in being hexandrous, or in having the 
stamens, if only tiiree in number, stationed opposite the 
petals, and in heving the anthers opening on the side next 
the stigma ; the habit was moreover different This dis- 
tinguiehed botanist mentioned in connection with his new 
Older, without actually adding it, Xiphidium. The latter 
genus has more recently been introduced along with Ha- 
genbachia as an undoubted member, notwithstanding its 
having a superior ovary. All the spedes have equitant 
leaves, and perennial &scic1ed fibrous rootd or bulb-like 
cormi ; there is also a general appearance of wool upon 
their flowers, in some cases to such an extent as to bury all 
the outer surfece. The order may be considered a connect' 
ing link between Iridacete and Liliare». One species, Di- 
lob'ia Heritieri, yields adyetng mntler in its rhizoma. 




ai«]*i a,>H<l. 

H.SHO'PIS. [Lbkchbs.] 

HjBMOTTYSIS (from oTua, blood, and jit*-, to spit), 
a spilling or coui;hing of b1oo<i. [HxHomtBAaE ; Lunqs, 
DiseASESOF: Phthisis Pitlmonalis.] 

HiEMORRHAGE (from oI^b, blood, and pnT^(^ lo 
break). The most eorainon cause of hmraorrhage is ex- 
ternal violence, by which the vessels of a part are divided, 
and tbe blood escapes from their cavities. When an artery 
of some calibre is wounded, a bright scarlet stream of blood 
is propelled to a distance proportioned to the siie of the vessel, 
in a current continuous, yet increased in force at intervals 
corresponding with the pulsations of the heart. This ia 
called a jetting stream. If a vein of some sisebo divided, a 
stream of dark crimwn blood is projected in a perfectly 
continuous and equable current, and with less force than 
from an artery of the same calibre, in consequence of the 
lossof power which the blood sustains in its pBBEJs«lhrough 
the minute eapillarv vwsels. In "ounila » which no vessel 



tbe minute capillary ro^sela. 



B2 



H iE M 



H MM 



of more than a line in diameter has been divided, the blood 
Hows in a constant more or less rapid oozint;, but is not pro- 
jected to any distance from the bodv ; and when it issues from 
both kinds of vesscU at once, anu in equal quantities, its 
colour is intermediate between those peculiar to each of 
them. The same mixture of the two kinds of blood may 
^imetimes, when a number of small vessels of both kinds, 
uhd a large one of either kind, are simultaneously divided, 
make it doubtful, from the colour alone, to which kind it 
belongs ; and the distinction becomes still more difficult if 
the arterial blood be long detained in the tissues, for then it 
assumes a venous colour. 

When a large artery, as one of the main trunks of the 
limbs or head, is divided, the blood rushes forth with such 
iinpeiuo.^ity that life is oHen destroyed almost instan- 
tuni'ously. The quantity of blood I >st however, and the ra- 
ptdiiy with which death ensues, will depend in some mea- 
suiv on the froed'jm of exit which the blood finds after 
i<>utng froiu the wounded vessel, as well as on the mode in 
wliich it is wounded. If there be a free external aperture, 
no obstacle is presented to its How, and death speedily fol- 
l<i\\!%: if, on the contrary, the aperture be smuU, as in a 
])'inciurod wound, the blood can escape but slowly, and is 
li.iljle to coagulate in the pa>>i>a«;e, so as partially to block it 
up and render it still more narrow. If again the artery be 
completely divided, its extremities will retract into the tis- 
sues around, and be thus partly covered, so that the htemor- 
rl.a^e will be retarded. If it be cut longitudinally, the blood 
will How much less rapidly than if the wound be transverse, 
hcK'uuse the aperture will gape much less widely. If, lastly, 
the wound be not cleanly made, if the edges be rough and 
torn, a^ by a gun-shot, no blood at all will flow, at least for 
some tunc. None of these circumstances however is likely 
to do more than retard the fatal consequence of a wound of 
a large artery, unless immediate assistance be given. 

When an arterial branch of the second magnitude, as one 
of the primary divisions of the main trunks in the leg or fore- 
arm, is wounded, the How of blood is at first profuse, and a 
Inrge quantity is soon lost; but after a time the patient 
laiiits from extreme exhaustion, and then the heart ceasing 
to act the blood no longer flows, but begins to coagulate both 
within and around the vessel, whose extremities contract, 
and further loss may thus be prevented. More frequently, 
however, as soon as the patient recovers from his exhaus- 
tion, and the heart regains some of its power, the shght 
obstacles formed during the fainting are forced away, and 
the haemorrhage recommences and continues till the patient 
is again exhausted. Thus by a succession of hsemorrhages 
and of temponury staunchings, he may at last be destroyed 
by extreme debility. From arteries of smaller size, as those 
about the fingers, &c., the blood flows at first in a rapid little 
stream, but after a few minutes, if they are exposed to the cold 
air, they retract ; their orifices contract and close, and the 
bleeding altogether ceases, withoutmuch danger of returning. 

Hsemorrhage from wdunded veins is of less importance. 
It is much more slow, for the blood is prevented by the 
valves from flowing from that part of the vein which is be- 
tween the heart and the orifice, and in the part which is 
beyond the orifice it has only the force of that m the smaller 
arteries. Hence it is seldom immediately fatal, and when the 
patient becomes faint the edecs of the vessel fall together, 
mstead of remaining open as those of arteries. Thus a coagu- 
lum forms within ana round them, and, except from the 
largest trunks, prevents any further flow. Other cases in 
which bleeding takes place from large vessels are those in 
which they are burst by sudden efforts, as sometimes happens 
in the aorta, especially when it or the heart is diseased ; tnose 
in which the walls of an aneurism or otherwise diseased artery 
or vein burst or ulcerate ; those in wjiich ulceration, whether 
in internal or external organs, spreads from surrounding 
parts« and at last (though they always resist for a long time) 
invades the walls of arteries and veins. The bleeding so 
common from ulcerated surfaces, and from %*arious vascular 
morbid growths, probably depends on rupture of the very 
delicate vessels which they contain ; and the same delicacy 
of the walls of its vessels, with their great liability to disease in 
advanced life, may be assigned for many cases of hiemorrhage 
in the more vascular parts of the brain producing apoplexy. 

^**' blec(Ung to a great extent may take place without 
Dturc of any vessel. This form of hsemorrhage, 
take place in various parts of the body, is that 
•upposed to arise from the ' bursting of a blood- 
it in the large majorltv of comw wliere blood is 



poured forth id the mtenor of the body, the mot t ctrefhl 
examination can discover no aperture through whieh it had 
flowed. It is therefore called hemorrhage by exhalation, 
from the idea that the vessels which in health are traversed 
only by the fluids of the exhalations or secretions, now per* 
mit the passage of the blood. The only instances in which 
the blooa has been seen flowing in these cases are those ex- 
tremely rare ones of hnpinorrbage from the skin of the face, 
hands, feet, &c« In these the surface is covered by a dew 
of blood; if this be wiped away no unnatural appeordnce is 
perceptible, but the blood soon exudes again. From thm 
the process would appear to be very similar to that of men- 
struation. When internal organs from which h»monha;'e 
has taken place are examined after death, they arc some- 
times found loaded with blood, but at others quite pale, 
their vessels having been completely emptied ; when | n^sMvl. 
small clots of blood like grains of sand sometimes ooze out 
on the surface, as if proceeding from the orifices of secret lui; 
ducts. From these and other circumstances it is probai>lc 
that the blood does pass through the vessels which natumlly 
are permeated by the secretions, though the minute dtUiiN 
of neither process are yet wholly explicable. It caiitii>: 
however be certainly affirmed that the minute blood-ve^^c 1> 
are nut ruptured, for neither the apertures nor the cicatrix ^ 
in them could be in any way visible. 

The circumstances under which these hemorrbace> take 
place are various. In some cases they arise from disTi n- 
sion of the vessels in consequence of some local excitemcii. 
cither with or without increased activity of the circulaiii>M 
generally, and in these the flow of blood is preceded by a 
sensation of fullness and throbbing in the part» which, iT 
visible, appears red and pollen. Such are those which take 
place in bronchitis, producing some rare cases of ha>ii) p- 
tysis ; in dysentery and acute inflammation of the intestine> ; 
from the membrane of the nose, producing the epistaxis ^o 
common in young persons in robust health ; in the braiti, 
producing some formsof apoplexy, especially thoee Connecticut 
with hypertrophy of the heart; and occasionally in the acme 
inflammations of nearly all the tissues. In other cases the 
main cause of the hsmorrhage is the existence of some 
obstacle to the free passage of the blood through the vesscN 
Such are those very frequent cases in which hemoptvsis, or 
spitting of blood, takes place in consumption, where the 
blood is obstructed in its passage through the pulmonarv 
arteries by the masses of tuberculous matter depositi'<l 
around them ; those of ho^matemesis, or vomiting of blo>»H, 
which arise from obstruction of the splenic or portal vein. 
by coagula, or by disease of the liver or other adjacent orgauN, 
and the consequent congestion of the vessels of the stomach ; 
many of those which occur from the stomach, uterus, an*! 
other organs, in the early stages of various structural d.-^ 
eases ; those which depend on disease of the heart, product it.; 
obstruction in the large vessels, and which may take piai <• 
in the brain, lungs, and various other organs; and tho<o 
arising from obstacles in the veins, tis in hanging, or e\e:i 
from the influence of gravitation. 

But a simply mechanical distension of the ve«seN. 
whether from an increased atflux of blood into them, or a 
retarded removal of it from them, cannot explain all tlic 
phsBnomena of these spontaneous hsemorrhag^ In mn:iv 
cases a pecuhar condition of the vessels, or of the bl <\ 
itself, must bo assumed, and is indeed nearly proved. I'o 
these must be referred many coses of what is called idiopa- 
thic hmmorrhage, as in some instances of hiematemc&is, li.v- 
maturia, &c. In some persons indeed there appears to Im* 
a peculiar disposition to bleeding, a hsmorrhagic diathoiH. 
Mr. Abemethy {Surgicul Lectures) used to speak of a 
bleeding family, in all of whom it was extremely difficult to 
staunch the blood from even the slightest wound; ami 
among other similar cases are not a few in which fatal hu-- 
morrhagc has fbllowed the extraction of a tooth, or, m 
children, the application of leeches. Every surgeon al> ) 
must have observed that in the same operations in difTorrut 
persons the number of vessels requiring to be tied \ar 
greatly ; in some amputations, for example, it is not nc < 
sarv to secure more than the main artery, while in otLci^ 
eight or more must be tied, and this not admitting of -ti> 
explanation from local differences. Many other ciriM:'ii 
stances might be adduced to show that there are cMidi;: )U'> 
of the smaller vessels in which they may not on1> tu •!«• 
easily permit hsemorrhages, but are less capable of vficvti.t^ 
those changes which are necessary for arresting them, a i i 
on these conditions the majority of the hnmoirhagca tcru«<.-l 



K* 



f." 



U JEM 



H iE M 



passive must be supposed to depend. Such are especially 
those from the nose, rectum, and other organs, which occur 
in persons of weak lax habit, and which may be distinguished 
from the first class we have noticed rather by the general 
appearance of the patient than by any local circumstances. 

Lastly, there are cases in which the hssmorrhages that 
take place, often coincidently from several organs, may be 
presumed to depend on alterations of the blood itself. 
Such are those that occur in scurvy, in which the blood, 
when drawn from a vein, does not separate, as in health, 
into a firm coagulum and a clear serum, but settles into a 
loose, livid, or dark jelly-like mass, and rapidly putrefies. 
Such too are probably the petechial and otner effusions of 
blood in fever. 

Hemorrhages by exhalation may take place habitually 
or constitutionally, without injuring the health ; most com- 
monly the blood fiows from the nose or rectum, more rarely 
from the lungs or stomach, or even from the skin! They 
are sometimes periodical ; and when occurring in men, have 
seemed to favour the idea of a periodic action of the system 
iu the male sex as in the female, and the more so as the 
menstrual evacuation, when suppressed in the latter, is not 
un frequently compensated for by hnmorrhage from some 
other organ. Most of the cases of spontaneous bleeding 
from the skin are of this class, and in other instances the 
blood has flowed at regular periods from the gums, the 
breasts, umbilicus, axills, or kidneys, but most frequently 
from the stomach or lungs. Similar vicarious hiemorrhages 
oct:ur in men when an habitual discharge from any organ 
has been suppressed, or when an old ulcer has been sud- 
denly healed. 

Of the means qf arreiting Haemorrhages. — When an 
art-ery is wounded, unless death rapidly follow, a natural 
process takes place by which further bleeding may be pre- 
vented. If completely divided, both extremities retract 
into the sheath of cellular tissue in which they lie, so that 
a considerable interval is produced between them, bounded 
by loose and irregular walls, into which the blood as it 
flows infiltrates, and coagulating, tends to fill it up and ob- 
struct the vessel. The open mouths of the artery also 
contract, and gradually, but at last completely close, either 
at or just above their extremities. As the stream of blood 
IS thus checked by the narrowing and, closure of its canal, at 
the »ame time that by the &intness induced by the previous 
lo!&fl the action of the heart is weakened and the wnole cir- 
culation retarded, it begins to coagulate within the vessel 
itself, till its tube is nearly filled by a clot adhering loosely 
to its walls. Further changes then ensue ; the divided 
vessel and the parts around become inflamed; coagulating 
Kmph is effused from the edges of the wound into « the 
artery itself and over its extremities, forming a firmer plug 
than the blood alone had: in process of time this lymph 
becomes organized, vessels enter it from the parts around, 
and it becomes firmly and permanently united to them and 
the vessel, till at length its tube is rendered impervious from 
the point of division up to the first branch given off f^om it, 
and IS at last converted into a solid cord, closely connected 
»ith the substance of the cicatrix around it. If the artery 
be only partially divided, the same effects follow ; though, 
if the cut be extensive transversely, with less certainty, 
because retraction cannot take place, and the internal 
roagulum, if formed, is washed away by the stream which 
still partly passes along the vessel. The natural cessation 
of haemorrhages from veins is effected in the same manner, 
but fkr more easily, for the valves prevent any bleeding 
from the part nearest to the heart, and both orifices, intoteal 
of gaping open, fall together, and soon become adherent. 

But in the human subject it is only in the very small 
arteries that the hsemorrhago can be confidently expected 
to terminate thus naturally, and hence various artificial 
means of checking bleeding firom the larger ones have been 
indented. The simplest of these is pressure: if the finger 
]je placed with moderate firmness over the mouth of a small 
bleeding vessel for a minute or two, on removing it the ori- 
fice will be found closed and no more blood will flow. 
Prcsjture is also especially useful when a number of small 
arteries are bleeding together, with a constant oozing rathev 
than a rapid flow of blood, in such cases, when the edges 
<f the wound are brought together, a compress should be 
Uif 1 on, and bandaged firmly and steadily over them. The 
*iine means, or a tourniquet applied a short distance above 
the wound, so as to compress the trunk of the artery, may 
be usieful bv lessening the force and Tolume of the current. 



and thus permitting the natural processes to take place un- 
disturbed. But if these means be insufScient, the artery 
must be tied ; if it be completely divided, ligatures must be 
placed on both extremities ; and if only partially cut, then 
on both sides of the opening, for, from the numerous 
communications of the arteries, when the main current is 
checked, another in a retrograde direction is always esta- 
blished into the part beyond the ligature. The operation 
of the ligature is not merely to prevent mechanically the 
flow of blood from the opened vessel. When a fine cord is 
drawn tightly round an artery, something is felt to give 
way under it, and, on removing it and opening the artei*v, 
its inner and middle membranous coats are found cleanly 
cut throueh as with a knife, while the outer coat remains 
entire. When the ligature is left on, it embraces this outer 
coat closely, and thus rendering the canal impervious, com*- 
pletely prevents further bleeding. The blood thus becoming 
stagnant coagulates in the lower part of the vessel and ad- 
heres to its walls ; these at the same time inflame, coagu- 
lating lymph is effused from their cut edges, and becoming 
organized, at last, as in the natiual process, completely fills 
up the canal of the vessel, while the psirt constricted by the 
ligature ulcerates and gives way. permitting the cord to bo 
safely drawn away at the end of from six to sixteen days. 

Previous to the general use of the ligature, introduced by 
Ambrose Par6 in Uie sixteenth century, numberless means 
for checking hoamorrhages, then so frequently fatal, were 
resortei to bysurgeons, under the names of styptics, astrin- 
gents, &c. They were in the habit of applying hot irons to 
the stumps of amputated Umbs to stop the bleeding, which 
it is probable the eschar thus formed would generally effect 
At present however the use of the actual cautery is nearly 
abolished in this country ; it can only be justifiable in the 
few cases where, from peculiarity of situation, the vessel 
can neither be tied nor compressed, and for such cases it is 
certainly the most effectual styptic known. Cold air or ice 
is nearly as useful, and far dftener applicable : it is quite 
sufficient in all common cases where only small vessels are 
divided. In the very few cases where any astringents are 
required, as in some of external bleeding from diseased sur- 
faces or firom tumours, the best are solutions of sulphate of 
copper and of alum. Another class of remedies that may 
be usefully employed are those which act mechanically 
—as sponge, agaric, lint, and other light very porous bodies, 
which placed over a small bleeding orifice will soon com- 
pletely obstruct it by favouring the coagulation of the blood. 

Such are the principal mooes of treatment applicable in 
cases of external or surgical hsemorrhage in which vessels 
are divided by external injury, and are within reach of the 
eye or fingers. In internal hssmorrha^s however it is ob- 
vious that mechanical means can rarely oe employed. From 
the varied nature of the cases from which they arise it is 
evident that different means may be required in the se< 
veral kinds of cases. In those so closely related to inflam- 
mation, in which there is accumulation of blood from 
local or general excitement, the hssmorrhage is itself a na- 
turally curative means of its cause, and need not be checked 
unless it implicates some important organ, as the brain, and 
then the most advisable means of arresting it is to bleed 
from the arm. So, too, in cases of habitual or vicarious 
hsemorrhages, if not dangerous or very inconvenient from 
locality, it will seldom be advisable to check them, for they 
are generally outlets by which a plethoric condition that 
would else be highly injurious is cured ; at any rate they 
should be arrested gradually and cautiously. Where ex- 
ternal means are applicable none are so useful as cold, or, 
as a last resourse, pressure ; as by plugs put in the nostrils, 
&c. Where a mechanical obstacle to the passage of the 
blood exists, medicine can often do nothing for the perma- 
nent cure of the hssmorrhage that it produces. For the 
time, the most effectual means are cool air, cold water or ice 
applied as near as convenient to the seat of bleeding, iced 
dnnks, perfect quietude, and the avoidance of all stimuli ; 
the body should be placed in that position in which blood 
may gravitate from the affected part, and if there be any 
indication of plethora or accelerated circulation blood 
should be drawn from the arm to an amount to be deter- 
mined by the circumstances of the case. ' In many cases 
great benefit results from exciting the vessels, of and near 
the part, to a copious secretion of the usual fluids, as in 
some cases of hsematemesis by administering purgatives. If 
astringent remedies be deemed advisable, nnd in many cases 
the>' are highlv uM>iul, the acetate of lead will generally bo 



HAP 



HAG 



preferable, and next to it the different vegetable compounds 
of gallic arid. [Astringetts.] The treatment of the pecu- 
liar class of haemorrhages frum alteration of tlie blood is 
considered under Fkver, &c. (J. F. D. Jones » On Hif- 
morrhage and t/te Ligature; T. Watson, Cyclopedia qf Me- 
dicine^ art. * Hiemorrhage.*) 

Hi£MORRHOIDS (from al^, blood, and pi^, to flow), 
varicose tumours of the veins of the rectum. [Veins, 
Diseases of.] 

HiE'MULON, a genus of fishes of the section Acantho- 
pter\ gii and &mily ScisDnido. Generic characters : — a single 
dur&al fin ; seven branch iobtc^ous rays ; lover jaw com- 
pres!»ed, a small oval opening and two small pores under its 
syroohysis ; the vertical fins partially covered with scales. 

These fishes generally approach to an eloni^atc oval form ; 
the body is moderately rompressed ; the tail is forked ; the 
dorsal fin. which occupies the greater portion uf the dis- 
tance between the back of the head and the tail, although 
continuous, has a considerable indentation at that part where 
the spinous rays join the flexible. The portion of the under- 
jaw which is covered by the upper when the mouth is closed, 
18 invariablj^ of a bright red colour* The species of Hsmu- 
Ion chiefly inhabit the Caribbean Sea, and are eaten by the 
inhabitants of the West Indian islands. They are of mode- 
rate size, varying from six inches to one foot in length, and 
^nerally adorned with longitudinal or oblique dark mark- 
mgs on a pale ground colour. 

R£MUS. [Balkan.] 

hAfIZ, MOHAMAfED SHEMS EDDIN, a celebrated 
Persian poet, was born at Shiran, at the beginning of the 
fourteentn century of the Christian sera. From his earliest 
years he received a lettered education : and paid great at- 
tention to the study of religion and Mussulman juribpru- 
dence. He afterwards cultivated poetry, and became so 
celebrated that the Sultan of Bagdad invited him to his 
court. H&fi2 hbwever appears to have remained in his 
native town the greater part of his life. His Persian bio- 

fraphers relate an interview he had with the celebrated 
imur (Tamerlane), who conquered Shiras, a.d. 1357. 
The date of his death is uncertain ; it is plured by Daulet 
Shfih, A.D. 13»9. A splendid monument was erected over 
his grave, which is described by Kaempfer (AmfSiiitatrs 
Exotica*^ p. 301) ; and Franklin {Observations on a Tour from 
Betiffol to Persiit^ pp. 90-7) gives us an account of another 
monument erected to his memory in more modern times. 

The poems of Hafiz, like those of Auarreon, cclebrare 
the pleasures of love and wine. They have always been 
greatly admired in Persia; tliough many Mohammedans 
have condemned them for their irreligious and licentious ten- 
dencv. The admirers of Hatlz, on the other hand, contend 
that his poems are not to be understood in a literal, but in 
a figurative or allegorical sense; and that they express in 
emblematical language the love of the creature to the Crea- 
tor. The sect of llie SCifis, who interpret the poems of 
Hafii in this manner, possess many similar poems. They 
maintain that by wine he meant devotion, by perfume the 
lioi)e of divine favour, and some have gone so far as to com- 
po!»o a dictionary of words in the language of the Sdfis (see 
Sir W. Jones, * On tlie Mystical Poetry of the Persians and 
Hindus,* Asiatic Researches, v. 3). out we are not sure 
tliat any of the poems of Hafiz ought to be interpreted in 
this manner. Sir W. Jones, who was a great advocate for 
such a mode of interpretation, remarks, in the essay referred 
to above, * It has been made a question whether the poems 



'Div£n'coiitaiB8,acooidingtotheb6ttU8S., 571 odet, called 
ghazels. They were published in the original Persian, at 
Calcutta, 1 vol. foL, 1791 ; this edition contains only 567 

?^luizels. and 7 casbidelis, or elegies. Rewuski published a 
ew of the odes with a Latin translation and the commentary 
of Sudi, under the title of ' Specimen Poeseos Asiaticn, si\o 
Haphyzi Ghazele, sive od» sexdecim,* Vienna, 1771. 
Several of the odea are inserted in Sir W. Jones*s ' Com- 
ment aril Poeseos Asiaticm ;* Wahids ' Neu Arabis<*he 
Anthologie,* 8vo., Leip., 1791; Ouslev's ' Persian Mi«ri>l- 
lanies,* 4to, Lend., 1791 ; ' As^iatic Miscellany,' 2 vols., 
Calc., 1785-6. The whole 'Divan' was translated into (Ger- 
man by Von Hammer, Tiibing., 1812; and several of the 
odes have been translated into English by Richard<^n, 
' Specimen of Persian Poetry, or the odes of ll&fiz, with an 
English translation and paraphrase, chiefly from the S/wi- 
nu'n Poeseos Asiatiae of Baron Rewuski,' Lond., 1774; 
Nott» ' Select Odes of Hdfiz translated into English ver»i%' 
4to., Lend, 1787; Hind ley, 'Persian Lyrics, or ftoattered 
poems from the Diwan-i-Hfifiz,* 4to., Lond^ 1800. 

Further particulars concerning the life and writings of 
H^z are given in the life prefixed to the Calcutta e<iition 
of his poems; in the biography of Daulet Sh£h, in WilkenV 
Chrestntnathia Persira, Leip.. lb 05; and in the 4th vol. i»f 
the Notices et Ext raits d^'S MSS. de la Biblit^theqtte da 
Poi ; in the article * Hafiz' in the liiograiJue Lnirrrs">''\ 
bv Langlds ; and the same article in Ersch and On hci •> 
J^nctjclojuidie, by Koi>egrirten. 

HAGGAl 0]in. 'Ay>moc), one of the twelve i:ui.'>r IU»- 



<'0 



brew prophets. We know nothing concerning ti.e ; 
or time of his birth. The pseudo-Epiphaiiius, iu hi*- Li\»'^ 
of the Prophets, states that he wixs lK)rti at Bahvluii ; :>]• I 
according to the Rabbis he was a member of llu* (J.- t 
Synagogue. The date of Haggai's prophecy is l'\t -l uy 
hmi'^elf (i. 1), and by Ezra (v. 1), in the second year t-f :I.o 
reign of Darius Hystaspis (b.c. 519). We learn fn in li .i 
that the Jews, who returned to their native count. y isj ii o 
first year of the reign of Cyrus, commenced rebuilding: tlio 
Temple, but were interrupted in their undertaking by iLi- 
neighbouring satraps, till the second year of the reign i»f 
Darius Hystaspis, when the building was again coii'iniidl 
in mnsequencc of the exhortations of Ha^igai and Zecliuriah. 

The prophecy of Hapgai may be divided into four puiN: 
in the first, the prophet urges the people to continue bi.i Idl- 
ing the temple, by the promise that God would ble»^ llu ai 
in their undertaking, and that their previous neskct hu'l 
been the cause of the drought and bad sca&ons >\Lich tlu y 
had experienced (i.); in the second, he encourage> thtm Li> 
the promise that this second temple should surpa.-^s the fir>t 
in glory ; this prophecy is supposed by many to have been 
fuHillod by Christ entering the temple (ii. 1 — 9); in tlie 
third, he promises the people an abundant harve>t, sint e 
they had begun to build the temple (ii. 10 — 19); and in the 
fourth, he fortels the prosperity of Zerubbabel, governor of 
Judah (ii. 20—23). Zerubbabel is considered by many oni- 
mentators to be a type of the Messiah ; and the prophet) is 
supposed to relate to the glory of the Messiah's kingdom. 

The canonical authority of this book has ne\er been dis- 
puted. It is quoted by the author of the Epistle tu tlto 
Hebrews, xii. 26 ; compare Ha^. ii. 7, 8, 22. 

The prophecy of Habakkuk is written in a dull and ] ro- 

saic style, and bears traces of havine been compo>ed in u 

late period of Hebrew literature. It possesses none of 

that vigour and sublimity which distinguish the works of 

of Hafiz must betaken in a literal or figurative sense; but i most of the Hebrew prophets who lived before thel5al»\- 



the question does not admit of a general and direct answer; 
for even tlie most enthusiastic of his commentators allow 
that some of them are to be taken hterally, and \\i» editors 



lonish captivity. 

The Septuagint, Vulgate, and Syriac versions of the OM 
Testament attribute the 111th, 12r)th, I27th, 146th, 14;ih, 



(Eichhorn, Einlcituns in das Alte Testament, iv. 4.. — 



ouKht to have dislinKuishod them, instead of mixing the ' and Mbth Psalms to Hapgai and Zechariah. 

profane with the divine, by a chddii>h arrangement accord- ** *" 

iiig to the alphabetical order of the rhymes' (u. 1 72-3). We 
are aware that many Europeans justify the allegorical mode 
of interpreting the poems of IHfiz, by a reference to Solo- 
mon's Song and the Sanscrit poem * Gita Govinda' by 
Jayad.'va. It i« however very doubtful whether these 

fKK»ins ought to be interpreted in an allegorical manner. 
Soi-omon; Javm)kva.] The poems of Hafiz have had a 
i;roal numher of Sufi commeniators, such as Shuri, Seid Ali, 
l^mci. Suniri. and Slieniin ; but the most celebrated are 
tho^Turki^h commentators Feridun and Sudi. 

oeiu» of HAfi* were arranged after his death, by 



427 ; Augusti, Einleitung in das Altc Testaments p. »K J — 
348; Uosenmiiller, iSchoIia ; and the list of commenta' ts 
in Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica.) 

HAGGARD. [Falconiu.k. vol. x., p. 181.] 
HAGUE. THE ('* Gravenhmg^ a large and beautiM 
town, the capital of the pro\ince of South ilidland. ni tl.e 
kingdom of the Netherlands. It is not fortified, but l^ ^vt- 
rounded with a moat with drawbridges o\er it. TIj'I..I'« 
from being thuh open it has been generally de^ignotetl »b a 
village, it may l)e ranked among the handsonu-st citjcs if 
Europe for its stately buildiii^, its broad and rtvular 



^m Auvfir^ Mid were euttiled the ' Divan.* The [ streets traversed by canals, and K>r its pleasant situation on 



H A I 



H A I 



t dry ton, which is rather more elevated than the sur- 
rounding country, so that the air is tolerably pure and 
healthy. Many of the streets are planted with rows of 
trees and paved with coloured bricks. The finest parts of 
the town are the Voorhout and the Yyverberg, of which 
the latter, with a fine avenue of trees and a walk on one 
side, and on the other a spacious basin of water with maf^< 
nificent buildings, is peculiarly agreeable. Among the 
most remarkable public buildings may be reckoned the 
royal palace^ the exterior of which is by no means beau- 
tifuU with a large gaxden; the former residence of the Stadt- 
holder, beautified by Louis Bonaparte, in which the two 
chambers of the Statea-Greneral now hold their sittings, and 
in which there are many public offices ; the palaces of the 
Pkince of Onnge and Prince Frederick; the Buitenhof, 
which contains a galleiy of pictures ; the town-hall, with 
very fine paintings; the cannon-foundry, erected in 1668; 
the theatres, and the state-prison. Among the churches 
are three Dutch Reformed, and the French church, formerly 
Reformed, now Roman Catholic. The Portuguese and 
€rermaa Jews have large synagogues, and the Lutherans, 
Presbyterians^ Remonstrants, and Jansenists have chapels. 
There are likewise numerous charitable and scientific in- 
stitutions, and fine private collections. On one side of the 
town there is a canal constantly covered with vessels, and 
on the other a fine wood of oaks called the Bosch, in which 
is the country-palace of the roval family, resembling a gen* 
tleman's country-seat, but with a fine collection of pictures, 
and extensive gardens laid out in a less stiff and formal 
manner than the usual Dut<!h style. There are numerous 
elegant villas in the environs, and on the west of the town 
i» ^heveling, or Scheveningen, a neat fishing-village, con- 
taining about 700 houses, and which has become, especially 
of late years, much frequented for its sea-bathing. Between 
that and the Hague is a fine avenue of oaks, beeches, and 
limes. 

The Hagne seema to have owed its origin to a hunting- 
seat of the counts of Holland in the wood (Haag), which 
however so early as 1250 became a palace, round which 
many other houses were soon erected. In the sixteenth 
century the Hague became the residence of the States- 
General of the States of Holland, the Stadt holder, and the 
foreign ambassadors. In the course of the seventeenth 
century it was gradually Milarged, and at the commence- 
ment of the eighteenth was the centre of the most im- 
portant diplomatic negotiations. [Anne, Queen of Eng- 
land ; Geobos I.] The prosperity of the Hague was very 
matedaUy injured by the Revolution in 1 795, and afterwards 
bv the government of Louis Bonaparte, who removed the 
zreat public offices, &c., to Utrecht and Amsterdam: the 
return of the Prince of Orange in 1813, who was most en- 
th'isiastically welcomed by the inhabitants, restored it to its 
former splendour. The population, which had greatly de- 
cnrased, has since gradually recovered. In 181 7 there were 
42,000 inhabitants, and in 1837, 54,000. The Hague never 
having been either a commercial or a manufacturing town, 
the inhabitants have not the mercantile habits of the gene- 
rality of their countrymen. (N. G. Van Kampen, Staai-en 
aarJrijkikundige Be^ekrijving van het KomngrykderHe- 
der/4snden; Stein, Handbueh.) 

HAILES, LORD. [DiLLRTMFLB.] 

HAINAN, an island situated in the Chinese Sea, op* 
posite the southern extremity of the province of Quan-tong, 
or Canton, to which it is annexed, and firom which it is 
divided by the channel of the Junks, a straight only 15 or 
1€ milea wide. It lies between 18'* lO' and 20° 24' N. lat., 
and lOS" 50' and 111'' S.long., and encloses the gulf of 
Tunquin on the east Its length from south-west to north- 
east may be about 300 miles, and its average breadth per- 
haps not less than 100 miles; its surface may cover an area 
of 20,000 square miles, or nearly the double of Sicily. 

The interior of the island is occupied by an extensive 
moiintain-nass, called Ta Utshi Shan, or the Great Utahi 
range : from this there issue a great number of offsets, 
which towards the south-west and north-east advance close 
to the sea, but are separated from the south-eastern and 
north-western shore by a level tract of considerable width. 
These plains, which are of great fertility and well cultivated, 
ne&d annually two or three crops of nee and other grains . 
the small rivers which descend from the mountain-region 
are used for irri^ing this tract Sweet potatoes form the 
principal ftod of the people, though they cuUivata fruits» 
•dgar^ane^ lobacooy indigo, and cotton on a large scale. 



But tlie extensive forests which cover the sides of the moun- 
tains form the principal wealth of the island. Besides dif- 
ferent kinds of timber- trees, these forests produce sandal- 
wood, brasiletto, ebony, rosewood, and many other kinds, 
which are used as dye-woods, or for furniture. Wax is 
gathered in large quantities. An insect called Pelatshhung 
produces a white wax, from which candles are made at 
Khiung-tsheou, and exported to other parts of China. The 
climate of the island is not very hot, being exposed to the 
wind which blows over a large expanse of sea : fogs and 
heavy dews are frequent, and maintain a vigorous vegeta- 
tion. The coast is frequently laid waste by hurricanes, 
which are peculiar to the ocean that surrounds the island. 

According to the census of 1823 Hainan was inhabited 
by 987,725 persons, subject to the Chinese government ; but 
the higher parts of the mountains are possessed by aborigi- 
nal tribes, which are still independent, and called LL 
Those which are subject to China resemble the Chinese in 
figure, and have adopted their usages, but they speak adif- 
ferent language, though they use the Chinese characters. 
They are very industrious husbandmen. There are some 
very nopulous towns in this island. Khiung-tsheou, the 
capital, situated at its northern extremity on the channel of 
the Junks, is said to have 200,000 inhabitants; and Kai 
Kheou-so, where the governor resides, is said to contain as 
many. Some others have 80,000 or 90,000 inhabitants 
each. (Da B.a\de, History of China; Kli^Tproth's Descrip- 
tion de rhle de Hainan, in * Nouv. Ann. des Voy.,* vol. 
yi. ; and Captain Purefoy's Diary qf a Journey to the 
Coast qf Hainan, in * Asiat. Joum., vol. xx.) 

H AINAULT (in Flemish, Henegouwen), a province of 
Belgium, bounded on the north by East Flanders and 
South Brabant ; on the east by Namur, on the south by 
France, and on the west by West Flanders. Hainault lies 
between 49** 58' and 50° 48' N. lat.. and between 3** 17' and 
4®33'£. long. ; its greatest length from south-east to north- 
west is about 55 miles, and its breadth 30 miles. Its area 
is 372J93 bonniers, equal to 1438 square miles (English), 
thus divided : — 

Cultivated • 295,178 bonniers. 

Uncultivated . « 2,071 

Woods . • 61,832 

Towns and Buildings • 3,659 

Rivers and Canals • 1 , 165 

Roads and Paths • 8,288 



*i 



ft 



>» 



Total . 372,193 bonniers. 

The province does not contain any mountains, but is hilly to- 
wards the south and east. It is watered by the Schelde, the 
Sambre, the Dender, the Haine, from which the proviiu-e 
derives its name, the Trouille, and the Sonne. The Schelde 
enters the province from France, near to its confluence with 
the Scarpe at Conde, and flows to the north-aorth-west to 
Tournay ; then changing its course to north-north-east, it 
forms the boundary-line between Hainault and West 
Flanders, and quits the province at Escaneflies, its norLh- 
westem extremity. The Sambre also enters the province 
from France, near Maubeuge, flows north-west to Charlcroy, 
and soon after enters Namur. The Dender rises within 
the province at Herchies, flows north-east to Ath, and then 
north-north-west, quitting Hainault at Gramraont. The 
Haine is formed by three Brooks which rise in the commune 
of Anderlues* a little to the west of Charleroy ; it flows 
from east to west, near to Mens, and falls into the Schelde 
at Cond& The Trouille rises at Grandreng, near the 
frontier, and flows from east to west ; it enters France, but 
leaves it again almost immediately, flows then north-nordi- 
west to Mens, and falls into the Haine near Jemappes. 

The soil of the province is for the most part fertile. The 
arrondissement of Tournay is the most productive, and that 
of Charleroy the least so. The chief agricultural produc- 
tions are wheat, rye, oats, winter barley, potatoes, beans, 
rape, flax, and hops: tobacco and chiccory are cultivated in 
some parts. Much of the land near the rivers, where irri- 
gation can be practised, is natural meadow. In other 
places trefoil, lucern^ and sainfoin are cultivated. 

Hainault is divided into three anrondissemenB, Mons» 
Tournay, and Charleroy ; and contains 21 towns and 424 
communes. The towns are Antoing, Ath, Beaumont, 
Binch, Braine-le<Compte, Charleroy, Ch4telet, Chieyres, 
Chimay, Enghien, Fontaine TEvSque, Gosselies, Lessines, 
Leuze, Mens, the capital of the province, Pdruwelz, Rceulx, 
St. Qhislaim Soisniea, Thuib, and Tournay. [Ath; Bsau^ 



II A I 



II A I 



moxt; Bi:<rii; CiiutLVmov; Movt; Toubway.] Antoing 
u a tm.ill town, with \9i2 tnlwbitants, on tho right bank 
of tho ScbcWc, and on the high road from Mons to Tour- 
nav, about 4 miU^ »outh-east from Tournay. Some hme- 
fttone quarrica and mom large breweries are tttuated there. 
Braine leCompte, about 4 tnilet north-«ii«t from Soignie«, 
contains 4218 inhabiUnU; it stands on the high road fjrx>m 
Bnisseb to Mont. This town contains some cotton-mills, 
bfewenos. dye-houses, tanneries, and oil-milU. Cbiitelet is 
a small town, about 4 miles cast from Charleroy, with 2565 
inhabitants. Cotton and woollen manufactures, pottery, 
salt-refining, brewing, and Unning are carried on in thi« 
town* Chievres, a small town with 3055 inhabitants, stands 
2} miles north-north- wiM from Ath. Flax-spinning and 
linen- weaving occup}* a great number of hands, and there 
are m the town several breweries and oil-milU. Chimay 
has 3300 inhabitants : it stands 28 miles south of Charleroy, 
and 32 miles south -south -east from Mons; it contains a 
coUcce and four schools. A great part of the working-clsss 
in this town are employed either in the iron-worksor in pro- 
curing fuel for their use: the proximity of the place to the 
French frontier causes a brisk contraband trade to be carried 
on. Knghien, 12 miles east-north-east from Ath, and 8 
niles north ftom Soignies, contains 373^ inhabitants. The 
ttiwn is built on the side of a hill ; it is regularly laid out 
and well built: it contains a roUei^e, four schools, and a 
hospital. The castle and park of Eiighien were built and 
formed in 1712, bv Duke Leopold of Arembere. The 
cattle was destroyed at the close of last century : the park, 
which was laid out with much ta^te and embellished with 
groups of statuary, is naid to have served an the model for 
the gardens at Versailles. Fontaine TEvlknie. 6 miles cant 
lh)m Charleroy and 16 miles ea»t from Mons, contains 
2825 inhabitants. Nail-making is the chief branch of in- 
dustry carried on in this town. Go«sclics. a town with 
4240 inhabitants, is about 3 mites north from Charleroy : 
great part of the male inhabitanu are emplo}ed in the 
coal-mines; nail-roaking, salt -refining, and glass-blowing 
are also carried on. Le>i*ine«, a small town with 4592 in- 
habitants, IS 74 miles north of Ath ; it is so surrounded by 
the Dender as almost to form an islnnd. Tliis is a place of 
much trade. Tlie quarries furni»h lan;c quantities of 
pavmg-stones, and likewise some stone for building. The 
other chief branches of traffic are ooal, wood, and vegetable 
oil. Leuie lias 53i»G inhabitants, many of whom are em- 
ployed in the cotton and woollen manufactures. A con- 
siderable number of per^ns are also emplo}ed in pre- 
paring merrery ond small wares. The town is 10 miles 
cast from Tourna) ; the high road from Brussels to 
Ltlle pa%»«« through it Peru well, on the road between 
Valenciennes and Ghent, about 11 miles south-east from 
Toumay. is a toan of 6058 inhabitants, who are principally 
orcupicd in manuCicturiiig hosiery goods, cotton and woollen 
cloths, and leather. A considerable trade was formerly 
carried on in the article of alum, prepared from aluminous 
schisttts foimd on the spot ; but since the discovery of the 
method of chemically composing this salt from its com* 

iKinents h\ a cheap and ea«v pcx>ress. this bmnch of industry 
las ceasea at P^ruwelx. l(<vulx is a small town containing 
2450 inhabitants, situated 8 miles north-east from Mons. 
The castle of R<rulx is a very antient building, tho prin- 
cipal fsfS'le of which was rebuilt in 1 760 in a very hand- 
some st)lc; the gardens and grounds are extenst%*e, and 
laid out in the English style. There are not any nia- 
nu&ctures and but little trade is carried on in this 
u>wn. Saint Ghislain, 7 milca we«t from Mons, is a small 
town built on the nwr Haine, and containing 1573 inha- 
bitanta. Standing in the middle of the coal district, Tarioiis 
laanufacturcs ehich depend for their prosecution upon an 
abundance of cheap fuel have been established; amon^ 
these may be mentioned salt-reflninc, ■oap-boilinKt and 
tire wing. The toen stands on the high road from Mons to 
Touniav. Soignies, a wril-bailt town on the Senne, is 
ait ua ted 10 miles north-north-east firom Mons, ami con tarns 
6313 inhabitants. Many of the bouses ate large and hand- 
aooe. The town is surrounded by ramparts^ ehich were 
foraad m 1 1 50. and are now crumbling tnrough age. Tho 
ehureh uf St. Vincent is said to be the oldest building tn 
the pro% ince. There i« a college withm the town, which m 
ini7 contaiiied abuse 2»0 students. There are many re- 
ligkioa and charitable estaUishmenta in Soignies, and it is 
aasd thai 9i00 of the tahabitanU are regular pensioners; 
•llagatlMr twoHkirdt of the popoktion art in an indigent 



eondition. The chief means of employment u afforded by 
some limoitone quarries, whence considerable supplies of 
building- stone are procured. Thnin, on tlie Sainurv, i« lo 
miles south-west from Charlerov, and contains 3rb6 inha- 
bitants. An iron-work establisned at this place produces 
1100 tons per annum: there is but little other traile. 
Boussu, 7 miles west from Mons. stands on the Haiiu'. 
This is a considerable village, containing a church, a chapil. 
two hchools and 500 houtuf^. The population in lhj*> %i:i4 
2b87, many of whom are employed in raisini; oml ur 
bumini; lime. Coumlles. 5 milea north-west fn»m Charl*- 
roy, contains 3226 inhabitants, whose principal einplo)iurnts 
are nail-making and weanng napkin» and tablecl«Ui«*. 
Dour, a largo bourg. 8 miles south-west from Mons, lia- a 
population of 5484 inhabitants, many of whom find nii- 
pKiyment in the productive coal-mines of tho district . thc-ru 
are also ropewalks, tan-yards, lime-kilns, and a mantitjc 
tory of safety-lamps. Fontenoy, an inconsiderable \iha^i'. 
containing 67b inhabitants, is 4 miles south-east of Tourn^v, 
on the high road Arom that town to Mons. A battle vus 
fought near Fontenoy in May, 1745, between the Freuni 
under Marshal Saxe and the allies under the dukf ••; 
Cumberland, in which the latter were defeated with the l'>-% 
of 15,000 men. Homu, a village 5 miles wckt from M('n>, 
is the seat of considerable coal-mines, giving einplo)mii.t 
to from 1500 to IHOO men. The village is chivtiy c<m- 
posed of the cottager of the miners, Mihuh are buut i*.i a 
regular plan, and ko arranged that the steam-engine «lii< ii 
discharges water from the mines is also employed to ili-^- 
tribute both warm and cold water to each habitation, llu 1 ^• 
are likewise warm and cold baths, two large M]iian'% t r 
promenading and public games, and a dancing-roiira for the 
use of the workmen, all established by the proprietor <•! 
the mines, who likewise hupporia a school for 400 chuthi-a 
and a l)brar>'. Tliere are employed in these works 12 ^tea..;* 
eni^es, whose united power is equal to that of 320 luir^cs 
The village of Jemappes. on the high road from Motis to 
Valenciennes, about 3 miles from Mons, with a popula*. *i 
of 4667, is also the site of considerable coal-mines. 1 i :% 
place is celebrated for the victory gained on 5th No\emU r. 
1792, by the French over the Austrians, and which lo«l tl.f 
way to the conouest of Belgium. Jumeti, to tlie left « f 
the high road from Charleroy to Brussels, contains €»;..«• 
inhabitants, many of whom are engaged in proMvut.r:; 
\arious manufactures, among which glass-blowing, brewn . . 
distilling, and tanning are the most eon&iderable ; sc%« ra 
are also employed in coal-mining. 

The numoer of persons accused and convicted bef(«v t } r 
courts of assue and the corivctional tribunals *n th:«> ym 
vince, during each of the four years from 1831 to 1&J4« <» . ^ 
according to official returns, as follows : — 







Cooits of AmIw. 


Curtertu 


•n*lTr.l> mi.* 




AcmMd. 


C«o%irUid. 


C'MIt . 1#^ 


1831 


• 


. 95 


4M 


l.'J36 


1...' *. 


1832 


• 


. 35 


13 


2.4S8 


l.'*7*i 


1833 


• 


. 21 


19 


2.o26 


1,^ .1 


1834 


• 


. 116 


12 


3.0 J 1 


2..:l 1 



The great difference in tlie number acruM^l befurr- :!.. 
eourts of assiie in these years arose from IH perM»n« in I - 
and 77 persons in 1834 daving been concerned in rto?% 
greater part of whom «*ere acquitted. Theonh capi: * r 
viction occurred in lh34, when one man wa» found ir. 
of murder. In proixjrtion to its population, Hatnault \ 1 
sentod in the above years fewer dehnqueiiis than an% « 
province of the kingdom; and it 14 deserving of rrfTi 1 
that, with* the exception of Luxembouiv and Namur. * 
proportion of at udents is grvoter also. In l^il thcrv *... 
bHH schools, giving instruction to 3j.G7l boys and j <.• «n 
prls, beins very nearly 1 in 9 of the whole popula u 
[Bbloivm.J 

UAINAULT SCYTHB AND HOOK. [Fta.^oa... 
AoRici'LTfma.l 

H Al R. The hairy oo\er i ngs of mammalia are ooap«>««i«* ( 
long delicate prooeMcs of a honiy substance, ehirh ^:t> m 
from bulbs situated in or beneath the skin. Kaeh lia.f t« 
contained at its lower part in a delicate ahealh, or f<k»l. 
which passes obliquely from the surface uf the skin oo « t . 
it opens to a greater or Icm depth, and at its base «',.' j . % 
into a pouch containing the bulb of the hair. The V«sltt 
the hair consists of a small cone-shaped bodv. ih^ r«- ' 
soft and delicate, and apoarently made up of l!teod*a«^«tt« .« 
aiidMnrei»aBdoov«reabvaieltoctionef thenooth U**.a.c 



H Al 



V) 



H A E 



lure better adapted for tbe external ooveriog of tbe whole 
body, whose motions it is too light to impede, and to whose 
beauty it so nmarkably contributes. 

In chemical properties hair resembles horn, nails, &c. 
It is soluble in water at a very high temperature, as in a 
Papin*s digester, leaving a large Quantity of oil mixed with 
sulphuret of iron, and some sulpnuretted hydrogen. It is 
this oil, with the sulphuret of iron, which giveri the colour to 
the hair, and by whose absorption greyness is produced. 
The iron is most abundant in the darkest hair, and the sul- 
phur is the ingredient on which the action of the various 
olack dyes for red or grey hair depends. These are all com- 
posed of some salt of silver or lead, which, mixed with some 
oily or fatty substance in the form of pomatum, insinuates 
itself into the hair, where it is decomposed and a black sul- 
phuret of silver or lead is formed. Hair m soluble in alkalis 
and alkaline earths, and for this reason the depilatories in 
common use are chiefly composed of quick-lime, which 
however is materially injurious to the skin at the same time 
that it removes the hair. Hair contains a very small quantity 
of water, and when burnt leaves a large proportion of ashes, 
containing iron, manganese, and various salts of lime; it is 
o Willi; to these pro)HTties that hair is peculiarly indestruc- 
tible, and has been found unaltereil on mummies more than 
t^^enly centuries old. It has even been supposed to grow 
after death, but it is probaUe that, in the few authentic 
ca>es in which this is stated, it was owing to the lengthening 
of the hair by the attraction of moisture from the body or 
surrounding atmosphere, and to the more rapid drying and 
contraction of tho adjacent tissues. 

Little need be said of the diseases of hairs. Possessini; 
neither vo«.sels nor nerves, except at their base, they are 
rarely altered except by the diseases of the skin itself. 
Their fall, as it is called, is in most animals annual, but in 
man seems not to occur except by accident, or after particu- 
lar diseases. The process by which it takes place is un- 
known, but is probably similar to that of the shooting of 
the quills of the porcupine, by the gradual approximation of 
the base of the follicle to the surface. Their loss of colour, 
whi<;h is sometimes exceedingly rapid, is owing to deficient 
secretion of the colouring oil, and can only \eiy rarely be 
rcrne<lied. When sufficient moisture is not suj])lied, they 
sometimes split at their points like bristles ; at others they 
break at the middle of the shaft, sna])ping off, and leaving 
a little fringed extremity to the stump. The most singular 
alteration however to which they are subject is that called 
the plica polonica, from its occurring almost exclusively in 
Some towns in Poland, in which, with so much general dis- 
ease as sometimes proves fatal, the hair of the head becomes 
sticky and matted together, when touched gives extreme 
pain, and is sometimes said even to bleed when cut This 
fact cannot however be regarded as evidence of the hair 
HiUurally containing vessels, though it indicates an elonga- 
tion of tho pulp to some distance beyond the skin, just as 
it* the case in dogs, whose whiskers will sometimes bleed if 
cut verv close to the surfhce. 

(Weber, in Hildebrandt's Anatomic, vol. 1 ; Gurlt, in 
MiJller's Archiv Jur Armtomie und Htysiologie, 1835.) 

HAIRS. In plants these are long expansions of the 
cutn'le, chiefly intcn'knl to answer the double purpose of 
collecting moisture from the atmosphere and of protecting 
the surface of a ])lant from the too powerful influence of 
the bun*s rays. It is supjxr-od that they are also destined 
to asMst in theconvt')aiu'eof certain kinds of seeds through 
the air, and in other cases, as in that of cotton, they are 
Bj)eciBlly adapted for the use of man. That the two first 
pur|)oseH are those for which hairs growing on tho surface 
of plants are itUended, M^ems suiliciently indicated by the 
following facts. Hairs are seldom found on water-plants, 
which lia\e no occasion for al)>orbing organs, and when 
water plajits are ace kU'ii tally obliged to grow in dry places 
they ac((uire them ; while on the other hand species na- 
tural! v found in hot dry places or in arid climates are as 
UKually provided with them, unless in those cases where the 
cuticle becomes excessively thickened. If a hairy-leaved 

{duut is obscr\'cd in dry weather it will be found that all its 
luirn are weak and flaccid ; but no A(M)ner does a shower of 
rnin fall, or the atmosphere become humid, than the hairs 
- , ^ rigid consistence. 

?ases hairs are composed of lengthened cells of 
laue, extending from one or more of the cells of 
r. Most commonly ihpv are Quite simple, and are 
mod of iovenl oella ox equally diminishing; siac. 



placed end to end, or of a single oelL Of the latter kind 
are the long entangled hairs that clothe the surface of the 
cotton-seed, and which are manufactured into thread ar.d 
linen. Sometimes several luch hairs spring from a com- 
mon pomt as in Malvaceous and Euphorbiaceous plants, 
and Marrubium crcticum {Jig. 1); tbe«e are technically 
called stellale. Others branch in various wavs, as in Nican- 
dra anomala iflg- 2), and from such the woolly appearuncu 
of the surface of plants often takes its origin. It sumetiincs 
hap{)cns that the cell, out of which a hair is formed, in- 
stea^l of growing perpendicular to tbe surface, lengthens 
in a parallel direction, growing at two opp)sitc side^ ; ca%e'» 
of this sort are ft>und commonly in Malpighiaceous plants 
and in the common hop (Jig. 3)' Finally, in those instaiuos 
where the the terminal cell enlarges and is furnished with 
an aperture, hairs become glands, and consequently secret- 
ine organs (Jig9. 4 and 5). 

In consequence of the hairs of plants being an extent idn 
of cellular tissue, which is naturally thin-sided, all hairs 
are much weaker than the tough thick-sided tulx:s < f 
which woody ti>sue is composed. This accounts for tbe wc 11 
known fact that all gtx>ds manufactured from cotton, whicU 
is vegetable, are far less tough and durable than thi-^i! 
which, like linen, are prepared from the tissue of bark ot, 
wood. When the two forms of matter are submit tid to 
microscopical examination, the thin sides and 1rans\t'r-'C 
partitions of the former will usually distinguish it irom the 
thick-sided tubes of the latter, in which no partitions aru 
discoverable. 




U»in. 

HA JE, a name of a venomoas serpent, Coluber Haje of 
LinnsDus. [Naia..] 
HAKE, a fish allied to the cod. [Merlucius.] 
HAKLUYT, RICHARD, born in 1553, studied at 
Christ Church, Oxford, and applied himself particularlv to 
the study of geography, or cosmography, as it was tlic :i 
called, and he was made a lecturer on that subject at Ov< 
ford. In order to promote the study of his favourite bcicn* 
he published narratives of several voyages and travels, bi. 'i 
English and foreign, which he afterwards brought togetluT 
in his great collection. About 1584 he went to Pans wi! i 
Sir Edward Stafford, ambassador of Queen Elizabeth to tl.<* 
French court, where ho remaineil five years. On h.-i 
return to England he was made by Sir Walter RaleicU 
a member of the company of gentlemen adventurers uud 
merchants of London, for tbe inhabiting and jdanting * of 
our people in Virginia,' as appears from his ' Collect lun i>f 
Travels, edition of 1589, p. 815, which he published in oi.c 
vol. fol., and which he afterwards enlarged and publuh^*! 
in 3 vols, fol., I5y9— 1600, under the title, ' The Princ.f#n! 
Navigations and Discoveries of the English Nation, by Sta 
or over Land, to the remote and farthest dbtant quarters 
of the Earth, at any time within the compass of these )5it«i 
years.' The first volume embraces the discoveries b\ th«) 
English in the north and north-east by sea, towards La it- 
land, tho Straits of Waigat2« Nova Zembliiv ud towards 



PAL 



11 



HAL 



the mouth of the river Ohy, and also travels through the 
empire of Rusda, Georgia, Armenia, Bactria, Tartary, &c. 
The second volume contains accounts of the discoveries of 
the English by sea and land in the southern and south- 
eastern parts of the globe ; and the third, their discoveries in 
the new vorld of America. Hakluyt has inserted many 
curious documents* such as letters of various sovereigns ; 
charters and privileges granted by the Czais of Russia, the 
Sultan, and others, to English merchants ; tables of weights, 
coins, and distances of different countries, &c. Most of the 
voyages and discoveries contained in this collection were 
effected in the sixteenth century, although a few are of a 
prior date. A. new and improved edition, in 5 vols. 4to., 
was published in London 1 809-1 2. Hakluyt published also 
or eoited translations of several foreign narratives of travel- 
lers, of which a selection has been since made : ' A Selec- 
tion of carious, rare, and early voyages and histories of in- 
teresting discoveries, chiefly published by Hakluyt, or at 
his sugj^estion, but not included in his celebrated compila- 
tion,* 4to^ London, 1812. It contains among others La 
Brocquidre*s * French Narrative of a Visit to Palestine,' in 
1442-3; the * Travels of Louis Vertomanus of Rome to 
Arabia, Persia, and the East Indies in 1502 ;* and * Virginia 
richly valued by the description of the mainland of Florida, 
her next neighbour,' from the Spanish of Fernando de 
Soto. Hakluyt died in 1616 and was buried in Westmin- 
ster Abbey. 

HALBSRSTADT, an antient bishopric, founded in tho 
year 804, was secularised by the treaty of Westphalia in 
1648, and assigned, under the name of a principality, to Fre< 
derick, the great elector of Brandenburg, as a compensation 
for hither Pomerania, which he was obliged to cede to 
Sweden. It has ever since belonged to Prussia, except that 
aflcr the treaty of Tilsit it formed part of the ephemeral 
kingdom of Westphalia. The principality had a superficial 
extent of about 600 square miles, with 13 large and small 
towns, 431 villages, and about 135,000 inhabitants, chiefly 
Lutherans. It is a level and fertile country. The four 
circles of the principality now form partof the government 
of Magdeburg, in the province of Saxony, and the name of 
Halberstadt is confined to one of those circles, about 50 
square miles in extent, with 20,000 inhabitants. 

HALBERSTADT, the chief town of the circle, is plea< 
santly situated on the river Holzemme. It is an an- 
tient city, said to have been founded by the Cherusci; 
though the actual date of its foundation is unknown. It 
became a bishop's see in 804. The most antient part is 
the Dom Flats (Cathedral Square), formerly a castle. In 
1 1 79 the greater part of the town was burnt by Henry the 
Lion; it was rebuilt in 1203 and surrounded with ramparts. 
In the ThiitT Years' War it made a brave resistance ; in the 
Seven Years War the French destroyed the gates and a large 
portion of the ramparts. In 1 809 Duke William of Bruns- 
wick-Oels stormed the city and made prisoners of the whole 
Westphalian garrison under Count Wellingerode. In 1813 
the Westphalian General Ochs, who was posted here with 
20,000 men and 1 4 pieces of cannon, was suddenly attacked by 
the Russian General Czemitscheff, who took 1 000 of his men 
and many officers prisoners. The streets of Halberstadt 
are for the most part long, broad, and tolerably straight It 
has many good manufactures of various kinds, and a con- 
siderable trade. It is the seat of a high court of justice, 
and has many public institutions worthy of notice, such as 
the cathedral school, with a library of 8000 volumes, a 
cabinet of natural history, and a collection of instruments ; 
a gymnasium, a seminary for schoolmasters, a literary 
society, several charitable foundations, &c. There are 7 
Lutheran churches, 2 Reformed, or Calvinist, 3 Roman 
Caibolic churches, and a Jewish synagogue which is per- 
haps the hAudsomest in Germany. The most remarkable 
"f the churches are St Mary's Church, which was completed 
m 1 U03, and the cathedral dedicated to St Stephen, built 
in the noblest style of the fifteenth century— it is 412 feet 
long, 72 wide, and 94 high inside, and has 32 altars. The 
cathedral contains seveml valuable pictures as well as 
interesting antiquities and some paintings on glass. The 
ntunber of the inhabitants is now about 17,000, of whom 
1300 or 1400 are Roman Catholics, 450 Calvinists, and 
M many Jews. About half a mile from the city is the 
Spiegelsberg, formeriy a barren hill, which Baron von 
Spiegel, dean of the chapter, converted into a public prome- 
nade, or what the Germans call an English garden, and 
hfi a fund to keep it in order. Halberstadt is in 5 1"" S3' 55'' 



N. lat, and 1^ 3' 53" E. long, {Top. Stat. Hdndbuek, Von 
Furst; Sieiu, Handbuch ; Huher, Lexicon.) 

HALCYO'NIDiE. [Kingfishers.] 

HALDE, DXJ, born at Paris in 1674, entered the society 
of the Jesuits, and being distinguished for his information 
and laboriousness, he was entrusted by his superiors with 
the care of collecting and arranging the numerous letters 
written by the missionaries of the society from various parts 
of the world. This employment furnished him with mate- 
rials for the collection styled * Lettres Edifiantes et Curi- 
euses,* which he edited, and which contain much interest- 
ing and valuable matter. He also compiled from the reports 
of the Jesuit missionaries and their translations of Chinese 
works, a ftill and well digested description of that empire, 
which was the first published in Europe : * Description HiS' 
torique, G^ographique et Physique, de TEmpire de la Chine 
et de la Tartarie Chinoise,' 4 vols, fol., with an atlas, Paris, 

1 735, reprinted soon after at the Hague, in 4 vols. 4to., and 
translated into English by R. Brookes, 4 vols. 8vo., London, 

1 736. Du Halde made a conscientious use of the best ma- 
terials which he could get at the time fi*om his brethren of 
the Ciiincse missions, and his authorities roust answer for 
the charg^e brought by some against his work, that it is too 
favourable to the Chinese and their social system, and that 
he is too credulous as to the accounts of the Chinese 
Concerning the prodigious amount of their population, the 
size of their towns, ^c. Subsequent writers, chiefly Jesuits, 
have increased and improved our stock of information 
concerning China. [Amiot, Le Perb.] A clever, though 
sarcastical and somewhat desultory notice of Du Haiders 
work appeared in England not long after ita publication, 
under the title, ' An Irregular Dissertation occasioned by 
reading Father Du Halde's Description of China,' London, 
1740. 

Du Halde was at one time secretary to Father le Tellier, 
confessor of Louis XIV. He died at Paris in 1 743. 

HALE, SIR MATTHEW, was born on the 1st of No< 
vember, 1609, at Alderley, in the county of Gloucester 
His father had been educated for the bar, but he aban 
doned the practice of the law because he could not under- 
stand the reason of giving color in pleading, which, as ho 
thought was to tell a lie. Both his parents having died 
while he was yet an infant, Matthew Hale was educated, 
under the directions of a near relation on his mother's side, 
by a clergyman professuig puritanical principles. At the age 
of seventeen he was removed to Magdalen Hall, Oxford, where 
he speedily got rid of his puritanical notions, and plunged into 
dissipation with a looseness proportioned to his former aus- 
terity. At this period he was upon the point of beoominsr 
a soldier in the army of the Prince of Orange, then engaged 
in the Low Countries. Accidental circumstances however 
introduced him to the notice of Serjeant Glanvil, who, per- 
ceiving the valuable qualities which the young man pos- 
sessed, persuaded him to apply himself to the study of the 
law. Acting under this advice he was admitted a student 
of Lincoln's Inn on the 8th of November, 1629, and imme- 
diately commenced a course of arduous study. One of his 
companions in a debauch having been taken suddenly and 
dangerously ill. Hale was so struck with remorse that he 
gave up his intemperate habits. After having studied with 
great diligence the laws of England and the civil law, and 
also several other branches of learning, he was called to the 
bar some time previous to the commencement of the civil 
war. He resolved not to take any part in the political dis- 
sensions and contests which then agitated the country, and 
he steadily kept his resolution. This part of his conduct is 
mentioned by some of his biographers with oommendation, 
whereas in reality it arose from a weakness in his character 
which showed itself on several subsequent occasions. In- 
deed he seems to have been aware at a later period of his 
rife that it is not the part of a good citizen during times of 
political agitation, when the liberties of his country are at 
stake, to prefer his own individual ease and quiet to the 
general good. His neutrality was highly favourable to his 
interest as an advocate ; he was engaged as counsel for the 
court party in a number of the most important state trials, 
and was notwithstanding held in such esteem by the parlia- 
mentary party, that he was constituted counsel to the 
commissioners deputed by parliament to treat with the 
royal commissioners as to the reduction of Oxford. After 
the execution of Charles I., Hale took tho engagMuent to 
be true and faithful to the Commonwealtlv «ud accepted 
the appointment of ono of the oommiasionen for reforming 



HAL 



12 



HAL 



the law. In 1653, after having shown some nesitation as to 
accepting the dignity, he was made one of the judges of the 
0>mmoD Bench ; reviving, after discussing his doubts with 
lawyers and divines, ' that as it was absolutely necessary to 
have justice and property kept up at all times, it was no sin 
to accept a commission ftom usurpers.' To this his biogra- 
pher Burnet goes on to add, ' if he made no declaration 
acknowledging their authority, which he never did.' This 
addition has given rise to much of the odium which has 
attached to Hale's memory in oonseoueiice of this apparent 
insinoerity; but ciedit can hardly be given to the state- 
ment, for it is impossible to suppose that Hale, who was 
unquestionably an honest and sincere man, though perhaps 
weak in matters of conscience, could have been guilty of 
the pitiful and shallow attempt to evade the evident con- 
elusion, that acting as a judge under his commission was 
the most effectual and formal declaration he could make of 
his submission to Cromweirs authority. Some colour how- 
ever is given to Burnet's imputation by Hale's subsequent 
ponduct After having dischai^ged the duties of his office with 
eonsummate skill and strict impartialitv, he suddenly, and 
without any apparent cause, affected to feel scruples of con- 
science at acting as judge in criminal cases, and refused to 
preside in the crown courts, though he still continued to 
administer the law in civil cases. This conduct was directly 
contraty to his reason for accepting the office of judge, and 
appears to be founded on no just view. On the death of 
dnimwell, Hale refused to act under a commission from 
the Protector Richard, alleging that he could no longer sit 
under such authority. He was a member of the parhament 
which recalled Charles II., and was made chief baron of the 
exchequer in 1660, and knighted. In 1671 he was raised 
to the chief-iusticeship of the King's Bench, where he pre- 
sided with honour to himself and advantage to the public 
till 1675, when, from the state of his health, he resigned his 
office. He suffered considerably from repeated attacks of 
asthma, aud died from dropsy on Chris tmas-dav, 1676. 

As a lawyer Hale's reputation is high, and his integrity 
IB unimpeached : indeed his punctilious feelings were car- 
ried to a fantastical excess, as many anecdotes related by 
his different biographers show. 

The only spot upon his memory as a criminal judge is the 
notorious fact of his having condemned two wretched 
women for witchcraft, at the assizes at Burv St Etimunds, 
in the year 1665. Hale in the course of the trial avowed 
himself a believer in witchcraft, and the jury found the 

Srisonors guilty, notwithstanding many impartial bystanders 
eclared that they disbelieved the charge. No reprieve was 
granted, and the prisoners were executed. An anecdote is 
mentioned by his biographers of having hastened the execu- 
tion of a soldier found guilty of murder, for fear he should 
be reprieved ; but in so doing he certainly overstepped the 
hounds of his duty as a judge. 

Sir Mathew Hale was a voluminous writer, though none 
of his productions were printed during his life. His ' Pleas 
of the Crown,' ' Historv of the Common Law,' and some 
other treatises connected with the law, have been publi^ed 
since his death, and also several others upon scientific and 
religious subjects. His manuscripts, which he had collected 
at a very considerable expense, he bequeathed to the Society 
of Lincoln's Inn, and he directed that they should not be 
lent out or printed, saying, ' As they are a treasure not fit 
for every man's view, nor is every man capable of making 
use of thero» I would have nothing of these books printed ;' 
and he also directed that any of nis posterity, membo^ of 
that society, might, on giving security, have one book at a 
time lent out to them by the society. 

A catalogue of the manuscripts was contained in his will, 
and a full account and catalogue of all his works is printed 
in Dr. WiUiams's ' Life of Hale*— recently published. His 
life has also been written by Burnet and Koscoe, and many 
anecdotes relating to him are deteiled bv that amusing 
gossip Roger North, in his * life of Lord-Keeper Guilford,' 
though it should be observed that the author does not 
write in a very friendly spirit towards Hale. Notices of his 
life will also be found in the 4th vol. of the Biogr, Brit 

Sir Matthew Hale was twice married: first to Ann, 
daughter of Sir Henry Moore, by whom he had ten child- 
ren ; and secondly, late in life, to one of his own domestic 
servants. 

HALEB (commonly but erroneously called ALEPPO), 

thecapitolufa pashalik of Asiatic Turkey of the same name, 

>uated in the north part of Syria* in 36*" 1 i' 32'' N. lat 



(according to Kiebuhr), and 37* 9^ E. long. It it one of 
the largest and most important towns in Western Asia. 
Tavemier, in 1670, estimated the population at 2.58,000; 
D'Arvieux, in 1683, at about 258,000 ; Russell, in the last 
century, at 235,000, of which 200,000 were Mohammedans, 
30,000 Christians, and 5.000 Jews; Volney reduces the 
number to 100,000 ; hut Rousseau, who lived for some time 
at Haleb as French consul, estimates it at 200,000. Rous- 
seau also informs us that the town is built on four hills, 
called Djeleb beni el-Kaka, on one of which there is a for- 
tified castle ; that it is surrounded by a stone wall, and has 
seven gates* ; that it contains 5 serais, or governor's palaces, 
100 mosques, of which the most celebrated is that of Za- 
charias ; 50 mesjeds, or oratories, of which the most beau- 
tiful, called Helawie, is supposed by Pococke to have been 
formerly a Christian church built by Helena, mother of 
Constantino; 10 or 12 public schools, 2 public libraries, 6 
mehkems, or courts of justice, 60 baths, 100 eoffee-bouses, 
40 or 45 great bazaars, 31 khans, occupied principally by 
Franks or other strangers, 200 fountains, about 1 5 wakfs« or 
religious institutions, 1 mewla-khdn^, or college of der- 
vishes, 5 Christian churches, and 40,000 houses. But the 
state of the city has been greatly changed by an earthquake 
which happened in August, 1822, and which destroy hI 
almost two-thirds of the buildings. The population is a 
mixture of Turks, Arabs, Christians, ana Jews. The 
Qiristians principally belong to the Greek, Syrian, and 
Armenian churches : of these the Greeks are the most nu- 
merous and the richest. The small river Koik runs along 
the west side of the town. 

Before the earthquake of 1822 Haleb was supposed to 
possess 12,000 artisans, and was celebrated for its gold and 
silver lace, its manufiictures of silk and cotton goods, shawls, 
&c. ; but its prosperity was chiefly owing to its situation, 
which rendered it one of the great commercial marts be- 
tween Europe and Asia. It carries on a great caravan 
trade with Bagdad, Persia, and the eastern parts of Asia. 
The goods destined for the European market are shipped 
from the port of Latakia. Consuls from all the commercial 
states of Europe reside at Haleb. 

The antient name of the town was Chaleb, or Chalybon, 
which was changed by Seleucus Nicator into BercBa. It 
continued to be called bv that name until its conquest by 
the Arabs under Abu Obeidah in 638, when its original 
name of (3haleb or Haleb was restored. It afterwards be- 
came the capital of an independent monarchy under the 
sultans of the race of Hamadan, under whose rule it ap- 
pears to have enjoyed great prosperity. In the latter part 
of the tenth century Haleb was again united to the Greek 
empire by the conquests of Zimisces, emperor of Constan- 
tinople. During the crusades Haleb was subject to the 
Seljuke princes. In 1260 it was plundered by theMoguK. 
and again in 1401 by Timur. It was afterwards aiinexe«l 
to the dominions of the Mameluk sultans of Egypt« but 
was conquered by Selim I., the Turkish sultan, and ban 
since that time been subject to the sultans of Constan- 
tinople. It is at present however in the possession of the 
i>asha of Egypt 

The pashalik of Aleppo is bounded on the west by the 
Mediterranean, on the east by the Euphrates, on the noiih by 
an imaginary line drawn from Scanderoon (the antient Alex- 
andria) on the coast to El Bir on the Euphrates, and on the 
south by another line drawn from Billis to the Mediterranean, 
passing byMurrah and the bridge of Shogher. The northern 
part is occupied bpr high mountains, known to the antienu 
under the name of Amanus, which is only a branch of Mount 
Taurus. The southern part is sterile and sandy ; but the 
plains at the foot of the mountains are fertile, and afford 
good pasturage for the numerous flocks of the Arabs and 
Kurds, which graxe upon them during the greater part of 
the year. The inhabitants only cultivate the land in the 
mountainous districts, which produce wheat and other sorts 
of com, melons, olives, cotton, tobacco, fies, &c. : the le\el 
parts of the country are abandoned to the Kurds and Ataba. 
The heat of the climate is seldom oppressive, in consequence 
of the west winds which blow from the Mediterranran. 
The country is reckoned healthy; but the inhabitants of 
Haleb are very subject to a disease, which first appears 
under the form of an eruption on the skin, and aHervanls 
forms into a sort of boil : it dies awav in about eight months 
fh)m its appearance. Volney and many other travellera 



• U MWnftl'f p^w, ITSMhMi ■!• of «• galM. 





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HAL 



14 



HAL 



p ft ffJi ^ filfitUeii trt Mid to bo maniiflictiirmg. and contain 
141 mills in operation, which ha^-o an ajfgTfKntc po\»er of 
9319 humut; 67 of ihoro are cotton-milK 33 woollen. 4.^ 
worsted, and 4 mlk roilU. Tlu»y umpluy toKellicr lt»,3;7 
pvraoii«, of whom 8.978 arc fcmaloft. A con^ideraMi^ por- 
tion of th« population ia omployod in roakiuK mill marhinery 
and w«ol-card». Tlw manufacture of the** card* gives oe- 
eupation to numoroua wir«- workers and currier*. The wiiv 
t4««nh of Ibo cords ar« lived in leather, and nearly 20«00u 
p(K>plo are employed, at a very low rate of wages, w fixing 
the wirr<i in the leatlHT. 

A wi-ekly market is held on Saturday, chiefly for the sale 
of woollen cloth. The Piece llall, which was erected in 
1779 b) the shalloon and other wooted manulacturers U a 
luri(«MiumlranKular sirucluiv of »tone, which cvio^t r.\<UK»A. 
and wliirh iHvupies an area of lU.uuU square yards of Uud, 



the various accommodations of the most raperior bathing 
eHtablishmenta : attached to them is a lare<> (garden and a 
bowling-green. The literary institutions of Uahfax mtc tbe 
Literary and Philosophical Society, which has an eb^v.'^nt 
hall and a museum; the Mechanics* Institution, with a 
library of upwards of 1000 volumes ; and the ncws-ro(»ms, 
which also comprise a subscnption librarv. There are alw» 
a&>embly- rooms and a theatrv. Daniel De Foe rt*^ '1(^1 
here when he wrote 'Robinson Crusoe;' and Sir Wili.a'u 
Uersrhel was for some time onanist at the parish cburrli. 
In January, 1^37• the pansh of Halifax was f*>rmeii iri!>> 
two unions for the administration of tbe poor-laws. Tb«* 
Halifax Union comprises nmetei-n t>wn*h:r», and •' «• 
Hcbden &idt;e Union tht* fi^e township* af IIk* Hci-t .i.*: i.l 
narochial chapelry, and the town and cIiajielrT of T.-l:i» r- 
uen. For other interesting particulars reaper: m^ Hj .* lx 



which wore iciven f»r llii'* purpoM* by fin. Cay .fill. It i» reference may be maile to\\ h:tc*s*Giiettcer and Din * :\ 
100 >nrd» long and 91 varus brv>ad; il>e wnt re is occupied of the We>t Ridinp/ a laSirvmi and i;««ful Wwrk, «J 
l»v ci\',.i%.-» plot. It eontam* 31^ ai^u'tuenis for the reivp- accuracy we ha\e had the c.| p^rtunity to le^ ani c ,/.; ... 



bv a i'..i%!» I _ 

lion of umnU. tbe quanlit) of whioK e\|^>MHl fv»r sale at one <C m'*ium\iUm fr m yrrkthtre,) 
tmio u ortiMi of the >alue of jO.i'o*/. The ea^t s-le ha^ I HALIFAX. 'Nov^ Sn-nnO 

HALILIMNOSAURUS, \Q 



llinH* stdricik U'lak: on a do*c*'n. ; the other >idi»s o:.!y ti»o. i 



EOSiCirS T-l xi, p ! 



Kach slor) i* fn>nutl by a rv4oun-uU\ w.ih n^a^-; -u* «alk» HALIME'DA, a pi»r:i'»n of the ctnt^ L irj'.'. ni, L. » . 
round the whole ^quarv^ ba\iii|; c\»iumn» in tho Ir ni o*, >- for «l .-h I,iir. l^*k blid L4e*l the nme PiU'llna, .» t: .» 
Site to till* partiliou* of tbe rv>%uus, e.uh of » a;.-h hi* a •; ^t, st} leu t j Lam.ur^nix. < Krf •! *i n Mtth di ^ d^$ f>^' - » ) 
and »A«ii<window to ihc gailer.e*. The >.!V',''ic.:\ jir.i t*'.*.- • Tise -j.--. ;i'.a:: 'I.h a.^ I'.i: or C'-nipfts.Mrd, runrly ril.r.'lr. •/, 
gan<x* of the do*i>:n ac^\^ with the m :.:.•.. ir. U* of tK» \ .w \- al-.^ ■^t a u '>* daS?"'..:- rm ; the ax^ fiDr.us. s«*rn>uL ^< ! » > 
nu. It WAS ervettxl fi^m a df^^i^n b\ Mr. Th •::** Bra.iUy. a it n '^'^'^ '-^-7. -* *-* ^uace. 
and IS "aid t4> be div pixKif 11% «»%»'0 pirtwcvt tl.e r»l. " HA'LlMi'S. ^MuAPif j 

The ap^vearam^ t»f tin* to»n of Hii.JJkv i* cyv.^r*\\ t.r i- . HAUOTID-E, HALIOTIS TRIBE, or FAMILY. T?-- 
somo ; II tx^utains many e«liu»\*5 c'.:.rvN v^i" >t .:e; it i'* * ^\^ ' ** l-?.'. '^ ^ i '••^ '* -s so.t.-a vf Ga*tr. ;*■£*, c* t'-ni- - *> 

ou '.K'\ * Eir->...].*V .c • JK-i-vir>.* are m.nt n-nicn»4» t: r. 



Well hchtixl with i;as and aun 1» ^ujni.id w.;a>...; v-vr 
(h^iu r«***'n-^ir* aUnii a m '■** p* i;h-»»^i A t:>» u ua, •.' o^ 
Were oiHUHxl aIh^uI I'^JT. I'; vr llio a^*'. vf ;^: ' :* * j a\ ■ ^•. 
c)«*aa»;iii*. and \«4honii*e lu^.j ' ^.t .: L-e t aiutut % ^ria; 
imprt»\t*nu'nt« Ka^e Uren »'.\\ifd b» the w 
stceets tite f ><nuti >n vf d: i 



t.: 



'^ a 



..< rv.* 



si^htU bu.id>nc». The mvx«i-ro >trwta a:e >;VMr...N a: i 
l>i)«H| with O^nt hou4<^ 



fhe p\ii»h vhurv h of Hal fax H 1 V *" I* re a**! <•* 



x-t 



e*l rt.'v oi tv».n'«sl lix'i.iv arv' . c\tu:>f, «-r\x tid at I 
dalr«. ll w said th*i U*.»» e -an.^^i v* >'i .*:.'. a :.» :. . vr:- 
IC t\»l u** ;o. a'»d th»i t*e lo»xf »a* *• ■ '.i .* i"^ r*., * > • v 
kA iho l.».-\» Ai»i Sa>;\**. T» ».v XIV V. »*-^*, XL.. '.. .. . * 
\i\%^x /I -I* Worth.* ol c.i.vif i:*. llx v. •. ♦ ^,. v*v *f ». r 
I* l»t A" ^ **» -^ \\ •** " Tr ■' '\ i .- h c« a >t-i 
frHu%* i« \o se b^ ; •<. w I.: ' i»:,,-x. x • 1 . v .^. : 
t.»«» r »* I •♦•«*»: •*!.•! ^« a d .u^' .?»*.»?. , . -. *.*••- >i. 
J* '^r^s i.^-.-tv^ I .. t 'n I- *'. ■* .a 1 .* P"*- ' ^i . 
st> \\ w ti t.iTvi% a. ; * W\>; ,• * 1. v v . -.r '. ^vv^ 
p o » .NT* 1* I"'* Ha.' "kv a-v ; •< Ca " * c i.x . «. 



^ ^.r,^.-.. } >u :»,!M?iL Mr. Sva^'Sca m h« £"*t ft«T.-s cf 

*/ 'c .1 I.. .^•'»l.-r.'K' . '. -..TTrr*. «.-•* wr:.'«; •rii*- 

•S . ' i C. : :; -a Far-*h-.* »//i' Ui Cii./ ^w- 

-^r,! ,;>. -itv, ::.a: :..c d.i' '. r.* j.^cz. c. c l *. c -t^ 
. .- s.- • ii •-'«». re >• JT • -:*.- : T. it \.^^ i^i w\\ r 
k» %.^* .;«. C iL.'iK' >L^1"3 r. x:\% "^e ^.z-fO a* ^ ;fctr t.** f 
L TJi'-*. S^.^1 .:c"tr. *>-»"-*» vr.} are tt.^^^^.nie'i ... Mr. 
l>.. •y.'s w rl;* a- -^- \. r:* f»-r bi^e f^len w.'L n 
u» .»n Kl'*«frsi'.- - vl- > .< :^«r jlu icw n: : •-•-' 

L. L.X ^i^ wj» ncc n* 'e **t..^ *rv -^ a' .»r. to } i 
w- l-.r t •!? ff-f t-. • »:r» i'. - •:« H- -ft* i^Va-»-ir» 
"<.'..<* •...c a.'k-^i.' as a H .^ L •• t* ait. 4^'V At ev- 
s?i;«i»i a. I <:-% s. •« i'-a^ «. ^ a •& -nl * i.- :i *j -e . • . 



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15 



HAL 



t enrred line near the left-hand herder and parallel to it 
As the animal increases in growth, it forms for itself a new 
hole on the edge of the anterior part of the shell ; this hole 
commences with a notch which serves to give a passage to 
the siphon of the animal, and is afterwards completed; 
when another is formed posteriorly. In its natural situa- 
tion and when the animal crawls, this shell may he con- 
s>idcred as a reversed hasin with its convexity upwards. 
Its circumference is then considerahly exceeded hy tne very 
lar^c foot of the animal, and the spire is found on the pos- 
terior part of its body. Following the description of the 
Ormier (the animal of the Haliotis) given hy Adanson, 
1 had supposed that the branchise of this animal were 
oxtorior, like those of the Phyllidians: hut M. Cuvier has 
undeceived me by showing me that they are hidden in a 
particular cavity. Haliotis therefore belongs to the family 
of Macrostnme^. With regard to the tentacula, it has not 
perhaps really more than two. But as it is not uncommon 
(asset f fluent) among the marine trachelipods to find the 
e\es carried each upon a tubercle which springs at the 
external or posterior base of the tentacula, these tubercles 
are apparently more elongated here than elsewhere : in this 
case the two larger tentacles are the anterior ones.' La- 
marck records fifteen species, including Haliotis dubia. 

Mr. Swainson (' Zool. Illustr.' 1st series) remarks that 
; the genus Padollus of Montford' (De Montfort?) * rest- 
ing entirely on the unevenness of the outer lip, without any 
knowledge of the animal,* appears to him an unnecessary 
distinction, for such, he observes, is the character of all 
young shells, and also of mature ones, whose outer surface 
L» rugged or uneven. 

De Montfort (1810) eivesthe following generic charac^ 
turs for Padollus : — Shell free, imivalve, in the form of an 
ear, pierced with one or two holes ; summit spiral, flattened, 
dorsal ; aperture oval, wide open (^vas^e), entire, perpendi- 
cular ; left lip reflected and trenchant ; back covered with 
Au epidermis, having a gutter in the middle and in the 
direction of the spire. He gives as the type of the genus 
Padollus rubicuridust and proceeds nearly as follows : — ' In 
arranging this shell as intermediate between the Sigareti^ 
the Stomaii^e and the Hcdiotides, we consider that we have 
been able to establish upon it a new genus. Sufiiciently 
similar to the Haliotides by its general contour (rensemble 
de aes formesX it is in some manner nevertheless approxi- 
..lated to the Siomatire, inasmuch as it has very few holes ; 
but it presents, more than almost any of these shells, a 
bpiral gutter, hollow in the interior, elevated on the back, 
placed in the middle and curved in the direction of the 
]»pire. This hollow, or gutter, is independent of the curved 
aud serial line of holes, which are nearly all obliterated. 
The right lip is also more opened out (s'dpanouit aussi d*a- 
MQtage), it juts out and festoons (festonne) over the left 
hp towards the summit, and to the height of the spire : the 
iaterior offers an iridescent and undulated nacre. Exter- 
nally it i8 of a brick-red, and the summit, in consequence of 
ItoiDg its exterior calcareous and coloured coat, is nacreous. 
The back is finely striated and reticulated, and the succei- 
uve periods of growth are very strongly marked there. 
There is no doubt that the obliteration of the holes of the 
PudtJli are a consequence of the absence of some organs, 
Kith which the Haltotides must be eminently provided, and 
It is even probable that the single bale which notches their 
U'3nler serves during the life of these moUusks to lodge a 
fold of the border of the mantle, rolled into a tube and 
terming for respiration ; a tube which we shall find among 
uuiny of the spirivalve moUusks.* 

Ct^nsidering the time at which De Montfort wrote, there is 
much good reasoning in this passage; it must be recollected 
tnat he evidentlv gave his description from a young shell; 
f 't he says in tne course of it that the shell sometimes 
rvarhes more than an inch in its greatest diameter. 
Dr. Leach (1814) adopted De Montfort's distinction and 
The Doctor says that this genus is readily distin- 



name. 



cuiibed from Haliotis (Ear-shell) by the irregular form of 
''\w outer edge or lip; the disk, he adds, has rewer perfora- 
tions and \iie spire is placed fhrther on the back. He 
-tales, in conclusion, that the animal is unknown, but is 
probably not very unlike that of the ear-shell. 

Mr. G, B. Sowerby (Genera of Recent and Fossil Shells f 
Na xiv.) observes, that with the exception of a few that 
are commonly known by collectors and Linneans as Imper- 
fr^rate Ear-shellsfiie genus Haliotis has not suffered any 
diBmembermento. 'iui attempt,' eontmues Mr. Sowerby, 



* has indeed been made by Montfort to separate from the 
genuine Haltotides two or three species under the name of 
Padollus, in which he has been followed by Leach, but as 
far as respects general adoption this attempt appears to 
have been as unsuccessful as it was unnecessary. Not so 
the separation of the imperforate HaUotides, which are 
easily distinguished by wanting the row of perforations so 
very characteristic of the true Haliotis.' 

The Otidea form the first &mily of Scutibranchiata, the 
the third order of Paracephahphora Hermaphrodita in M. 
De Blainville's arrangement (manuel de Malacologie, 1825). 
The first genus of this family is Haliotis, divided into four 
sections, and including the genera Padollus and Stomatia, 

M. Rang {Manuel, 1829) continues the Ormiers (Mac- 
rostomes of Lamarck, Otidea of De Blainville, Auriformes 
of Latreille) as the first family of Scutibranchiata, Cuvier : 
but he makes it consist but of one genus, Haliotis, Linn 
The genus Stomatia of Lamarck he places under the Siga- 
rets of De F^russac, as well as the genus Stomatella of 
Lamarck, which he seems to consider as including the 
Padollus of De Montfort. The Sigarets, in this arrange- 
ment, are made to form the 9th family of the Peotinibran- 
chiata of Cuvier. 

In Cuvier*s last edition of the * Regno Animal* (1830), 
the position and arrangement of the Ormiers remains as iu 
the first edition, with the exception that in the last edition 
the Scutibranchiata form the eighth order of his Gastropods. 

In the present state of our information, it will perhaps 
be as well to select the arrangement proposed by Cuvier, 
and in great measure adopted by M. De Blainville. M. 
Rang, in his description both of Stomatella (including 
Padollus), and Stomatia, says * Animal unknown.' 
Haliotis (properly so called ; Haliotis, Lam.). 

Animal.^One of the most ornamented of Gastropods. 
All round it&foot to its mouth there is, at least in the more 
common species, a double membrane cut out into leaflets 
(feuiUages) and furnished with a double row of filaments. 
On the outside of its long tentacles are two cylindrical pe- 
dicles for carrying the eyes. The mantle is deeply divided 
on the right side, and the water, which passes by means of 
the holes in the shell, can, through this slit, penetrate into 
the branchial cavity ; along its edges again are also three 
or four filaments, which the animal can also cause to come 
out through these holes. The mouth is a short proboscis. 
(Cuvier's description for »\\ Gmelin's Haliotides, except 
H. imperforata and perversa.) 

Body oval, very much depressed, hardly spiral behind, 
provided with a large foot doubly fringed on its circumfe- 
rence. Head depressed ; tentacles a little flattened, joined 
(conn6s) at the base ; eyes carried on the summit of pris- 
matic peduncles, situated on the external side of the ten- 
tacles. Mantle very delicate, deeply divided on the left 
side ; the two lobes pointed, forming by their junction a 
sort of canal for conducting the water into the branchial 
cavity situated on the left, and inclosing two very long, 
unequal, pectinated ftrancAt^ (peignes branchiaux).~(De 
Blainville.) 

Animal oblong, depressed, furnished with a large head 
and a short proboscis, at the extremity of which is the 
mouth, containing a tongue armed with points (aiguillons) ; 
tentacles two, long and cylindrical ; eyes on pedicles, im- 
planted at their external base, a little backwards. Mantle 
short, delicate ; foot very large, oblong, furnished all round 
with a double row of festoons agreeably cut out or pinked 
(decoup^s). Organs of respiration composed of two un- 
equal pectinated branchice, in a cavity open to the left, the 
muscle qf attachment occupying the middle of the animal ; 
vent (anus) opening into this cavity opposite the slit which 
forms its aperture. (Rang.) 

In addition to the general account of the organization 
given by Cuvier, we refer the reader to No. 489 (Gallery) of 
the Physiological Series of preparations in the Museum of 
the Royal College of Surgeons. A small specimen is there 
prepared to show the stomach. The floor of the branchial 
cavity, the gills, and anus, arc turned back, and the integu- 
ment is removed from above the cBSOphagus and first sto- 
mach. A bristle is passed through the mouth into the 
CBsophagus, and another from the first to the second stomach. 
The latter cavity is imbedded in the liver, and receives the 
secretion of that gland by such wide orifices, that portions 
of the alimentary substances have entered the biliary ducU, 
which thus appear to be ramifications of the alimentary 
caual. (Catalogues. Gallery, Vol. h} 



^ 



S/uU Dureoni, very moeh dapretMd, dutb or leii ovtl, 
«ith a very trntH loira, very low, nearly posterior, and la- 
teral ; aperture as large as the shell, with continuoui boi^ 
den, the tight border delicate and trenchaut, the left 
flattened, enlarged and trenchant ; a series of complete or 
incompleie hotct, parallel to the left side, serving fur the 
passage of the two pointed lobe* of the mantle ; a single 
large muKulu impreuion, median, and oval. (De Blain- 
ville.) 

These, the true Haliotide^ forming H. De Blainville's 
section A, coiuisting of speeiet whose disk is rounded for- 
wards and pier<«d with a series of holes, vary much in size 
and shape. The general form may be imagined from that 
atHalioti* lubereubOa, the most common species, the tiie. 




a, i&lBil ud ihetl 1 t, lauifai olilwll. 




the species fkvir the warmer cUmates (hat are as large as or 
larger than the crown of a hat, and are absolutely dauling 
from the splendid iridescence of their nacre. The shape 
too varies considerably. Thus we have among the compa- 
ratively small specie* a form very nearly round {Hatiotii 
t^atcala), whilst Hatiotit Atinina is very much elongated. 

The effect of treatinc the shell of Haliatx* wilh acid, so as 
to deprive it more or less of its earthy material, and to ex- 
hibit thti ahapestiU retainedafter the removal of that earthy 
matter, will m ceen in the specimen* numbered 98, 9S A, 
98 B, in the j^lery of ihe same museum. 

GeogTophical Dittribution.—Bol\ H. de Blainville and 
M. Ruig state that species of Halbtis c&iil in all the seas ; 
the latter use* the expression ' elles sont tr£* rfpandues 
dans loutes Ics mers,' but their limit* seem not to go far 
iM'joud tempernte climates. None appear to have been 
seen by our northern voyagers; and though Haliotu tu- 
bereulala (uhich tliere con be little doubt is Ihe i^pia 
Xittat, ijy ro^c caXoCn OaXArrwir ei^ — * the wild lepat, 
which some call the Sea-Ear'— of Ariitotle, Hitl. An^ 
lib. iv., c. 4) is common at Guernsey and Jsracy, and bk* 
been found — that is, the shell — on the south coast of De- 
vonshire, we agree with Mr. Sowerby in thinking thai, on 
ihu pruMtnt evidence, this specie* cannot wiili propriety be 
considered t nativa tS oui own eoail* though the dead 



! HAL 

•hell* are aometimea thrown up oa our toulhera tha(U 
after violent atorms. 

Hakit*. — The Haiiotidet. which are all marine and htto- 
ral, being without opercula, adhere, like the Paltila, by 
applying their uiidi,'r part* to the surface of the rocks. 
The;)' are senetally found near the water'* edge, and, ac- 
cording to Lamarck, go during the fine summer nights to 
feed on the herbage which grows near the shore. 

Vlility to Atiat.—Ax an article of food this genu* is by 
no mean* lo be despised. We have eaten Haliolit tuber- 
culata, and when served by a good oook it is tender and 
sapid. The large fleshy foot, if not properly managed, i* 
apt lo be tough. The people of Guernsey and Jersey orna- 
ment their houses with the shells of tbi* species, dispuaing 
them frequently in quincunx order, and placing them m> 
that their bright interior may catch the rays of the ^iin. 
We have often thought that some of the Urge and splen- 
did intertropical species, whose exterior, sfler removing ibe 
outer coat, take a polish almost equalling the nalut;>l 
brilliancy of the inside, might be converted into ditihes for 
holding Truit: if moimled with good taste, their indcsrnb- 
ahte iridescence would materially add to the richueta uf au 
elegant table. 

B. Species whose disk, besides the series of hulca, is 
raised by a largo parallel rib, hollowed interiorly, and 
whose anterior border i* more or le** irregular. 
PadoUua. (De Montfort.) 




H. De Blainville refer* to Hatiotit canaliculala, L^nn. 
a* Ihe example. The flgutB in Knotr, referred to by L.i- 
marck, it red externally, and has the elevated rib; but il.u 
shape of the shell is lon^r than that at Padolliu icalun', 
Leoch, and of other Padoili which we have seen. The $]k- 
cimcn recorded by Mr. Gray in the appendix to the ' Nar- 
rative of a Survey of the Intertropical and Western Ci>a-(<. 
of Australia, performed between the years 181B and 1 h-21, 
by Captain Phillip Parker King. R.N., F.R.8.,&c.,' vol. ii.. 
and which Mr. Gray notices as the largest he ever iui^v. 
measured three inchc* and a half by two and a half. \Vu 
have seen tlie shell, and never saw so large a snccinivti. 
Mr. Gray record* it m PaiMiui mbicundu* ot Dei\iiMi'»n, 
with the synonyms of Padoilut tealttrit. Leach, and //.i- 
liotif Iricostalit, L«marck. 

Locality. — Lamarck, on the authority of H. Leachenaull. 
says that his Haiiolis tricoatalii inhabits the seas of Java. 
The flne specimen hrou|;ht to England by Captain Kinu 
was found upon Rottncst Island, on the west coast .'-t 
New Holland, and is now in his cabinet It has only ihnrv 
holes, the anterior ones, open. All, both those which are 
closed and those which are open, are very highly elevaicd, 
and so i* the curved longitudinal rib. The left border r\- 
temally is very much raised and nodulous, looking at flr>,i 
sight OS if it bod another row uf holes which had been 
closed ; hut it was evidently always imperforate. 

C. Species whose disk is not pierced, hut hollowed longi- 
tudinally by a decurrent canal. 

M. Ds Blainville gives as an example of his section C 
Haliatit dubia of Lamarck, It will be clear lo the obscrvi-r 
that the animal protected by such shell* a* the two nexi. 
must exhibit some diflerences fk'om that of a true HaJi'iln. 

D. Species whose disk is not pierced, and which oflfcr ihs 
two gutters together, hut approximated, so ■• lo leave 
externally a decurrent rib between them. 

Slomalia. (Lamarck.) 

Cuvier, who *ay* that the animal of Slomalia i* much 
lea* onumented than that of Haiiottt, i* of opinion llut 
this form connects the Haliotidei with certain Turbines. 

Mr. G. Sowerby (Genera qf Recent and Rtttil SAc/,'.. 
No. xix.) observes that Lamarck, in hi* obsenaliuiu 
upon SlomaleUa, Iclls us that in respect to their t:cnriu] 
form those shells appear to be nearly related to the Sl:-- 
matite ; and thai they are principally distinguished bj itiu 
transverse ridgu snd the elevated outer lip of Ihe Stomatue, 



HAL 



17 



HA L 



Upon a cftTeAil examination however of ten species, Mr. 
Sowerby was unable to discover any difference in the outer 
lip ; and he remarks that Lamarck places among his Sto- 
mateliof one species, £•. rttbra^ which has a nodular keel 

E laced exactly in the same position as the transverse ridge, 
y which the latter characterises Stomatia ; so that Mr. 
Sowerby does not find any generic difference whatever, and 
has therefore united the two Lamarckian genera under the 
appellation Stomatia, He thus characterizes the genus 
thus reformed: — Shell pearly within, mostly colour^ ex- 
ternally; suborbicular or long, generally ear-shaped and 
depressed. The spire, in most species, prominent, but not 
produced nor elongated ; sometimes very small, marginal 
and inronspicuous. Aperture mostly longitudinal, in some 
species nearly orbicular, in others much elongated, always 
very large ; its edges entire, united at the upper part, and 
scarcely modified or altered in form by any portion of the 
last volution. Volutions from two to four. Muscular im- 
pressions two, seldom distinct, nearly marginal, and in tiie 
'^open part of the shell. 

Mr. Sowerb)r goes on to state that Stomatia appears to be 
related to Halioiis, and is therefore rightly placed by La- 
marck amons his Macrostomea, One of its species is 
arranged by LiinnflDUS, he adds, as a Haliotis, under the 
name of Haliotis imper/orata (Gmel.). Mr. Sowerby does 
not pretend to discuss the question of their resemblance to 
Lamarck's TurbinacSes; but only observes that in general 
form, some of them atpproach very nearly to some of La- 
marck's Monodontes. The Stomatiie, he states in conclu- 
sion, are marine, and he says that all the species he has seen 
were brought iVom the East Indies and New Holland. 

Locality, — Stomatia has been found at a depth of seven 
fiaithoms» adhering to Meleagrirue and corals. 

Fossil Haliotid^b. 

Mr. 6. B. Sowerby, speaking of the true Haliotides, says 
tbat the existence of fossil species is very doubtful ; tne 
only approach to it that he had ever seen, were, he adds, 
some incrustations taken up from the sea near the Cape of 
Good Hope. He states that he never saw a fossil species 
of StomcUia, as modified by him. M. de Blainville remarks, 
at the end of his arrangement, that it would appear that no 
fossil species are known. Cuvier, speaking of the true /fa- 
lioiides, observes that the genus Haliotis certainly has, 
tliough the fact has been disputed, its analogue among the 
fossils; and he refers. to the * Ann. des Sc. r^at.,* t xii., p. 
45, £ A, for a species {Hal. Philberti) found in the calcaire 
of Mont pellier, described by M. Marcel Serres. M. Rang, 
speaking of the same genus, says, ' Nous en poss6dons une 
ou deux il T^tat fossile.* M. Deshayes, in his tables, records 
cue species, H. tuberculatat as both living and fossil (ter- 
tiary), from Sicily. (Pliocene Period of Lyell.) Of Sto- 
utatia M. Deshayes mentions no fossil species, but of Sto- 
matella be records one fossil (tertiary) with an unknown 
lonality. 

HA'LISPO^GLA.. According to the structure and com- 
position of the numerous species of sponges, they may be 
divided into genera. If, in accordance with the observations 
of Dr. R. Grant, we consider sponges in three groups, one 
having a homy tubular structure, another containing cal- 
careous spiculsD, a third containing siliceous spiculse, we 
may adopt the three generic types, Spongia, Calcispongia, 
anu Haliapongia, of Blainville. 

Halispougia is thus characterized : — Mass more or less 
ri^id or friablei of irregular figure, porous, traversed hj^ 
winding canals, which end in openings scattered over the 
surface; substance subcartilaginous, supported by simple 
siliceous spiculsD. 

The species exhibit various external forms, encrusting, 
brajiching, or foliaceous. Dr. Fleming includes them under 
the title Halichondria. 

UALITHE'A, a genus of marine dorsibranchiate anne- 
lids belonging to the {9mi\j ApkroditicUe, [Dobsibban- 
chiata; Sba-Mousb.] 

H AIJU or HALLE, EDWARD, an English lawyer and 
historian, was the son of John Halle of Northall in Shrop- 
ahire, and was descended from Sir Francis Van Halle, K.(>., 
in the time of Edward IH., who was the son of Frederic de 
Halle of the Tyrol, natural son of Albert king of the Ro- 
mans and arcnluke of Austria. He was born, at the close 
of Uve flfteeuth century, in the parish of St Mildred, Lon- 
don, andreeeived the first part of his education at Eton 
ichooL In 1 5 1 4 he became scholar of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, and continued there till be became a junior fellow ; 
P. Cn No. 726. 



afterwards, about 1518, when Cardinal Wolsey founded va- 
rious lectures at Oxford, he removed to that university. 
Having entered at Gray*s Inn, he was called to the bar, 
and became first one of the common segeauts, and subse- 
quently under-sheriff of the city of London. In 1533 he 
was appointed summer-reader of Gray's Inn, and in 1540 
double reader in Lent, and one of the j udges of the Sheriflfs 
Court. He died in 1547, and was buried in the church of 
St. Benet Sherehog, London. 

HalVs Chronicle, entitled * The Union of the two noble 
and illustrate Families of Lancaster and Yoike,' was lirst 
printed by Bertlielette, in small fo o, in 1542. This edition 
is so very rare as to have been se( a by scarcely any of our 
bibliographers. It was dedicateJ to King Henry VIIL, 
and ended with his twen ty-fourth year, 1 532. Graf i on, who 
reprinted it in 1548, continued ihe work from Hall's papers 
to the end of Henry VIlI.*s reign. He again printed it 
in 1 550. * The boke commonly called Halle's Cronycles* 
is one of those which were forbidden by proclamation, 1 3th 
June, 1555, I and 2 Phil, and Mary. A fourth edition, but 
without any additions or improvements, was printed in 4to., 
London, 1 809, by the booksellers, among the * English Chro- 
nicles.* (Herbert's Ames^ p. 527 ; Bliss's edit, of Wood's 
Athenof, yo\. h, p. 164; Warton, Hist. Eng, Poet., 4X0,^ 
vol. iii., p. 214 ; Nicolson's Hist. Lib., edit. 1776, p. 58.) 

HALL, JOSEPH, an eminent divine and prelate, was 
born July 1st, 1574, at Ashby-de-la-Zouch, in Leicester- 
shire, and received his academical education at Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge, of which in due time he was elected 
Fellow. Having taken orders and received some minor 
benefices in succession, he was made dean of Worcester in 
1617 ; sent as one of the English deputies to the synod of 
Dort in 1618, appointed bishop of Exeter in 1627> and 
translated to Norwich in 1641. His professional zeal and 
earnest piety involved him in those jealous times in the 
charge of puritanism ; and being harassed by frequent and 
vexatious attacks, he plainly told, to use his own words^ 
archbishop Laud — * Under how dark a cloud I was here- 
upon I was so sensible, that I plainly told the lord arch- 
bishop of Canterbury CLaud) that rather than 1 would be 
obnoxious to those slanderous tongues oX his misinformers 
I would cast up my rochet. I knew I went right ways, and 
would not endure to live under undeserved suspicions.' In 
truth he was well attached to the church of which he was 
a member, and wrote strongly in defence of episcopacy 
when the danger of the times became imminent. In No- 
vember, 1641, having joined others of the bishops in a pro- 
test against all laws made during their forced absence from 
parliament, he was sent to the Tower, and only released in 
the following June on giving bail for 500U/. In the next 
year the revenues of his bishopric were sequestrated, iind 
during the rest of his life he sufiered much from poverty 
and harsh treatment, of which he has given an account in 
a piece called 'Hard Measure.' He removed in 1647 to 
Higham, near Norwich, and died there in 1656. 

His numerous works fill several volumes in the old folio 
editions, and ten in the modern 8vo. They are chiefly 
controversial, as will appear from the catalogue in Watt, 
and therefore of ephemeral popularity. His • Contempla- 
tions ' are of more personal and lasting interest, and es- 
teemed for their language, criticism, and piety ; as also his 
* Enoch ismus, or Treatise on the Mode of Walking with 
Grod,' a beautiful tract, translated into English in 1769. To 
the student of English manners his Satires entitled ' Vir- 
gidemiarum,* in 6 books, are peculiarly valuable. Tliey 
have been analyzed by Warton, in an unpublished portion 
of his * Hist, of Poetry,' first printed in Chalmers's 'British 
Poets.' He says of them, ' The characters are delineated in 
strong and lively colouring, and their discriminations are 
touched with the masterly traces of genuine humour. The 
versification is equally energetic and elegant. His chief 
fault is obscurity, arising firom a remote phraseology, con- 
strained combinations, unfkmiliar allusions, elliptical apos- 
trophes, and abruptness of expression.' 

HALL, a town in the Innthal, in Tyrol, with 4500 
inhabitants, having a mint and other public establishments, 
and salt-works which produce about 300,000 cwt. of salt 
annually ; the rock-salt is brought from the Salzberg, 5088 
feet high, which is ten miles distant 

Swabian Hall, in the circle of the laxt, and the kingdom 
of Wiirtemberg, has 6500 inhabitants, six churches, in- 
cluding the antient Gothic church of St. Michael, a hand- 
some town-hall, and salt-works yielding 80,000 cwt annually, 
• ' V0L.X1L— D 



H At 



18 



HAL 



ft VM fennerly a free Imperial dty, and ftnnezed to W&rtem- 

bmr in 1802, 

HALLE, in Saxony, on the Saale, a town in tbe aifl- 
trict of Meneberg, and the province of Saxony, in Prussia, 
the chief town of the circle of the Saale. It is celebrated 
chiefly for its salt-works, for the Orphan Asylum founded 
by A H. Francke [Franckb]. and as the seat of tbe Frede- 
rick's university. It consists of three townn, viz. Halle itself 
with five suburbs, and Glauc.ha, and Neumarkt, which have 
magistrates of their own. The university was founded in 
1694, and by a decree of the king of Prussia was united in 
1817 with that of Wittenberi^. It has always maintained 
a very high character, and has a number of scientific 
institutions connected with it, such as the botanic garden, 
the museum, theological and philological seminaries, a me- 
dical, cbirurgical, and clinical institution for surgery, mid- 
wifery, &C,, 3ie anatomical theatre, the physical and chemi- 
cal institution, the observatory, the mining institution, with 
a cabinet of minerals, &c. The university library consists 
of above 50,000 volumes. The first professors having been 
divines of what the Germans call the Pietist party, the theo- 
logical faculty had from its origin a very local character, and 
Halle has been the chief seat of that party, which, notwith- 
standing its prejudices and peculiarities, has had a salutary 
influence on practical Christianity. A great change was 
however effected by Christian Von Wolff, who inspired the 
students with a love of mathematics and philosophy ; and 
though by the influence of the Pietist divines he was for a 
time exiled from the Prussian states, ^e, with his whole 
school, triumphed in the end. The university had attained 
its highest lustre at the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, when Napoleon dissolved it after the battle of Jena. 
Tho Westphalian government indeed re-established it, but 
it had only from 3U0 to 400 students, and in 1813 Nanoleon 
again decreed its dissolution. His overthrow restorea it to 
Prussia, and after its union with that of Wittenberg it had 
in 1829 1300 students, of whom 944 studied divinity. The 
competition with the new university of Berlin however af- 
fected it, and the number of students now fluctuates between 
bOO and 900. There are above 40 professors and teachers, 
among whom are some highly eminent names. There are 
sevend remarkable buildings, such as St. Mary's church, 
built in the Gothic stylo in the sixteenth century; St 
TJlrich's church, built in 1339; that of St. Maurice, of the 
middle of the twelfth century; the cathedral, built in 
ld'JU'23; and the town-hall. The antient castle, called the 
Moritzberg, foru^erly the residence of the archbishops of 
Magdeburg, was reduced to a ruinous condition in the Thirty 
Years' War, and only a wing now remains. Halle possesses 
many charitable institutions. There are numerous manu- 
factories, but the most important are the salt-works, pro- 
ducing 462,000 bushels of salt annually. The workmen are 
called Halloren, and are a peculiar race, distinguished by 
their physiognomy, costume, and customs: they are sap- 
posed to be descended from the aboriginal inhabitants, and 
enjoy many privileges and immunities. 

The * Allgemeino Litteraturzeitung,' one of the very best 
in Germany, originally published at Leipzig, has appeared 
at Halle ever suice 1804. The population of Halle itself is 
abv)ut 17,000, and with Glaucha, &c., 24,000. 

HAIXE, or HALLEIN, in the circle of Salzburg, in 
Austria, with 5000 inhabitants, has extensive salt-works, 
which nroiluce annually 450,000 cwt of salt. 

H ALLEli, ALBERT VON, was bom at Berne, October 

IG, 1708, of an antient and respectable fiaimily. His father, 

Ki(!holas Emmanuel von Haller, who was an advocate and 

hud the reputation of being an able lawyer, died in 1721, 

but even at that time could foresee the distinction which his 

sun would attain, from the superiority which he evinced 

over his fellow-pupils. In early life Haller was feeble and 

dol.catcN being afVected with rickets, a circumstance which, 

as hii friend and biographer Zimmermann observes, not 

unfiiH^ucntly tends to foster and develop the talents of a 

youth. He is said, at the age of nine, to have been in 

the habit of writing down each day all the unusual words 

ho met with. He composed also short lives of nearly 

two thou<>aud distingui>hed persons, after the manner of 

Bayle's dictionary, and formed a Chaldeo grammar. A 

futtiro in Latin verse upon his master was known to have 

"ritten by him when only ten years old, and two years 

I first began to compose verses in bis native language. 

at her h^ in tended him for tlie church, but his own 

ioQ« leading him to tho study of physic, he went in 



1723 to the university of Tiibmgen, wheie he lived with 
Duvernoji afterwards professor of anatomy at St Peters- 
burg. Being but little satisfied with his progress here, he 
resorted in 1 725 to Lcyden, where the zeal and talent of 
the professors afforded him an onportunity of pursuing his 
studies in a manner more accordant with his wishes. At 
this university Boerhaave was then in the height of his 
fame, attended by 120 pupils, whose instruction was hu 
greatest delight; and Albinus was delivering the lecturtTa 
on anatomy and surgery. Having enjoyed such ad- 
vantages as these, it is not extraordinary that Haller 
should ever after speak with the greatest satisfaction of hm 
residence at Leyden. About this time he visited Ruy*ch 
at Amsterdam, then in his eighty-ninth year, and saw a 
portion of his celebrated collection of anatomical prepara* 
tions, the superiority of which, he tells us, depended rather 
upon skill in manipulation than on any secret process. At 
the end of the year 1726 he offered himself for his doctor* s 
degree, and delivered his Thesis • De ductu salivali Cosch- 
wiciano,* which be showed to be merely a blood-vessel. In 
1727 he visited London, where he became acquainted with 
Sir Hans Sloane and Cheselden j thence he went to Oxfunl, 
and thence to Paris, whence having pursued his anatomical 
and surgical studies for some time under Winslow and Lc 
Dran. he went to Basle to study mathematics under Ber- 
nouilli, and then returned to his native country and began to 
practice as a physician. In 1735 he was appointed physician 
to the hospital at Berne, and soon afler principal librarian 
to the large public collection of books and medals ; but thehc 
offices he did not hold long, for in the following year ho was 
offered the professorship of medicine, anatomy, botany, and 
surgery, at Gottingen, by George II., which after some hef»i- 
tation he accepted. Having declined practising, he devoted 
himself to the duties of his office with the greatest zeal, and 
especially exerted himself to increase the facilities fbr the 
study of anatomy. During eighteen years that he retained 
this appointment, while fully discharging all its laborious 
duties, he was a constant contributor to the different scien- 
tiQc Transactions. In 1 747 he published the first edition of 
his *Priraoo LineoD PhysiologiaB,' which he had that year 
used as the ground- work of his lectures, having previously 
employed the * Institutions' of Boerhaave. In 1751 the K<>>al 
Society of Gottingen was established, and Haller, at wh« m» 
house the first meeting took place, was appointed perpetual 
president. To their Transactions, of which the first vulumo 
appeared shortly after under the title of 'Commentarii S'»- 
cietatis Regise Scicntiarum Gottingensis,' he was a con- 
stant contributor, even after 1753, when, in conscqueni^e 
of the delicate state of his health, being obliged to lea\e 
Gottingen, he retired to Berne. Here he resided during 
the rest of life, constantly occupied in the pubHcation of Kt^ 
most important and voluminous works, in the cultivation of 
the science of his profession and of general literature, anri 
in the active and honourable discharge of various duties in 
the service of the republic, in which he at all times strenu- 
ously advocated the cause of the aristocracy. He died in 
October, 1777, in the enjoyment of the highest reputation, 
both as a citizen, a scholar, and a philosopher, his literary 
labours ceasing only with his life. 

It would be difficult to determine how large a portion of 
the facts of medical science now most familiarly known Me 
owe to the extraordinary labours of Haller. Some idea of 
the extent of his works may be formed from the fiict that 
the titles of nearly two hundred treatises published by hini 
fVom 1727 to 1777 are given by Senebier in hisKlogc of 
Haller, and that this list does not profess to be complofe. 
He is unanimously received as the father of modern ] Ly- 
siology, whose history commences with his writings* lie 
was the first to investigate independently the laws of the am> 
mal economy, which had before been studied only in i*. n- 
nection with tbe prevailing mechanical and cherairal n 
metaphysical theories of tlie day. Commencing with a sonn-l 
knowledge of anatomy and of the structure of the organs :u 
the dead bodv, he sought experimentallv and systeroaiical!) 
to discover the laws which governed their actions dunn;: 
life, proceeding from the most simple to the most com| Io>; 
phenomena. Excluding all the metaphysical ex plana tioi;.s 
which Van Helmont and Stahl had invented, and a I 
those deduced from mechanics and chemistry which wtr. 
not clearly sufficient for the phenomena ascribed to thvm. 
he sought for powers peculiar to the living body, which he 
believed must govern the actions which he found oorur- 
ring only in it Th^e he thought might be sestneted ta 



HAL 



19 



HAL 



two— sensibility and irritability; the Ibrmer aeated in tbo 
brain and nenre^ the latter in muscular fibre. In this he 
had indeed been partially anticipated by Glisson [Glisson], 
who perceived the necessity of admitting an inherent pro- 
perty La muscular fibre, by which its contractions take place 
under the influence of certain stimuli, but the laws of this 
property, and the distinction between it and elasticity, had 
never been at all clearly determined. Haller thus illus- 
trated these properties: the mtestine removed from the 
abdomen, or ^ qiuscle separated from the body, is Irritable, 
for when pricked or otherwise stimulated, it contracts — ^yet 
it is not sensible ; the nerves on the other hand are sensible 
but not irritable, for when stimulated, though the muscles 
to which they are distributed are thrown into action, they 
themselves do not exhibit the slightest motion. Hence Irri- 
tability, he said, cannot be derived from the nerves, for it is 
impossible they should communicate what they do not 
possess themselves ; but he attributed a nervous power to 
some of the muscles as a necessary condition of their irrita- 
bility, and supposed it to be conveyed to them during life 
from the bram through the nerves, uid to govern their 
actions under the influence of certain undetermined laws. 
Proceeding to investigate further the laws of irritability* he 
found that it differed in intensity and permanencv in different 
parts of the body. He found that it continued longest in 
the left ventricle of the heart, next in the intestines and the 
diaphragm, and that it ceased soonest of all in the volun- 
tary muscles, and by reference to this superior degree of 
irritability he explained the constant action of the heart 
and diaphragm even during sleep. He denied all irrita- 
bility to the iris, and believed that the action of light upon 
it takes place through the medium of the retina, a view 
since proved to be perfectly correct He supposed the 
arteries to be supplied with muscular fibres, but that the 
cellular tissue around them prevented any motion from 
taking place in them, and he explained the accumulation of 
blood in an inflamed part, partly by the contraction of the 
veins and partly by the diminished contractility of the 
arteries. He endeavoured to prove by experiments that the 
tcudons, the capsules of joints, the periosteum, and the dura 
mater are entirely insensible, and that the pain which occurs 
in diseases of these parts ought to be referred to the affection 
of the nerves distributed to and around them ; and in these 
and some other tissues which he held to be destitute of irri- 
tability he admitted a force analogous to elasticity, by which 
they contracted slowly and in a manner altogether different 
from muscular tissue when divided or exposed to cold, &c. 

Such is a sketch of the neat doctrine of irritability and 
st^nsibility on which Haller oased all the phenomena of life, 
and around which he arranged all the mcts of physiology 
known at his time in his ' Elementa Physiologic.' It gave 
the first impulse to the study of the laws of life as a sepa- 
rate and exclusive science, and though in some parts erro- 
neous, and in many insufficient, it still contained enough 
of truth to form a firm basis for the observations collected 
during manysuccessive years. His doctrines were strongly 
upposed by W hytt and others, and in the controversies that 
followed numerous new facts were advanced and the most 
important additions to physiological knowledge rapidly 
made. It was soon shown that the restriction of the vital 
powers to the two, as defined by Haller, was much too ex- 
clusive, for that there were many parts which, though they 
gave no evidence of possessing either of them, were not the 
ksb alive, while others to which Haller refused these pro- 
perties gave sufficient demonstration of possessing them 
when excited by other and appropriate stimuli. Hence first 
originated the discovery of the fact that for the action of 
eachorgan a peculiar stimulus is required, and that each 
tissue has what Bichat, who illustrated it most completely, 
called a viepropre. 

But even if Haller had not attempted to establish any such 
great generalization of vital phenomena as this, his learning 
and His admirable mode of studying physiology might 
nave been sufficient to obtain for him a reputation nearly as 
high as that which he has always ei\)oyea. Possessed of a 
competent knowledge of all the sciences which could throw 
any light on the actions occurring in the Uvine body, he 
pomted out in numberless instances what part of them was 
to be attributed to the laws of inorganic matter and what to 
those peculiar to the state of life, while he carefully avoided 
admitting any of the former as sufficient by themselves to 
explain the whole of the latter, which had been the chief 
eaoic of n&»\i aU^ his predecessors. Be nurely drew an^ 



conclusion respecting the mode of action of any orgsn'or 
part in the human body, without prerionsly investigating 
the analogous ftmction in the bodies of animals by oi^o- 
tion or experiment ; and he tells us that he often found 
that Questions to which no sufficient answers ooidd be ob- 
tainea by observations on the human body, were at once 
solved by his examinations in the various classes of animals. 
Deeply read in all the works of those who preceded him 
and in all those of his cotemporaries in every nation, he 
did not attempt to decide anything till he had considered 
all their statements and compart them with his own in- 
vestigations, and hence each of^his works contains so perfect 
an epitome of the labours of all former writers on the same 
subject, and a mass of evidence so extensive, that whatever 
errors the conclusions he sometimes arrived at may contain, 
they can never fkil to be records of the highest value. At 
the same time the elegant and lucid style in which they are 
written, the result of the combination, almost unique, of 
the poet with the anatomist, has rendered them attractive, 
notwithstanding their great extent, to his successors in every 
country. 

Haller was fortunate in receiving the high honours which 
he deserved during his life- time. In 1 739 he was appointed 
phvsician to the king of England. In 1 743 he was elected 
a fellow of the Roy^ Society of London, and at different 
times subsequently of all the scientific societies of Europe. 
When George II. visited Gottingen in 1748 he was ennobled 
by the emperor : he was invited by Frederick the Great to 
settle in Berlin, with a handsome salary, to which no duties 
were attached, and was offered a professorship at Oxford 
and at Utrecht. He enjoyed throughout his life the 
friendship and esteem of the most eminent of his contem- 
poraries throughout Europe; and, varied as his pursuits 
were, he acquitted himself in all with the highest honour 
and success. It would be impossible here to give a com- 
plete list of his original writing and compilations ; few 
writers have ever been so volummous * and it is extraordi- 
nary that, amidst all his personal and laborious investiga- 
tions, he should have had opportunity for the composition 
of so extensive a library as they alone would form. A large 
portion were probably formed from the accumulation of 
notes which he had made in following out his system of in- 
variably recording evervthing which appeared to him worthy 
of notice ; a plan which, commenced, as we have seen, in 
childhood, he continued without intermission to the last 
years of his life. The following are his principal works : — 

His chief poetical production, ' Versuch Schweizerischer 
Gedichte,* was published anonymously at Berne; after- 
wards two more editions of it were printed there, and 
four at Gottingen. Three editions of a French trans- 
lation were also published. From 1750 to 1760 he was 
engaged in publishing, in 1 9 vols. 4to., a number of the 
most select disputations and theses in anatomy, surgery, 
and medicine, and from 1757 to 1766 his 'Elementa Phy- 
siologiae Corporis Humani,' undoubtediv the greatest work 
on medical science which the eighteentn century produced. 
It contains every fact and every doctrine of physiology at 
that time known, and is written in such a style of elegance 
and classical beauty that it is still a model for writers on 
the same subject It appeared in eight 4to. volumes from 
1 757 to 1 766, and a posthumous ' Auctarium' was published 
in 1782 in four 4to. &sciculi. From 1774 to the time of 
his death he was engaged in pubUshing part of his * Biblio- 
thecsB Anatomise, Qiirurgis, MedicinsD PracticsD, Botani- 
ceo, et HistorisB Naturalis,' which form together ten 4to. 
volumes, of which the publication was completed posthu- 
mously. They are composed principally of abstracts of the 
writings of all the most esteemed authors on each subject, 
so as to form a complete history of the doctrines of each 
science. His ' Icones Anatomicee,' which were published 
from 1743 to 1756, contain most accurate and well-engravcd 
representations of the principal organs of the body, espe- 
cially of the arteries. The greater part of his contributions 
to the various scientific transactions, and of his shorter 
works, were collected in his ' Opera Minora,' in 3 vols. 4to., 
from 1762 to 1768. The most valuable of the papers con- 
tained in them are those on the Development or the Chick, 
on the Formation of the Heart and the Bones, on the Cir- 
culation, and on the Eye. iDas Leben des Herm von 
Haller, von J. G. Zimmermann, 1 vol. Svo., 1755; Sene- 
bier, Eloge de Haller^ Geneva, 1 778 ; Histoire de la Me- 
dicine, par K. Sraengel.) 

HALLE Y, EDMUND. The materials for the personal 

P2 



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20 



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life of Halley are principally in the BiographiaBritannica, 
which makes considerable use of a manuscript fUrnished 
by Mr. Price, Halley's son-in-law Some yean ago a 
manuscript boloni^ing to the Bodleian libranr, purporting to 
be the life of UalTey by some one acquainted with him, was 
read to the Royal Astronomical Society (see their Monthly 
Notice, December, 1834). Wo find some extracts from 
this manuscript agreeing almost word for word with pas- 
sages in the Biog. Brit, and conclude that the document 
in the Bodleian library is the original, or perhaps an 
abridged copy, of that cited in the printed work. The 61oge 
of Halley in the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences is 
by Mairan, and is reprinted in the small collection of 61oge8 
by that writer, Paris, 1747. 

Edmund Halley was born October 29th, 1656, at Hag- 
gerston, near London, at a country-house belonging to 
his father, who was a soap-boiler in Winchester Street, 
London. He was educated at St. Paul's school, under 
the care of Dr. Gale, and was placed at Queen's Col- 
lege, Oxford, in 1673, being then possessed of much erudi- 
tion for his age, and a strong turn for observation, as ap- 
pears by his having discovered for himself before he left 
school the alteration in the variation of the magnetic 
needle. At the university, being well supplied with instru- 
ments by his father, ho began to apply nimself to astro- 
nomy, and before he reached the age of twenty he had given 
(in the Phil. Trans.) a memoir on the problem of Kepler, 
had invented a method of constructing the phases of a solar 
eclipse, and had made many observations, particularly of 
Jupiter and Saturn, the results of which we shall presently 
see. Finding however that nothing could be done in pla- 
netary astronomy without more correct tables of the stars, 
and relying upon Flamsteedand Hevelius for the amelio- 
ration of the northern catalogues, he determined, with his 
lather's consent and assistance, to appropriate to himself 
the task of forming a catalogue of the southern hemisphere. 
Furnished with a recommendation from Charles II. to the 
East India Company, he set sail for St. Helena in Novem- 
ber, 1676» and remained there two years. His *C!atalogus 
Stdlarum Australium,' published in 1679, was the result of 
this ^*oyage, and contains, besides the positions of 350 stars, 
some other )»iuts of interest, particularly an observation of 
the transit of Mercury over the sun's disc, and a hint that 
such observations might be employed to determine the sun's 
parallax (aHcrwards so successfully carried into effect with 
the idanet Venus). He also notices the increased curvature 
of tne moon's orbit when in quadratures, which was after- 
wards explained by Newton. In his voyage out he had 
obM?r\'ed the fact that the oscillations of a pendulum 
increa:»o in duration as the instrument approaches the 

cr|U:itor. 

At his return from St Helena the king granted him a 

T::i;)'lamu.s to the university of Oxford for the degree of 

M i^ur of Arts, and he was elected a Fellow of the Rova) 

Sm .rty. This body sent him to Danzig in 1679 to judge 

t : tuf observations of Hevelius, who mamtained the supe* 

t. tt acciirary of instruments with simple sights, in opposi- 

I n to Ho«>k, who advocated the use of the telescope. 

]!i.'jt tia^ a man of rapid movements: in November, 

1- 7'*.'iie rr! limed from St. Helena; in May, 1679, he s^t 

«, : : r I>,Aa/is:, ha\iug in the interval published his cata- 

'^ '\ iT-orcd iiij* Oxford degree, and admission 

I .> 11 > .1 S 0' *'\\. He returned from Danzig in July, 

: V. T* ::.\. c 1 at K -uic till the end of 1680, at which time 

«' ' .: • - a r nSin'-ntal tour, accompanied by his 

• ' - Mr N'':»on, vnrc well known as the author of 

♦ --«.• :•. V -*»ir. I Fa^i**. In December, being on the 

1. *.. H - « :^ •.-.» iKt' rvlebrated comet of 1680 in its 

> •.; ,'U, \f*:n'j^ the ffrst who perceived it 

"'. .;, \:^. ^:*t A\n^ month. This body he 

' »-».'; *»• rvw. and the obser^'ations thus 

.'»i . : a% farming part of the foundation 

u '• »• :rj x\^ Prmopia, verified his deduc- 

:• • 1 o •,:/.» rij t lie thcjry of gravitation. He 

/• • '•-• - h' /.*• -: at t/.c cr.J of 1681, and in 1682 mar- 

j.» ' ••#• '-*..• -.r '/ Mr T'X^Le, auditor of the Exchequer, 

« L V b i-x b» , ■'••'.» ifiX't'i^ }eaxft. He resided at Islington 

1. .»•*'. »'ii u. :c*3 ;'u'tj]iftbed hi% fheoT}' of the variation 

t** tii»: Uit/'ii".. f '•'>«43<i by other papers in subsequent 

•,'•/;. .' ;: !i.i:»fi.»vu» »f<eciilations, now forgotten. 

'fv'i'^'* ♦-»; 'K-;.fa':f*n« during this period consisted 

'i ',^'\:t '-W^crvaifn* and comparisons. He was 

i) vi ity'^x^j:x that the noon «x>uld« when sufficiently 



I • . »■ 



* » » 



', 



•» •. 



I i\ 




known, furnish the means of finding the long^tadf, and at 
this period it seems that he had formed the idea of observing 
that body through a whole revolution of the nodes. His 
observations (1682-1684) are published in Street's ' Astro- 
nomia Carolina.' He was interrupted however by the stats 
of his fisther's affairs, which had suffered by the great fire. 

Among other objects of speculation he had considered t( 
law of attraction, which ho imagined must be as the invei 
square of the distance. Having applied in vain to Ho 
and Wren for assistance in the matnematical part of tho 
problem (himself being more of a mathematician than 
either), he heard of Newton, and paid him a visit at Cam- 
bridge. Finding all he wanted among the papers of his 
new friend, he never rested until he had persuaded Newton 
to publish the Principia, of which he superintended the 
printing, and suppUed the well-known copy of Latin venscs 
which stand at the beginning. In 1691 he was a candidate 
for the Savilian professorship, which he lost, acoordine t^ 
Whiston, on account of his avowed unbelief of the Biole. 
This rosts on the authority of Whiston, and of an anecdote 
to be found in Sir David Brewster's Life of Newton, and yet 
it is certain that he afterwards was appointed to the same 
professorship, and as he then obtained the degree of doctor 
of laws, which required no stibscription to articles, it may be 
presumed his opinions, if known, were not considered to be 
a disqualification. Flamsteed, if we remember right]}, 
speaks of his opinions on this matter as things of common 
notoriety. In 1696 he was appointed comptroller of the 
mint at Chester, where he resided two years. 

In 1698 king William, who had heard of his magrictic 
theory, gave him the commission of captain in the na\'}', 
with the command of a small vessel, and instructions to ob- 
serve the variation of the magnet, and the longitude and 
latitude of places in the American settlements, and to at- 
tempt the discovery of land south of the Western Ocean. 
He set out in November, but was compelled to return by the 
insubordination of his first lieutenant. Having tried this 
officer by a court-martial, he set out again in September. 
with the same ship and another, observed in many parts of 
the Atlantic as far as the ice would permit, touched at the 
Canaries, Madeira, Cape de Verd Islands, St -Helena, 
Brazil, Barbadoes, and returned September, 1700, having 
not lost a man by sickness during the whole voyage. He 
published in 1701 a chart of the variation of the magnet in 
all seas of the known world, and immediately afterwards 
sailed to survey the coasts of the Channel, of which he 
also published a chart. He was then twice successively 
ordered to the coast of the Adriatic, to assist in the fbrmation 
and repairs of harbours in the emperor's dominions, and 
returned to England in November, 1703, just in time to 
succeed Dr. Wallis, who had died a few weeks before, In the 
Savilian chair of geometry at Oxford. 

If Halley was active and energetic, he was no less uni- 
versal. The captain-professor found an unfinished trans- 
lation by Dr. Bernard of a tract of Apollonius, and, thous;b 
he did not understand Arabic, undertook to ooropletc 
the work. [Apollonius Pergjbus.] The Oxford MS. 
says, * This he did with such success, through his being so 
great a master of the subject, that I remcroDer the learned 
Dr. Sykee (our Hebrew professor at Cambridge, and the 
greatest naturalist of his time when I was at that univer* 
sity) told me that Mr. Halley, talking with him upon tbt* 
subject, showed him two or three passages which w'anted 
emendation, telling him what the author said, and what ho 
should have said, and which Dr. Sykes found he might 
with great ease be made to say, by small corrections be vaa 
by this means enabled to make in the text. Thus, I remem* 
bcr Dr. Sykes expressed himself, Mr. Halley made emen> 
dations to the text of an author he could not so much an 
read the language of.* It is not necessary (after the article 
last cited) to say more of the splendid edition of the wht)|c 
of Apollonius, published in 1710. 

The Miscellanea Curiosa, a collection of pieces, mostly 
ttom the Philosophical Transactions, many of them h> 
himself, was superintended by him, and published in 
1708. 

4 Halley resided at Oxford for some years after his appoint* 
ment to the Savilian chair, nor do we know when he again 
became a permanent resident in London: it was bowe>or 
not later than 1713, for in that year ho became scrn- 
tary to the Royal Society. He had been assistant-^ern^ 
tary before, as far back as 1689, and the Thinsacti«>r> 
ih>m 1666 to 1693 w«re superintend^ by hvau Fnyni 



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22 



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publitbed in tbe Philosophical TransactioDA for 1705, and 
again at the University press in Oxford, and also in an 
English translation published in London in 1705, which 
was reprinted in 1 706, in the Miscellanea Curiosa.^ It was 
again reprinted in the second edition of Gregory's Astro- 
nomy, in an English edition of the same work, 1715, 
in Lcmonnier's Theory of Comets, and was finally left for 
publication, in an augmented form, by Halley himself, and 
was published with his tables in X749. This work was a 
consequence of the Principia of Newton, in which the 
method of applying Kepler's laws to the computation of 
the parabolic orbit of comets, the idea of the possibility of 
a periodic comet, and even an implied assertion that such 
things would be discovered, is to be found in book iii^ 
prop.xlL, first edition, 1687) • * I leave their axes and times 
of revolution lo be determined from the comparison of 
comets which return in the same orbits alter long periods.' 
Halley, acting upon this hint, collected the observations of 
all such comets as had been observed with any degree of 
accuracy, up to the year 1 700. Theso were 24 in number, 
\nd had appeared in the following years : — 



1337 


1680 


1652 


1680 


1472 


1565 


1661 


1682 


1531 


1590 


1664 


1683 


1532 


1596 


1665 


1684 


1556 


1607 


1672 


1686 


1577 


1618 


1677 


1698 



On looking over the list, it needed only a glance to see that 
three of these comets exhibited very nearly the same orbit, 
and that the intervals of the appearances were very nearly 
the same. The following extract ftom Halley's table will 
show this ^— 

In the years . . 1531 1607 1682 

Comets appeared having „ ^ , / o ^ 

Long, of asc node 49 25 50 21 51 16 

Incl. of orbit , 17 56 17 2 17 56 

Long, of perih. • 301 39 302 16 302 52 

Perm, distance, that 

of earth being I. 56700 98680 58328 

Perih. passage • Aug. 24. Oct. 16. Sept. 4 
Distance from perih. ^ . ^ # o / 

to asc. node • 107 46 108 5 108 23 

Motion . • Retrog. Retrog. Retrog. 

The interval between the perihelion passages of tbe first 
and second comet is fifteen months longer than that be* 
tween the second and third, which might have puzzled a 
person not acquainted with the Principia. But the dis- 
turbing action of the nlaoeU, which has since been so suc- 
cessfully computed that the motion of this body is now 
much better known than was that of the moon in the time 
of Halley, immediately suggested itself. He announced 
accordingly the return of the comet about the year 1758. 

It may seem perhaps that we have lessened the dclat of 
Halley's announcement by attributing the hint to Newton, 
and making his part of the work seem to be mere calcula- 
tion. But It must be remembered that though at this time 
an expert computer in tbe Nautical Almanac Office would 
perform the same work in half a year, yet Halley had all 
the difficulties of a less advanced state of pure mathema- 
tics. He had his method to organize, if not to invent ; and 
Sit rare were those who had a competent understanding of 
the Principia, thal« after a little hesitation, we agree per- 
fuctly with the astronomer-royal in saying that Hailey waa 
in all probability the only man in Europe who was compe- 
tent to perform this labour. 

lu the latest edition of the Synopsis Halley examined 
the elements of the comet's orbit further, and repeated his 
prediction still more confidently, desiring that all would re- 
member that its author was an Ent^lishman, ' Quocirca si 
si*cundum pnodicta nostra rcdierit iterum circa annum 
1768, hoc primum ab homino Anglo inventum fuisse non 
iunciabitur SDqua posteritas.* Among the years preceding 
I.'>31, in which the same comet probably did become visible, 
3')U, 1306. and 14J6 arc years of well attested comets. But 
there is less evidence lur the years ax. 130, and a.d. 323, 
550, 930, 1005, 1230, and 1380, all of which are described 
as years in which comets appeared in the collection of Lu- 

'^nietski, upon various authorities. 

he prediction of Halley caused various astronomers to 

»ute orbits of the coming comet, but none of those took 

iccount the perturliations caused by the planets. In 1 767 

mat and Lalaade (see these names) undertook tho 



enormous labour of computing the effect of th# Mrturba^ 
tions of the principal pknets through a period of 160 ycaxa. 
Assisted by Madame Lepaute, wife of a well-known watch- 
maker of that name, Lalande performed the drudgery of 
the process, while Qabraut, the first who extended Newton's 
application of his theory, applied the resulta. The conse- 
quence was, that in November, 1768, when the oomet was 
already expected, the announcement was made that it would 
arrive at its perihelion within a month, one way or ibe 
other, of April 13, 1759. The announcement of Oairuui 
was just in time, for on December 26, 1768, George Pah tzch. 
a farmer and amateur astronomer in the neighbourhood of 
Dresden, detected the comet. It was afterwards repeatedly 
observed in various parts of Europe, but it is not on recortl 
that any one saw it with the naked eye, nor was its pobiuuu 
at all mvourable for that purpose. Various orbits were 
computed, but no one seemed tncUned to undertake the 
task of applying the corrections for perturbation, so as tu 
predict the penhelion place for 1836. Tbe comet slept in 
peace therefore until the improvement of methods of com- 
puting the perturbations, and the approach of a new ap- 
pearance, induced first the Academy of Turin, and next 
that of Paris, to offer prizes on the subject. The first was 
gained by M. Damoiseau, the second by M. de Pontes >u- 
lant (1617 and 1833). And M.Rosenberger at various tiint*«> 
(Astron. Nachr., Nos. 196, 180, 250, 276, 288), compuied 
the elements of Uie orbit for 1682 and 1769, and the ihhole 
of the perturbations from 1682 to 1836. This enormv>u» 
labour has been duly appreciated^ and has placed M. Roeeu- 
berger in a very honourable position among living aatrouo- 
mers. 

The following list of elements (extracted irom the Nau- 
tical Almanac for 1 836) were given, the first by M. Pont^cou- 
lant from his own computation of perturbations, tbe second 
by M, Damoiseau, the third by Mr. Lubbock, who applie<l 
the perturbations of M. Pont6coulant to elements for the 
year 1769, computed by himself. The A>urt)i column con- 
tains the elements approximately corrected* during the 
reappearance of the comet, by the superintendaot of the 
Nautical Almanac, from 66 rouglUy reduced ri^ ascen- 
sions and declinations. 

Normnbar. I Oebbv.y 



Penh, patsago 



I. pal 
1835. 



Flaee of ppiih. on 

tlic orbit 
I«oiig. ace. uode 
Incl. of orb. 
Exrentricity 
Scmi-«x. inl^. 



November. 

7-2P«iHi 
Mean tine 
fh>m Qoou. 



3040 31*48" 

MP 30' 0" 
170 44' 24" 
•9678212 
I7'fti705 



4*82 Puta 
MMJitim* 
from mido. 



80-2 PkHi 

MMBtilM 

ftommids. 



I7042'5(r 



t5'936» 

ich 
astiou. 
lime, 
8MP3Sf y'-2« 

UP yai'-j* 
vp^bb^' •; 

•9«7&5"9 
18>077^»M 



650 9f 7* 

^3096 I '967848 
17*9658 I 17*96aSi 

The comet was fint seen at Rome, on the fifth of August, 
by M. Dumouchel, director of the observatory of the Roman 
college. From that time it continued to be observed t.il 
the end of the year in Europe, and through a great part of 
the ensuing spring in the southern hemisphere. During a 
part of the time it was distinctly visible to the naked v\ o. 
The number of good obserratiens which were prucun-^i 
greatly exceeded, as might be supposed, those made on niiy 
previous occasion. And in full propertaon to the tnrren-o 
of observers and instruments has been the means affonU l 
to the astronomical public of turaing their obeervations to 
useful account. We allude to the Appendix to tho Nau- 
tical Almanac for 1839, in which will be fonnd the rr<u!r 
of the most complete preparation for tbe treatment vi 
observations whicn has ever been Airnished for at^v 
heavenly body. Taking the elements above given a«« 1 
basis, it contains the perturbations of the comet by all il o 
planets from the beginning of Aus^t, 1836, to the end 1 f 
March, 1836, the deduction of the variations of the elemcn * s 
during every four days, the computation of an ephemi-ris ;' c 
the whole period, and finally the equations of condition \ \ 
the help of which an observer may deduce the corrections • t* 
the elements of the orbit which his own observations sh<M.'.l 
indicate. Theso last are given as ofcen as eight times o-d .v . 
for the period of thecomet*s most rapid motion. £>oi> 
thing therefore which could be done previous to the ob-t r- 
vat ion being made, is effected: and the praise due to Lici;t. 
Stratford and his assistants for this voluntary addition to 
their already arduous labours has been awarded by jud{^«4 
more competent than ourselves. 

The history of the last appearance of Hallev's comet i^ 
not yet completed, nor can it be until the reduction and 
comparison of all the obser^'ations are made to produce a nc w 

< f from mota E^uImk of Norembtr 15^ 188^ 



HAL 



ja 



HAM 



4etennin«tioii of ihd elements of 1935. Those vrbo have 
collected the materials, both theoretical and practical to 
which we have alluded, have been working fbr posterity; 
and it is the year 1911 which must show the progress of 
astronomy between 1759 and 1835, just as the year 1835 
vas evidence of the change which took place between 1682 
ana j759. 

H ALLI^HOA, the name proposed by Lamouroux for a 
group of fossil Polyparia, referred by many writers to Al> 
cyonia. The spheroidal figure, contracted base, deep cen- 
tral pit, and uores on the surface, appear the characters most 
ruUed on by Lamouroux. Goldfuss gives characters for the 
genus Siphon ia of Parkinson, which may include the two 
s»pecies mentioned by Lamouroux from the vicinity of Caen 
and the Vaches Noires. Hallirhoa costata of Lamouroux 
is found in the greensand of Normandy and England. 

HALMATUTIUS. [Kangaroos.] 

HALO'DROMA. Illiger's name for a senus of sea- 
birds allied to the Petrels and Albatrosses. [LARiOiS.l 

HALORA'GEiC, a small group of Exogenous plants, 
many of which inhabit watery places, and all of whicn have 
minute inconspicuous flowers. In consequence of the ca- 
lyx being superior, the embryo without much albumen, 
and some of them having four petals, they are often con- 
sidered to form a peculiar section of Onagraoese, or if sepa- 
rated from that order, are at'least stationed in the imme- 
diate vicinity of it. Upon this supposition, they are looked 





Hlppoiii vnlgni*. 

1« a mniflm flowtr. wiili its bract, mueh magoifled: 2, « wrtiMl leelloB of Ik* 
'>v«r7. mbovinc a ^ngle omle haaginc ftom the apex of a eiiigle cell; 3» a vex- 
'Vil section of a ripe frnit. showing the teed suspended ia the interior, and tho 
craSyUdoaottt embryo. 

npon as an imperfect condition of the Onagraceous t}'pe, 
''>*'iring the same relation to it as Sanguisorbesd to Rosacea), 
Chamselauciea) toMyrtaceae, or Mimosea> to other Fabacea;. 
Bat in the present uncertainty regarding the true affinity 
of many natural orders of plants, we must not consider 
thi* a settled point On the contrary, it is not improbable 
that Haloragefls constitute an iraperiect form of the great 
K]iigynou8 group of Exogcns, of which Onagraceio are 
"nW one of the members. What renders it peculiarly diffi- 
cult to determine the real affinity of this little group is, 
that a<i it is now constituted, it offers striking modifications 
of development both in tho organs of vegetation and those 
rf fructification. While Haloragis has a stem with a com- 

elete vascular organization, and regulai'ly constructed leaves, 
(ynophvllum has its vascular system reduced to a rudimen- 
tary coaaition, and in some of the species tho leaves thcm- 
Rlves appear only in ^0 fbtm of filiform ramifications; 



and in Hippuhs, the development of the tasoulor ayitaiii 
of both stem and leaves Is still further reduced* In lik« 
manner in the flowers, Haloragis has four petals, eight sta- 
mens, fbur stigmas, and four cells to the ovary ; Proserpi- 
naca has no petals, three stamens, three stigmas, and three 
cells to the ovary ; and Hippuris has no petals, one stamen, 
one stigma, and but one cell to the ovary. This latter genus 
is a common plant in the marshes and meadows of this 
ooimtry, where it is vulgarly called Mare's-tail. 

HALS, FRANCIS, an eminent portrait-paintwr, bom 
at Mechlin, 1 584, died in 1666. No artist of that time was 
superior to him except Vandyck, and very few could be 
compared with hitn. With the first merit of a portrait, 
that of strong resemblance, his pictures were executed with 
remarkable freedom and boldness : his coloming was ex- 
tremely good, and the effect very striking. 

HALSTED. [EssBX.] 

HALYATTES. [Alyattks.] 

HALYMENITES. Under this generie name Sternberg 
(ffora der Vorwelt) and Bronn {LethtBa Geognostica) in- 
clude several species of fossil fucoid plants, found in the 
slaty oolitic rocks of Stonesfield and Solenhofen. 

HALYS. [KiziL Bruak.] We have referred to this 
head, because some further information on this river may 
be soon expected. 

HALYSITES, the name given by Fischer to a genus of 
fbssil corals, synonymous with Catenipora of Goldfuss. As 
having priority, it is adopted by Bronn in his 'LethsaGeo- 
gnostics.' 

HAM, EAST and WEST. [Essbic.] 

HAMADAN. [Ecbatana.] 

HAMAMBLA'CEiti, or HAMAMELI'DEifi, a very 
small group of woody Exogenous plants, characterised by 
having a superior calyx, a definite number of stamens, half 
of which are usually sterile, a two-celled ovary, and an em- 
bryo in the midst of horny albumen. There are only three 
genera in the gardens of this country, Hamamelis, Trieho- 
cladus, and Fotnergilla. It is at present uncertain to what 
order Hamamelaceas are most nearly allied, and until some 
further discoveries shall have been made, the question is 
not likely to be settled. Some of the species are large 
forest trees, affording good timber, but nothing is known 
of any other useful property in the order. 

HAMBURG, the largest city in Germany after Vienna 
and Berlin, and by far the most important emporium of 
commerce, is situated in 53'' 33' N. lat, 9° 58' 35" E. long. 
The origin of this city is attributed to Charlemagne. 
The ibunder chose fbr its site the most elevated spot 
on the north bank of the Elbe and the east bank of the 
Alster, about 75 miles from the German Ocean. Though 
at first merely the resort of fishermen, its advantageous 
position could not fail to make it in time a place of trade. 
It was several times destroyed by the neighbouring bar- 
barians, yet it always recovered, and had attained consider- 
able commercial importance at the beginning of the twelfth 
century. In the thirteenth century it concurred in the 
formation of the Hanseatic League. [Hansb Towns.] Till 
1500 it was confined to the space between the Elbe and the 
east bank of the Alster ; but the west bank was gradually 
built upon, especially by refugees from the Netherlands, 
who fied from the tyranny of the Dlilo of Alba. Hence 
arose the new town, which increased so rapidly that it was 
thought advisable to extend the walls so as to enclose it 
within the city. The actual fortifications of the city were 
not further enlarged after this time, though some outworks 
were made and a fortified line was formed enclosing the 
suburb of St. George. Its rights as an estate of the 
empire were contested by the Danes, and though it was 
recognised as such in 1618, it did not obtain a seat or 
vote in the Diet. The kings of Denmark claiming the 
sovereignty as counts of Holstein, Hamburg was obliged 
at different times to avert a threatened attack by the pay- 
ment of large sums, till a convention with the house of 
Holstein in 1768 removed all difficulties; and in 1770 
it was confirmed by the emperor in its rights as a free 
city of the empire. The possession of the cathedral had 
been always claimed by the archbishops of Bremen, but 
it was assigned by the treaty of Westphalia in 1648 to 
Sweden, and afterwards passed to Hanover with the duchy 
of Bremen. Tlie general effect of the repeated wars in 
Germanv to the close of the eighteenth century was favour- 
able to Hamburg, by causing a great addition to its popu- 
lation and its wealth, and extendisg its commerce, ia 



HAM 



24 



HAM 



1S09 tbe eatbednl t&d all the |>rop6rty hithecU Mlongins 
to Hanover in the oity and territory were finally aatigned 
to Hamburg, and its independence still further aecured. 
Thus Hamburg at the oommenoement of the nineteenth 
century was one of the most flourishing, happy, and opulent 
cities of the Continent Ito miilbrtunes commenced with 
the occupation of Hanover, in 1803, by the French, who 
aeiied Ritiebottel, at the mouth of the Elbe, to prevent 
Bnglish ships from entering the river. Upon this the Bng- 
lish instituted a most rigorous blockade, so that the com- 
merce of Hamburg was paralysed, and its direct maritime 
trade interrupted. It was compelled by French threate to 
advance two millions and a half of Banco marks (about 
200.000/. sterling) to the esUtes of Hanover. After the 
pillage of Liibeck in 1806 Marshal Mortier with his corps 
occupied Hamburg, and made the citv pay sixteen millions 
of ftancs as a ransom for the Bnglisn goods in the ware- 
houses. Though the French troops were withdrawn after 
the treaty of Tilsit, and the city had for a short time a 
shadow of independence, it was still subject to numerous 
extortions fh)m the French generals. The decrees of Berlin 
and Milan ruined the little remaining trade of Hamburg, 
and the English goods which it had been forced to ransom 
were now confiscated and consigned to the flames. At the 
end of 1 8 1 it was incorporated with tbe French empire as the 
capital of the department of the Mouths of the Elbe. In 
1813 the citizens hailed with rapture the entrance of a 
Russian corps, at the approach of which the French had eva- 
cuated the city. The old constitution was restored ; a burgher 
guard of 7000 men was formed, and two thousand of the 
inhabitants volunteered to join the allies, and the Russians 
repaired the fortifications, which had been partly razed. 
But the French soon returned and altackad the city on the 
Elbe side. The Russians, beine too weak, withdrew, and 
Marshal Davoust and General Vandamme entered Ham- 
burg, which they treated with a degree of wanton severity 
that excited in the highest degree the sympathy and indig- 
nation of Europe. They imposed a contribution of two 
millions sterling ; and being afterwards besieged, drove out 
40,000 inhabitants in the depth of winter, and even seized 
the treasure deposited in the bank, amounting to about 
700,000/. sterling. An unhappy combination of circum- 
stances enabled them to retain possession of it till May, 
1814. On the 26th of that month the old constitution was 
restored, and on the 8th of June, 1815, Hambui]g joined 
the German €k)n federation as a free Hanseatic city. For 
all its iierere suflbrings, including the robbery of the bank, 
a very inadequate indemnity was obtained from France at 
the peace. But the public spirit of the inhabitants, its in- 
ternal resources, and its ftivourable situation, have gra- 
diiiUy restored its former prosperitv. 

Th« temUtrj of Hamburg, incluaing the area of the city 
<wK.*h M nft%r\y an oval four English miles in circum- 
fff*rr^»'f* i« al>«/ut 150 square miles, bounded on the 
•/,*.' H t/f ilm JL\l*!, snd on the other sides by the I>anish 
lA V V/f.^, It has likewise some islands in the Elbe, some 
*M'M.%*J \m(A ttu the Hanoverian side of the river, and the 
^^.,, wy g, i4 Hit24;lWjtti;l at the mouth of the Elbe, in which 
,4 t,^ h«fVitir of (y'uxhaven. Conjointly with Liibeck it 
A,M tr.« t/kiltwufk of ^cr^^viXorff^ and the districts called the 
S ^t.*ijUiU, U roiiftf from Hamburg, with 10,000 inha- 
K •/.'« 'II«A \¥ipMWivtn of Hamburg and its suburbs is 
,„u.,'wt: »/•! tlii*i of the territory, including Bergedorff, 
S0.*9sjt*^%**.*f*sh %tA :jo,ooo. The great majority are Lu- 
f^K^ss^'t 'ti»Mt K//man Catholics may be from 5000 to 
<.' >^ '.'.A C%.Mr*i«t« 1500 to 2000, and the English may 
t..i«- .^A •>^*w«»^ 1000 and 1500; the number of Jews is 
fi .t^/f ./. w*t*»t Ut« works at 14,000, which we believe to 
«/. %fu,'K *u^ii double the real number. In 1824 it ap- 
^.^•< //.a the biUslof mortality that they could not 

.A 4.,' «'.*>4*y>n is a mixture of aristocracy and demo- 

• 'I '^ i^ate, consisting of four burgomasters and 

% ^.^.f M".^v>rs, « ith four svndicsand four secretaries, 

A, ^:ut^ «'.rc p'iwer, and the sole right of proposing 

. .f /u> U«s can be ma/le and no taxes imposed 

«.« 'Am 'rjt.t^A iff the citizens in common halL The 
* 9/s , M ^A .:,*ji t\fi parishes, each of which chooses 

.^ v^y* 'A V-* <y/gr.r.l of ISO, consisting— I, of 15 

./. wft * jt ^•^ri,Ati% of tlie lawiy and have the 

y Aj« <'. ..'.' .^% %'A Um pcx^ unrler them; 2, of 45 

i» » ''Nn^ '^'^ * *f*f.^\u wh^; «ith the elders form the 

fi$^A, ik^ f^ vf /i fot/'Icacoiii from each parish: 






all theie are obliged to appear in the common ball, where 
at least 200 citizens must be present. From this council ii 
chosen the board of 60, and out of that the 1 5 elders or aldrr- 
men. Only the senators and the elders receive salaries. Fur 
the administration of justice there are various tribunals. I n 
the last resort the decision is with the High Court of ApriMl 
for all the ftree cities, sitting at Liibeck. In the German I>tot 
Hamburg has one vote in the deliberations, but in the 
select council it has a vote only in common with LuU'ok, 
Bremen, and Frankfbrt Its contingent to the army of the 
Confederation is 1298 men. and iu contribution to the 
general fund 500 florins per annum. It has also an adnu 
rably organixed burgher guard of 9000 infantry, ca\ain. 
and artillery. 

The interior of the city bv no means corresponds with lU 
commercial importance and its wealth. As in most of tl.i* 
old fortified towns of Germany, the streets are in gontTul 
narrow, irregular, and dark; the houses old-fashioned miA 
awkward, and yet not interesting to the lovers of antiquit>. 
In modem times handsome houses have certainly bei H 
erected in some streets, but they are exceptions. SoTtit* 
streets in the New Town are indeed broader and more n • 
gular, but that is all. Nor can Hamburg boast of its 
public buildings, either ecclesiastical or civil. The nuiiiKr 
of churches has been reduced of late years: the anti< nt 
cathedral was pulled down almost as soon as it was coir 1 
to Hamburg, and since the peace four smaller churc).>s 
have been demolished. There are now five principal un«I 
six smaller churches or chapels: the former, having Uth 
shamefully profaned by the French, who used theiu ui 
stables for their horses, and committed the most wanton ni;-- 
chief, have been much beautified inside since 1814. I'he 
most worthy of notice is the great church of St. Michnel. 
which was saved from French desecration. It was begun in 
1751, and completed in 1762, except the spire, which was n.it 
erected till 1778. Th is church, built by Sonnin, is the pri< ].*..: 
Hamburg ; it is capable of accommodating 2000 persons . t l.c 
height of the steeple is said to be 456 feet. Thcjte churrlw^ 
are all Lutheran. The Roman Catholics had formerly r»i 
places of worship, except the chapels of the ambassud«.r« • i' 
that religion ; but the French seized for their use the snn!! 
chitfch of St. Michael, which has since been grantc<l ih4M 
by the city. Of the public edifices, the most distinpiiN)i. «1 
for their style of architecture are the new bank, the n< ^ 
observatory, and the new theatre, built afler a design • i 
the celebrated Schiukel of Berlin. But if the public i i 
flees have so little to recommend them, Hamburg tiiiv 
well be proud of the number and variety of its chant i.i id 
institutions, the bare enumeration of which would cxrei I 
our limits, but of which it may be affirmed that they arc- un 
the most liberal plan, and managed in the most cxtio- 
plary manner. There are only two learned institutions >u; - 
ported by the state— the Jolianneum, designed to qua I i\ 
young men for the university, and the gymnasium. HaTn- 
burg has been the birth place of many learned men uiA 
the chosen residence of many others. It's numerous 1 1 1 er.i : v 
institutions, its private collections of paintini^ the Ki'i*i*r:il 
taste for music, the fondness for the study 6f foretj^n iai.- 
guages, prove that the whole attention of the iuhnbitant^ * 
not absorbed by thirst of gain. The principal public IiIm.i v, 
called the City Library, contains nearly 200,000 vuluims 
besides 3000 volumes of MSS. 

The arm of the Elbe, next the town, is narrow* brt 

the two harbours are capable of receiring a considemM** 

number of ships. The old town is so intersected with 

canalsas to resemble a Dutch city : the canals are filled chully 

by the Kibe, but partly by the Alster. and almost all the 

warehouses are close to them. The Alster forms ob tl»e 

north side of the town a fine basin, chiefly used for partt. \ 

of pleasure. On the south side of this basin is thc.fin* ^t 

line of houses in the city, with a spacious walk planted wnU 

trees, and called the Jungfbrnsteig, or Ladies* Walk. Si n < ^ ^ 

the peace, this favourite promenade has been continut^l 

along the west side of the basin, so as to join the rampart^, 

the whole of which are beautifully laid as a pubUc gar-hti 

and promenade (the carriage-way is broad enough for thn-.* 

carriages), all round the city, affording a most agrv»eal»..* 

place of recreation to the inhabitants. North of this \^\v^ r 

Alster is the Outer Alster, a very large basin, on the ban k •« 

of which are numerous fine country-seats, which how«.-vi r 

are not equal to those possessed by some of the weal 1 1 « 

merchants in the Danish territory, at Blankenese, on ttic 

banki of the Blb€» aix milee wett of Hamburg. 



HAM 



25 



HAM 



To give an aocount of the vast commerce of Hamburg 
vouia fill a volume. 2 very thing that can be bought and 
sold, however costly or however mean, ut an object of trade, 
which is as free as can be desired. The import duties arc 
extremely low, and no transit duties are levied. This city 
is consequently the great receptacle for English goods im- 
)}orted into Germany, and of the ships (about 2000 in num- 
ber) which annually enter the pori at least one-third are 
English. Within these few years there has been a regular 
communication by steam-boats with London, Hull, Leith, 
Amsterdam, and H&vre. (J. L. v. Hess, Hamburg, Topog. 
Polit. Histor.; K. J. H. Hutte, Ansichien der Stadt Ham- 
burg; H. B. Lloyd, Hambur g, &c .) 

HAIIEL, JEAN BAPTISTE DU, was born in 1624, 
and died August 6, 1706. In 1632 he published a very 
perspicuous treatise on the Spheerics of Tneodosius, which 
was followed by several other works on natural philosophy 
and astronomy. Upon the foundation of the Royal Aca- 
demy of Sciences by Louis XIV. in 1666, Du Hamel was 
appointed secretary, which office he. continued to hold till 
1697, when he was succeeded by Fontenelle. His ph^loso- 
phieal and astronomical works were collected and pub- 
lished at Numberg, 1681, in 4 vols. 4to., and in 1698 
appeared his history of the Royal Academy and its trans- 
acLionSy from its foundation to the year 1 700. This latter 
Work, entitled * Regise Scientiarum Academic Historia,* 
is the only one which possesses any value at the present 
day. 

HAMELN, a considerable town in the Hanoverian phu- 
cipality of Calenberg, at the confluence of the Hamel with 
the Weser, over which there is a bridge of boats. It has 
above 5000 inhabitants. 

HAMILCAR, B ARC AS, the leader of the popular party 
at Carthage, was appointed in the eighteenth year of the 
first Punic war (b.c. 247) to the command of the Cartha* 
ginian forces. We possess no particulars respecting his 
early life or the time of his birth ; but we learn nrom Nepos 
t Homily c 1) that he was very young when he obtained the 
rommand. He ravaged with his fleet the coasts of the 
Bruttii and the Epizephyrian Locrians, and afterwards 
seized upon a strong fortress in Sicily, which was situated 
between Eryx and Panormus. In this place he continued 
f-T some years, with very little support from the Cartha- 
pntan government ; and although tne Romans were masters 
of almost the whole of the island, they were unable to dis- 
I «lge him. He frequently rava(,ed the southern coasts of 
Italy as far as Cumee, and defeated the Roman troops in 
Sicily. On one occasion he took Eryx, which he held till 
the conclusion of the war. The Romans at length fitted out 
a fleet to cut off all communication between Hamilcar and 
Carthage ; the Carthaginian fleet sent to his assistance was 
tlrfeated by the Roman consul Lutatius Catulus (b.c. 241), 
ind the Carthaginians were obliged to sue for peace. This 
u-as granted by the Romans ; and Hamilcar led his troops 
festm Eiyx to Lilybceum, whence they were conveyed to 
Africa. But a new danger awaited Carthage. The Car* 
tiiaginian treasury was exhausted ; and it was proposed to 
the troops that they should relinquish a part of the pay 
which was due to them. The soldiers rejected the proposal, 
appointed two of their number, Spendius and Matho, 
o^mmanders, and proceeded to enforce their demands. 
Ht'tng joined by many of the native tribes of Africa, they 
defeated Hanno, the Carthaginian general sent against 
iHem, aud brought Carthage to the brink of ruin. In these 
d««perate circumstances Hamilcar was appointed to the 
command, and at length succeeded in subauing them after 
the war had lasted three years and four months. 

After the end of this war Hamilcar was sent into Spain 
IBx. '23d). He remained in Spain nearly nine years, during 
»h:ch time he extended the dominion of Carthage over the 
^iuthem and eastern parts of that country. He fell in a 
laitie against the natives, b.c. 229. 

The abilities of Hamilcar were of the highest order ; and 
lit? directed all the energies of his mind to diminish the power 
I'f Rome. Polybius states his belief (b. iii., p. 165*6, Cos- 
*wtrinu that his administration would soon have produced 
ancrther war with the Romans, if he had not been nrevented 
h% the disorders in which his country was involved through 
t^e war of the mercenaries. 

Hamilcar was succeeded in his command in Spain by his 

»vn.' in-law Hasdrubal, who must not be confounded with 

HAwimbal the brother uf Hannibal. He carried on the 

cjnquestaof Hamilcar, and reduced almost the whole of the 

P. C, No. 727. 



country south of the Iberus (Ebro), which river was fixed 
by a treaty between the Carthaginians and the Romans, 
B.C. 226, as the frontier of the Cathaginian dominions. 
Hasdrubal was murdered in his tent by a Gaul, b.c. 221, 
after holding the command eight years. (Polybius, b. i. ii. ; 
Appian; Nepos.) 
HAMILTON [Lanarkshire.] 
HAMILTON, A. [Grammont.] 
' HAMILTON, GAVIN, descended from a noble family 
of Scotland, spent the greater part of his life at Rome. 
Though not perhaps gifted with eminent genius for inven- 
tion as an artist, yet a liberal education and refined taste 
enabled him at least to equal his most distinguished con- 
temporaries. This is manifest in several subjects which be 
painted from the * Iliad.' It is probable that he would have 
attained greater eminence had ne devoted more time to the 
practice of his profession ; but a considerable part of the 
latter period of his life was dedicated, perhaps more advan- 
tageously for the cause of the arts, to the discovery of anticnt 
monuments. He opened scavos in many parts of the Roman 
territory, especially at Tivoli, in Hadrian's villa. In the 
Museo Clementine, the statues, busts, and bas-reliefs contri- 
buted by him form the most important portion, next to the 
treasures of the Belvedere ; and many great collections in 
Russia, Germany, and England are indebted to him for 
their chief ornaments. The ' Townley Gallery,* published 
under the superintendence of the Society for the Diff'usion 
of Useful Knowledge, contains a list of the marbles pro- 
cured by him for the collection of Mr. Townley. Neither 
the date of his birth nor death is certainly known ; he died 
however between 1790 and 1800. However eminent bis 
talents, they were excelled, says Fuseli, by the liberality, 
benevolence, and humanity of nis character. 

HAMILTON, WILLIAM, of Scotch descent, but pro- 
bably born in London, studied at a very early age under 
Zucchi, the painter of ornaments, at Rome. After his return 
he soon obtained general employment. He was engaged 
in all the public works, such as the Shakspeare Gallery, 
Macklin's Bible, &c. He excelled in ornament, to which ho 
gave propriety, richness, and a classic appearance. He died 
in 1801, at the age of fifty. 

HAMILTON, SIR WILUAM, a well-known diploma- 
tist and lover of art, was born in Scotland in 1 730. He 
began life, he says, ' with an antient name and 1000/. ;' but 
removed the discrepance between his name and his fortunes 
by marrying in 1 755 a lady of very large property, as well 
as amiable and a«;reeable character. It is said in the French 
biographies that ne was foster-brother to George III., which 
may account for his appointment in 1764 to be English am- 
bassador at Naples, whence he was not recalled till 1 800. His 
connexion with the stirring events born of the French revo- 
lution, more especially with the brilliant exploits of Nelson 
in the Mediterranean, belong to the history of the peri(xl. 
The master-spirit in that troubled time was his second wife 
(married to him in 1791), the fascinating, mischievous, and 
wretched Lady Hamilton. [Nelson.] Sir William appears 
however to have maintained an unblemished character, ex- 
cept in his weak indulgence of his licentious wife. He was 
made a Knight of the Bath in 1771, and a privy-councillur 
in 1 79 1. He died, much impoverished, in England, April G, 
1803. 

Immediately after his arrival at Naples he applied him- 
self ddigently to observe and record the volcanic phenomena 
of the neighbourhood ; and the continued activity of Ve- 
suvius from 1766 to 1771 gave him excellent opportunity 
for these researches, of which his great work, the ' Campi 
Pblegrsei,' Naples, 1 776-7, 2 vols, fol., is a noble monument. 
It consists of a series of coloured plates, exhibiting the most 
remarkable volcanic phenomena and the scenery of the 
most remarkable spots with great vividness, accompanied 
by explanations in French and English. Sir W. Hamilton 
published a Supplement to it in 1779, containing similar 
representations of the great eruption of Vesuvius in August 
of that year. 

His collection of Greek and Etruscan vases (now in the 
British Museum) was very valuable ; the foundation of them 
was laid by the purchase of the Porcinari collection at 
Naples in lf65. They gave rise to that splendid work 
*Antiquit6s Etrusques, Grecques, et Romaines, tii-^*es du 
Cabinet de M. Hamillon,* 4 vols, fol., published at Naples, 
the two first vols, in 1 7GG, the others at a later date. TIiu 
prufit of She work was assigned to the editor D*Hancar- 
ville. Many of the marbles now in tho Townley Gallery ot 

Vol. XII.— E 



HAM 



26 



HAM 



the British Musoum eune from the collection of Sir W. 
llamilton. (See Library of Entertaining Knowledge, 
Totenley Gallery, voL ii., index.) 

Mr. Hamilton took a lively interest in all suhjects 
connected with art or with antiquity, especially in the pro- 
gress of the excavations at Herculaneum and Pompeii, and 
the formation of the museum of Portici. He was earnest 
in recommending to the Neapolitan government the great 
work of unrolling the Herculaneum manuscripts, but pro- 
duced little effect on that most supine court. • Ho himself 
bestowed a part of his income upon this object. Ten papers 
of his composition, upon matters obser\'ed during bis abode 
in Italy, are printed in the * Phil. Trans.' for the years 1767 
to 1795 inclusive. His other works are, * Observations on 
Mount Vesuvius, Mount Etna,' &c., Lond. 1772; and 
'Lett era sul Monte Volture,' Naples, 1780. (Chalmers* 
Bing, Diet: Biog. Univ.; Watt, BibL Br) 

HAMILTON, ELIZABETH, bom at Belfast in Ire- 
land, but probably of Scottish parentai^c, is dcservediv 
rememberea as an early advocate of an enlarged and intel- 
lectual system of female education, and as one of the leaders 
of that useful class of novelists who have placed the in- 
terest of their fictions, not in rare adventure and glowing 
description, but in the accurate portraiture of the daily 
workings of domestic life. We find little to tell of her per- 
sonal history. It appears that she filled the othce of gover- 
ness to the daughters of a Scottish nobleman, fur the eldest 
of whom her * Letters on the Formation of the Religious 
and Moral Principle* were written. She died July 25, 
1816, resetted and beloved. Her warm and sincere piety 
was untmctured by seventy, and her natural cheerfulness 
and lively talents rendered her delightful in society, and, in 
old age, a universal fevourite with the young. 

The following are her chief works: — * Letters of a Hin- 
doo Rajah,' 1796 ; * Modern Philosophers,* 1 800, a clever, 
popular, and effective satire, intended to throw discredit on 
the sceptical and republican doctrines taught by some dis- 
ciples of the French Revolution ; ' Letters on the Elemen- 
tary Principles of Education.' 1801-2; * Life of Agrippina,' 
1804, an attempt to make history interesting, by expanding 
it into something bearing the resemblance of a novel; 

* Letters on the Formation of the Religious and Moral 
Principle,' 1806 ; * Cottagers of Glenburni*',' 1808 ; ' Exer- 
cises in Religious Knowledge,' 1809; •Popular Essays,* 
1813. Of these the 'Letters on Educ4xtion is the most ster- 
ling and important. She has here applied the prinriples 
of metaphysics to the subject of education, and shown (we 
quote words ascribed to a female writer of i>tdl higher note) 

* how the doctrine of the association of ideas may be ap])licd 
in early education to the formation of the habits, of temper, 
and to the principles of taste and morals; she has considerefl 
how all that metaphysicians know of secretion, abstraction, 
&c., can be applied to the cultivation of the judgment and 
the imaginations of children. No matter how little is actu- 
ally ascertained on these subjects; she has done much in 
wakening the attention of parents, and of mothers ct>peci- 
ally, to future inquiry ; she has done much by directing 
their inquiries rightly; much by exciting them to retlect 
upon their own minds, and to observe what passes in the 
minds of their children.' As a novelist, she will be best 
recollected by the * Cottagers of Glenburnie,* *a lively and 
humorous picture of the slovenly habits, the indolent tem- 
per, the baneful content, whicli prevail among some of the 
lo^Kcr class of people in Scotland. This piece, though only 
the picture of humble life in a remote and obscure district, can 
never lof^e its interest, for the characters ai-e true to nature, 
essentially, not locally true; and the pathos, the humour, 
the admirable moral lessons, are of all time, and indepen- 
dent of the national peculiarities under which they are con- 
vevefl. (Notice a.srribe<l to M iss Edge wort h, in the Monthly 
Mmr. fur S«»ptombor, 181fi.) 

1 1 A MITKS. a gonusof Ce])li!ilopodnu*« MoUusca proposed 

bv Mr. Jamo« Sowerby. (Afi/i. Ctmchninrry of (Jrvat 

J'nfiifn.) It includes only ios»»il <;]ic'cioH, and \n yet inconi- 

p]«»tely under^tooil. Acronlin^ to liie original views of 

Mr. Sowerby, only thf-e chambered shells bel(»ng to hamites 

whirh have the form t>f a hook »>r siohon bent m one plane 

>Mth parallel but unerjual Imibs, and junuous septa. But 

lb«* specimens having these rharM-tors jippeir always im- 

porlV»ot; and when Professor Phillips found in Yorkshire 

"^ssiU, in other re^^pi^cts jHTrectiy resembling hamites 

' by Mr. Sowerby, rolled in a plane spiral, tlie vo- 

I tome Bpecict touohing, in othur« ilreoi and in a 



few tcrmmaCing m a straight elongation (like apirula), h« 
extended the u»o of the term. Dr. Buckland hat adopted 
this view in his * Bridge water Treaiise.* 

In the * Transactions of the Geographical Society uf 
France,' June 11, 1837, M. Leveill6 gi\es description^ ai.[ 
figures of species of fossil Cephaloiioda, which migtit be cotf 
sidered as the spiral part of hamites (Phillips), and naimt 
them CrioceratAes. Bronn adopts this genus. Mr. Sov^t-r 
by has recently been led to very similar results, and h i% 
proposed to call the same group Tropreum. Now as certa i< 
forms of ammonites in the lias and oolitic rocks (A. fiiulu'- 
atus) have no very obvious diflference from Tropoum, Cr>t. 
ccratites, or the spiral parts of Scaphiles (ry. Scuphi** 
Yoannii in the British Museum), it is evident that the w h< ir 
question of the true relations of these remarkable fu^^.l 
genera to ammonites remains to be further examined^ \Vr 
shall therefore reserve till the article Tbopaum agonal al 
view of these relations. 

Hamites of the typical ibrms occur at Folkatone, Ham- 
scy, and other situations in the gault, greensand, and oilx r 
cretaceous beds. Crioceratites and Tropnum bclot^' 
chiefly to the same groups of rocka in England, Fraini-, 
Switzerland. &c. [TBOPiKUM.] 

HAMMERFEST. [Norway.] 

HAMMERSMITH. [Middlbsbx.] 

HAMMOND, HENRYt a learned and excellent dixi.e 
of the church of England, was born at Chertsev, Au.m. i 
18, 1605. Having been educated at Eton, and Matidaitn 
College, Oxford, of which he became Fellow, he wa^j ]rc- 
sented to the i-ectory of Penshurst in Kent, in 16:^3, i«:j 
years after which he was ap]X)inted archdeacon of CIiu'i.*-!>- 
ter. By birth and education a confirmed royalist, lie re- 
tired to Oxford so»)n after the civil war broke out, r n- 
tinned to reside there whde that city was held by the kti z, 
and nttcnded tlu* kinu^'s commijssioners to Uxbrid-re, vli- !^ 
he disputed wi'h Vines, a Presbyterian minister. He u - 
appointed canon of LUn^ytchiirch and public orator in !«• l.>. 
and attended Charles 1. as his chaplain from the time uh* t 
ho fell into the hands of the army until the end of 1' <'. 
when the kin^^s attendants were parted from him. H. m- 
mond then returned to Oxford, and was chosen sub-diMM i 
Chrihichurch, from which situation he was expelUd i:\ 
March, 1C48, by the parliamentary visitors, and pla«H d i.r 
some time in confinement. On his release he repa*rrl i > 
Westwood i\\ Worcestershire, the seat of Sir John Pi r.- 
wood, where the remainder of his life was sncnt in lit^ :/ » 
labour, * doing much good to the day of bis death, iu w ii.'- 1 
time he had the dis^posal of great charities repo»e<l in t ^ 
hands, as being the most zealous promoter of alniM;iM' i 

that lived in England since the change of religion 

Great were his natural abilities, greater his acquired ; :• d 
in the whole circle of the arts he was most accurate. li< 
was also eloquent in the tongues, exact in antient a . i 
modern writers, well versed in philosophy, and better i.i 
philology, most learned in school divinity, and a up •; 
master in church antiquity.' He die<l after long suiUtii .. 
from a complication of disorders, April 25, 1660. \\ \< <i t 
that Charles II. intended for him the bishopric of \\ • : 
coster. Of his numerous works, chiefly controversial, inc 
following are some of the most remarkable : ' Practical CVi' ••• 
chism,' 1644; * Humble Address to the Right Hon. iK- 
Lord Fairfax and his Council of War,' 1649,oonceriiiiiu i .'••.* 
impending trial of Charles L; 'Paraphrase and Anito -.- 
tions on the New Testament,* 1653, best edition 170;2. 11 
began a similar paraphrase of the Old Testament; but .->-. 
vanccd no further than the Psalms, 1659, and one ch.ii'V : 
of Proverbs. His works, iu 4 vols, folio, were ooUccti <; \\ 
his amanuensis Fulman, 4 vols. fi)lio, 1674-84. {U/f, hv 
Bishop Fell ; VVoo<l. Atken. Oxnn.) 

HAMMOND, JAMES, was the second son of Anth >m> 
Hammond, Esq., of Somersham Place, in Huntin^dt;ii- 
shirc. He was born in 1710, and educated at Wostmiii-ier : 
ho sat in parliament lor Truro, on the interest of the Prim »• 
of Wales, whose equerry he was. He died in 1 742. 

His verses are mostly elegiac, and addressed in th* va;!*! 
stvlo of pastoral sentiment, then in fashkin, to a fictl:.l».J^ 
object, whom he names Delia. He is !>aid to have been ui 
love with a Miss Da.«hwood, who refu>ed him^if slie read 
his poems it is hard to say how she could do otberw:«o 
— and to have lost his intellects in consequence of her 
cruelty. 

An attempt has been made to defend bis poctiy. but «o 
think there will be few :n this age to dilfor frpm Ur. Jobt « 



HAM 



28 



HAM 



about 3 broad, contains the antient borough of Portsmouth 
and the town of Portsea, with their extensive suburbs. 
The principal naval dockyard in England, or indeed in the 
worla, is at Portyca. The two towns have a population of 
60,3S9. [Portsmouth.] There are salt-works on both 
these islands. 

From the entrance of Portsmouth harbour the coast 
runs north-west to the entrance of the inlet or sestuary 
called Southampton Water. In this part are some low 
cliffs. Soutliampton Water penetrates about 7 miles inland 
to the town of Southamnton, at the junction of the Test 
and the Itchin : its breaath, when the tide is up,^ is from 
14 to 2 miles; at low water, about half a mile. From the 
entrance of Southampton Water a low coast runs south- 
wc2»t until opposite to the western extremity of the Isle of 
Wight. Along this low coast are extensive salt-works, and 
at its extremity, upon the point of a long sandy neck, stands 
Hurst Castle. From Hurst Castle the coast runs west, 
forming the shallow bay of Christchurch« terminated at its 
western point by Hengislbury Head, from which the coast 
still runs west to the border of Dorsetshire. From the 
neighbourhood of Hurst Castle the coast is generally high 
and abrupt. 

The surface of this county is rather irregular. The South 
Downs enter the county from Sussex on the south-east, near 
Petersfield, and cross it in a north-west direction into Wilt- 
shire: Butser hill, between Petersfield and Horndean, on 
the Portj>mouth road, one of the highest points in this range, 
is 917 feet high. The North Downs enter the county from 
Surrey near Farnham, and extend across the county, by 
Odihara, Basingstoke, and Kingsclere, into Wiltshire. 
Highclcrc Beacon, one of the points of this range, in the 
north-western port of the county, near the border of Wilts 
and Berks, is <J00 feet high. The Alton hills form a con- 
nection on the east side of the county between the South 
and North Downs, and run from Petersfield northwards 
past Alton. Portsdown is an isolated eminence extending 
east and west just above Portsmouth and Langston harbours; 
its height is about 447 feet; its length 7 miles, and its 
breadth one. All these hills are in the chalk formation. 

A large part of Hampshire is within the basin of the 
Southampton Water; a small portion on the north and 
north-east sides of the county is in the basin of the Thames ; 
a small portion on the south-cast side is in the basin of the 
Arun, and a small portion of the west side is in the Wilt- 
ahire ana Dorsetshire basin. 

The principal streams which drain the Southampton basin 
are the Anton or Test, the Itchin, and the Hamble. One 
branch of the Test rises near Hurstbourne Tarrant (between 
Newbury, Berks, and Andover), and another near Whit- 
church ; their united stream flows by Stockbridge and 
Rumsey to Southampton. The Itchin rises in the hills 
around Alresford and flows past Winchester to Southampton. 
The Hamble rises near Bishop's Walt lam, and joins the 
Southampton river some miles below Southampton. A 
stream, to which the maps assign no name, flows by the 
village of Titchfield into the sea, near the mouth of the 
Southampton Water. The length of these rivers is as 
follows : — the Anton or Test to Southampton, 35 miles ; the 
Itchin 25 miles (of which 13, viz. up to Winchester, are 
navii;able) ; the Hamble 1 0, and the Titchfield river 20 miles ; 
the length of the Southampton Water has been already 
given. Tlie Itchin navigation does not coincide with the 
natural bed of the river. 

The New Forest occupies nearly all that part of the 
county which has been ri'pre<»cnted as proiccting at the 
south-west corner. It is drainiMl by two small streams, the 
Kx or Beaulieu river and the Holdre Water, besides some 
smaller streams. The Ex and the Boldro flow south-east 
into the sea, the fiist at Exbury, the second at Lymington : 
the length of the Ex is about 13 miles, that of the Boldre 
Water about 15 miles. 

The basm of the Thames is separated from the rest of the 
count) by the North Downs, and drained by the Wey, the 
ftouKv of which is in Hampshire and by the Aubome and 
xho l^xlilon, which have their course along the border. 

The lianin of the Arun is separatecl from the rest of the 
roil Ml y by the Alton and Petersfield hills and the South 
Down 4. It in drained by the Rother, which rises in this 
county and tlows past Midhurst into the Arun. 

'Htc Wiltshire and Dorsetiihire basin comprehends a nar- 

-ip of the county to the west of the New Forest. It 

led by the Avon, which, entering the county just be- 



low Downton, Wilts, about six miles from Salisbury, runt 
south past Fonlingbridge, Ringwood, and Christchurch, into 
the sea. That part of the river which is in the count) is 
about 20 to 22 miles long. A small portion of the DifMt- 
shire Stour,and of the Great Leonards Woter, a tributary <»f 
the Stour, are in the county or upon its boundary ; (lu* 
Stour joins the Avon below Christchurch : their sestuary 
forms Christchurch haven. 

The county has two principal canals. The Andover OtuA 
commences at Andover, ana is carried along the valley t.f 
a small feeder of the Anton or Test, till the junction of tin ^ 
feeder with the main stream* The canal then cross^'s tl.i* 
Anton and follows the valley of that river on the ea^tctu 
side of the stream to Redbridge, three or four miles ab<i%t> 
Southampton, where it enters the Anton. Its whole loni^tli 
is 2 2^ miles : its total fall is above 176 feet It lias a 
branch to Salisbury. It is chiefly used for the import m» 
coal and other fuel, and of general goods from the coa*)t. 
and for the export of agricultural produce. The Ba^tir^* 
stoke Canal commences at Basingstoke, and is carried m -i 
very winding course 22 miles east on one level to the l,*A- 
don, which it crosses into the county of Surrey, its fart In r 
course through which to the navigable part of the rn< r 
Wey (near its junction with the Thames) is 15mile.s wit 1 1 a 
considerable fall. That part of the canal which is in Hanx*- 
shire is the summit level, and is 38 feet wide and 5^ fi« t 
deep. About four miles east of Basingstoke the canal h 
carried by a tunnel above a mile long through a chalk liili 
from this chalk, which yields a great quantity of \vati>r. tl. • 
chief supply is obtained for lockage at that part of t)-* 
canal which is in Surrey. Not fur from the border of 1 1 v- 
county this canal is carried by an aqueduct across a vali* y 
three quarters of a mile broad. This canal serves for tt.*- 
conveyance of coal, deals, groceries, bale goods. &c., fru:.! 
London, and for the export of timber, flour, malt, bark, ai.<l 
earthenware. Part of the canal from Arimdel by Chichester 
to Portsmouth is in this county. 

Three principal mail-roads cross the county, viz. the 
road from London to Portsmouth, that to Southampton and 
Poole, and the ereat western road through Salisbury. Tii>* 
Portsmouth rood enters the county between Godalminf^ and 
Petersfield, but again ouits it to pass through a projecting 
corner of the county of Sussex : it re-enters Hampshire not 
far from Petersfield, and runs through that town and 
through the villages of Horndean anaCosham to Ports- 
mouth. The Poole and Southampton road first enters tiu 
county and crosses a portion of it between Bagshot ami 
Farnnam, both in Surrey ; beyond Famham it again enters 
it and runs by Alton, Alresford, and Winchester to Soutli- 
ampton. From Southampton it runs by Ringwood into 
Dorsetshire. The great western road, travelled by the P<'a- 
zance, Falmouth, and Exeter mail, and by the Exeter nia.I. 
enters the county between Bagshot (just bevond which u 
branches off from the Southampton road) and BasingstoWr. 
and passes through Basingstoke, Whitchurch, and Aiido\* r 
to Salisbury in Wiltshire. At Andover a road, travelliil 
by the Falmouth, Devonport, and Exeter mail, branches i>:i 
from this to Amesbury, in Wiltshire. Beside these prin- 
cipal roads there are many other roads of less importance. 
A road parallel to the coast coming from Chichester pa:»<«t-^ 
through Havant, Cosham, near Portsmouth, and Foreham 
to Southampton ; a road from Southampton leads by L>- 
mington and Christchurch to Poole ; a road from Newburv 
(Berks) runs by Andover, Stockbridee, and Roros^y t'> 
Southampton ; a road from Salisbury leads by Fordingbrid^r 
and Ringwood to Christchurch ; and several roads from W iti- 
chester communicate with different parts of the county. 

Geological Character. — That vast district of chalk whi< h 
overspreads so large a portion of Wiltshire, and of wh:t>li 
Salisbury Plain forms a part, extends into Hampshire an' I 
occupies a considerable part of it. It is bounded on xh- 
north by a line drawn from Inkpen Beacon, nearGrt** 
Bedwin, Wiltshire (the highest point in all the chalk fu 
mation of England), by Kingsclere and Basmgstoke to V>\i- 
ham; on the east by a line drawn from Odiham by Alt •■ . 
and along the Farnham road to the nei^hlMurluuMl 
Bishop's Waltham ; and on the south bv a line drawn fp'! 1 
the neighbourhood of Bishop's Waltham and north : 
Bishopstoke into Wiltshire. The extent of this chalk di^ \ n * 
from north to south is about 20 or 22 miles ; frum o:L<t i 
west its Hampshire extent varies from 22 to 32 miles I' '• 
its whole extent through Hampshire and Wiltshire lot^-(h<-r 
is much greater. The breadth of the North Down range ui 



HAM 



2d 



HAM 



^ttt two or three miles, that of the South Downs ahout 
f lur miles. Portsdown hill is an outlying mass of chalk. 

The country to the north of the ^eat chalk district and 
••f thu North Downs belongs to the London basin ; the 
rounlry to the south of the great chalk district and of the 
S>uth Downs belongs to the Isle of Wight basin; and 

I ihesc are almost entirely occupied by the strata above the 
chdk. 

The country to the east of the great chalk district and 
embrace! between the North and South Downs is occupied 
by the strata which underlie the chalk, and which extend 
into Surrey and Sussex, and form the district of the Weald 
of the south-east of England. In the London basin the Bag- 
ihoi sand, belonging to the upper marine formation, is found 
at Frimley Heath, on the border of Surrey, and is surrounded 
by a belt of the London clay; but these two formations are 
fmnd only in the north-east of the county, and are of small 
extent: the rest of this basin in Hampshire is occupied by 
the plastic clay, except near Kingsclere, where, for a short 
di<tancc the chalk marl, and greensand crop out from 
beneath the chalk. In the Isle of Wight basin that part of 
the New Forest which extends from the Boldre Water to 
xuc Southampton Water is for the most part occupied by a 
sand probably agreeing in its principal characteristics with 
the Bagshot sand ; this district is peculiarly adapted to the 
j^rowth of oak. -The remaining part of the New Forest, the 
cDuntry around the Southampton Water, and the whole 
Ime of the coast eastward from the Avon, and including 
Porisea and Hayling Islands, are occuuied by the London 
clay ; the country west of the Avon and a belt varying from 
three to seven miles south of the chalk, are occupied by the 
plastic clay. The Weald district east of the chalk is occu- 
pied by the chalk marl and greensand; and the small 
fletached part of the county included in Sussex, partly by 
these formations and partly by the Weald clay. 
No minerals are procured fcora this county to any extent, 

i except near Petersfield, where grey chalk is (quarried and 
»cnt to Portsmouth dockyard to be burnt for lime. 

Forests. — ^There are several forests in this county, namely, 
the New Forest in the south-west, Alice Holt and Woolmer 
F(»rp9t in the east, and the forest of Bere in the south-east. 
The New Forest, the most important of these, appears to have 
b<?cn, at the time of the Conquest, a wooden tract thinly 
peopled. William the Conqueror or his immediate successors 

' afforested the tract extending from Godshill, near Fording- 

, bridge, to the sea, and from Ringwood to Hardley, near 
Southampton Water, and comprehending 92,365 acres. The 
lv>und5 were so far enlarged between the commencement of 
Henry Il.'s reign and tue reign of Edward I., that they 
rt^mprehended all the country between the Southampton 
Water and the Avon for several miles inland. These suldi- 
tioiu were dtsafTorested in the reign of Edward I., in pursu- 
ance of the Chart a de Foresta, and the original bounds 
retained till the perambulation in the time of Charles II. 
Tlie forest at present comprehends nearly 64,000 acres, and 
IS the property of the crown, subject to rights of common 
and other antient claims. The crown has also manorial 
rghts over some, and the absolute property of other plots of 
ground included in the former, but not in the present bounds 
(if the forest For local purposes the forest is divided into 
nine bailiwicks, which are subdivided into fifteen walks. 
The forest is under a purveyor for the navy attached to the 
dockyard at Portsmouth, and under the surveyor-^noral 
of woods and forests. The chief value of the New Forest 
is for the raising of oak and beech timber for the use of the 
nary ; but for many years this was much neglected, and the 
management of the forest was ver][ bad. Within the pre- 
sent century many reforms liave been made, from which 
considerable benefit may be expected. There are many 
deer kept in the forest : rabbits, which formerly aboundea, 
arc now scarce: a diminutive breed of horses, and a pecu- 
liar breed of swine, bearing considerable resemblance to 
the wild boar, are found in a half- wild state in the forest. 
The oaks seldom rise into lofty stems; their branches 
commonly twisted into the "most picturesque forms ; 



an 



and the scenery of the forest is very beautiful. Many 
of the trees are antient and of great bulk. Various en- 
cr.>achraents have been made on the forest, and many rude 
outrages erected by the poor who live round the borders of 
the forest, and who are in general an indolent race, poor 
and wretched in the extreme, and depending for a subsist- 
ence on casual pilfering from the forest. 
^ The forest of Bere extends northward from Portsdown- 



hill, and its bounds, according to a perambulation made in 
1688, and still observed, comprehend about 16,000 acres, of 
which one-third is enclosed. It is divided into two larger 
divisions, the East and West Walks, with some smaller por- 
tions dependent on these, and is under the control of a 
warden and other officers. The quantity of timber grown 
in this forest is trifling compared with wnat it once yielded. 
Some deer are kept. 

Alice Holt and Woolmer Forest lies between the Ports- 
mouth and Southampton roads. It is divided into two 
parts by intervening private property, namely, Alice Holt, 
near the Southampton road, a little beyond Famham, 
and Woolmer, nearer the Portsmouth road, between Lip- 
hook and Petersfield. It contains altogether nearly 15,500 
acres, more than half of which belongs to the crown. The 

E rowing timber in Alice Holt is of considerable value, 
ike the other forests of the county it had during the last 
century been much neglected. In the marshy bottoms of 
Woolmer Forest many trees have been found and dug up 
with the peat, and many hundreds of Roman coins, several 
of them those of Marcus Aurelius and the Empress Faustina, 
were dug up in the bed of Woolmer pond, when dried 
up in 1741 by the heat. 

Waltham Chace, a waste of 2000 acres, belonging to the 
bishop of Winchester, is on the north-west side of the forest 
of Bere, near Bishop's Waltham. It is connected in our 
criminal annals with the atrocities of thedeer-stealers, called 
the * Waltham Blacks;* and the statute known as *the 
Black Act,' passed for their suppression. 

Agriculture.'-^ The climate of Hampshire is generally 
mila and favourable to vegetation. The southern part of 
the Isle of Wight is considered to have the mildest climate 
in Great Britain, and is resorted to on that account by inva- 
lids during the winter. But a great part of Hampshire 
consists of poor sands and gravelly soils or chalky hills, 
having between them low bottoms, with no ready outlet for 
the water, which has produced niarshes and peat-bogs. In 
such places the nature of the soil has a greater effect on 
the climate than the difference of several degrees of latitude 
would have under other circumstances. 

The northern part of the county, where it borders on 
Berkshire and Surrey, consists chiefly of the poor, dark 
sand, mixed with an ochery loam, which is well known as the 
Bagshot-heath soil. This extends to Basingstoke. The 
whole of this part of the county is naturally very unproduc- 
tive, and till within a few years was almost entirely covered 
with a brown heath, on which some hardy forest sheep and 
a few miserable cattle were reared, and contrived to pick up 
a scantv living. There were however some spots between 
the hills which contained a few farm buildings and some 
green fields, forming a striking contrast with the surround- 
ing waste. Within the last thirty years much of this heath, 
which lay in common, has been enclosed and divided. Some 
of it has been brought into cultivation at a great expense, 
and a considerable portion has been planted with fir- 
trees, which have thriven wherever the proprietor was at 
the expense of trenching and draining the land before 
planting. 

The great roads which traverse this part of the county, 
and the numerous places in which horses are kept for post- 
ing, stage-coaches, and waggons, have caused a supply of 
manure, by which the poor soils immediately around them 
have been much improved. The very poverty of the soil 
has set ingenuity to work to produce the most improved 
practices and implements. Most of the drilling-machines 
which are used within a certain distance in the counties of 
Surrey and Berks, as well as in Hampshire, are manufac- 
tured in the neighbourhood of Basingstoke. 

South of this district, as far as Winchester and a few 
miles beyond it, the chalk prevails. The soil which lies 
over this chalk varies in depth, and, where it is sufficiently 
deep, produces good crops of barley, wheat, and oats. In 
many places it lies very near the chalk, and is intermixed 
with flints and pebbles. Although the appearance of it is 
not very promising, it is tolerably productive in good sea- 
sons ; the pebbles and flints reflect the sun's beams, while 
the young plant is sheltered by them from the cold easterly 
winds which, in spring, sweep over the hills, where few trees 
break their force. 

Where the soil is thin and very near the chalk, it is 
scarcely fitted for the plough, but remains in the state of 
down ; and the natural grasses which grow there, when 
kept closely cropped by sheep, are sweet, and make tho 



HAM 



30 



HA II 



If tkeM 4tmm tn tiol mtkUn i}j 
%u>€k0d, oir 'if ibtf mn imnt^j for eovt^ tlie fane and 
bf«nibl«ft art a^ lo oramia Uimii, aftil the eoane gnMMt 
f(rt tbp npfuft hmnL 

In the tallrrt and along the bywr slopes of the chalk* 
hilU th«tii«l M ofatoogh,t«nAetott» nature, beioc a nrix Core 
of rhalk «B.4hed dovn the hOb by the rains and 9tiir day. 
Thi« t« a mmI Tory difficult to cultivate. In spring it is 
•atrenalf beaf^» and retains moisture a long time, and 
vbca dhed it beronica so hard, that unless it has been 
vorktfd al the exact moment when it is dry on the sarfsee, 
and the rtods are sffiU fnabls^ there are no means of rcdnc* 
mir tt to a proper tilth. But when it it carvfully managed 
and ««11 maAured* it produces very gnud crops of beans, 
wheat, and oela. Thaa land can itca'rccly be collivated and 
kept clean wiihoul occ^^uinal fallows, and the raf»st pro- 
•ishle ruCation ts wheat, beans, oats fallow. It t^ much too 
bea«y fttr turnips. In st^me spot^ which are not quite so 
lie:i«y the Suffolk rotation of barley, aHer a lonj; fsilow, 
sl«>ver, wheal, beans, and oats, miirht be iniro'luccd with 
adrenta^cw It k not at all adapted to the Scutch conrcrti- 
ble system ; lor although gra»-«eer]4 mt!;ht frrow well, the 
land ctmld seldom bedenesturcd with cattle, either in spring 
or autumn, and after a ory summer it would be almost tm- 
posaihle to pWmgh it np in good time to sow it with wheat. 
On the eastern side of the county, bordering on Surrey and 
SusMTt, is a small tract of land, which is provincial Ij called 
malmy lead, forming the rale of Petcnficld. It has a grL7, 
tender, mndy toil of stime depth* lying on a soA sandstone, 
which is almost impervious to water. This circumstance 
counteracts the advantages of a lieht sofl, unless the water 
be artificially earned off. On the higher grounds the poor 
sandy soil is onlv fit for plantations of firs. 

The land in tna New Forest, and on the opposite side of 
the rvf€r» or mstuarjr, below Southampton, ts mostly of a 
light nalora, intermixed here and there with heavier loams 
aod cWyfc Where it is sound and firee finom springs it is of 
a gf¥id quality ; and that which is not so may oe materially 
Improved by Judicious under-draining. Some spots in the 
New Forest were effectually drained many }ears ago by 
Mr. Klkington, atid have amply repaid the expend incurred, 
both by tl^ improvement of the land and the greater salu- 
brity of the neighbourhood; for where the land has n<tt 
been drmiied, low bogs and marshy places are formed, which 
mra the eauae of fluent fevers ana agues. 

Variooa kinds of marl are found in many places ; M>mo 
of these are eery useful on poor gravelly soiU. which they 
matly impnyve when a sufllcient quantity is carried on. 
The value of marl depends on the union uf carbonate of 
lime and clay, and to readily discovered by its efferve^int^ 
strongly when any acid is poured upon it When the quan- 
tity of carbonate of lime ts small, very good white or red 
briekt are ma^le of it. Tlie white colour is cau^ by tho 
ealrareotis matter, the rod by the prewnce of the oxide of 
tion. 

The Isle of Wight conaists principally of chalk, over 
whteh are found various soils, aoch as gravel, sand, and 
very stiff chiy« The mildness of tho climate ii favour- 
able to vegetation, and there are some neat farms, in which 
the land is well cultivated. 

In traversing the whole counttj it will 1>c ob«cnrcd tluit 
the poorer amis predominate, ancf a irreat part of the land 
will sramely re|iay tlie expense of cultivation. Tlien* nrc a 
fow fivtilc spms, and some vef7 valuable water-meadows 
along the onnctpal rivers, e^porially tlie Avon, which run* 
thniiKli the western nart of the county bonlcring on lX»r- 
setOitre. Where a nno has a porti<m of watc«rmcarlnw 
and a run for •beep oti the downs, the o^^tipicr generally 
ihrives; but the greatest afl^ncultnral skill u dt«)tla\('d in 
the cultivation «>f the piv)it«r soils, where manure tnu»t be 
msde on the spot, and the cattle and sheep kept on the pro- 
due « of the arable land. 

Ilsmp*htre« althmi|»h it cannot he comparcl with Sfime 
eavtem and northi*rn c«iantu*ii for agrirultuml improve- 
ment a, t« fvit fkr behind thnn ; and there are some farm* as 
well manjj;ed as any in Rn|;tand. The great fault lie« in 
the want of enmotny of lahi'ur ; ti>o manv horM*s are u»in| ; 
the thrrshiiic*marhuie is n"t lufnetcntly common ; the 
»t>«*k ui not fell %tf i<*oeofiii' ally as it niiKht be . tht* nisiiure 
Is niit SI* rarefully collecteil, nor *.i wrlf iircti.iri-41, iH-fofc it 
^* put on the laiid: and tliere u a gnat wasto of the liquid 
part of It ( o the best matiagrd farms. 

Tbo old cliuoiy plough, onoe in genanl use, is new 



replaced by a lighter and more dorablo ^loogk of wbkh 
the parts that wear out most are made of east iron. Two 
horses now ploogh land which formerly was thought tn 
require four. The seed is pot m bj a dnlling-m.>rh]ne 
instead of being scattered by the Kind. The com is put 
into neat stacks, raised on stone piiUrs, and well thatcbi-tl. 
instead of being exposed to the depredatioo of rat» in s 
huge bam. The farm buildings a* well as the house uf 
the farmer, are more commodiuu^ly arranged, and there ts 
a general spirit of improvement The correction of the 
abuses of the old poor-laws, and the commutation of the 
tithes for a fixed annual payment, will much encourage 
the improvement of poor lands ; and in half a century Die 
general fbee of the county will be very different from what 
it is at present 

There are no breeds of cattle, horses, or sheep. pecu1:ir 
to Hampshire, unless we consider the small New F'rc*-t 
ponies in that light. The oows are of %-anoua breeds. The 
oxen are chiefly Sussex and Devon. The hones used m 
husbandry are mostly bred in other counties. The sherp 
are— the common small forest breed, or hcoth-sbetp. 
which, when tolerably fot, give tho high- flavoured mutt>>ri 
formerly known by the name of Bogsbot mutton; tlte 
DorM?t and Leicester sheep, in the richer meadow» ; sn<l 
the South Down, on the chalkjr hills. The last are mint 
numerous, and prefbrrod for folding oo the land. 

Hampshire has long been famous for the curincr • f 
bacon ; and a Hampshire hog is a xetj common sigi) f r 
a public-house ; yet the native breed or pigs in this county 
is by no means remarkable for its qualities. The natiTc 
hog!i, which live on the acorns and beech-mast of the New 
Forest, although the flavour of their flesh may be gourL are 
coarse, raw-boned, flat-sided animals, and are now seldom 
met with. The improved breeds produced by crosses uf the 
Berkshire, the Suflulk, Eitsex, and Chinese pt^ arc i» 
much better and mora profitable, that the only diflert-r re 
to be noticed in the pigii bred on different fiirms !« tlut 
which arises from the predominant character of any one ^S 
the above-mentioned breeds. 

The reputation of the Hampshire baron b owing en- 
tirely to tuc care viith which it ts cured. The hiig% bcj.-ig 
fatted on peas and barleymeal, are kept fasting for tweiitt- 
four hours, at lea^t, bcfurc they aro killed ; they are u««' i 
as gently as possible in the act of killing, which i» done b> 
iiiftcrtirtg a long pointed knife into the mam artery whi<f) 
comes from the heart The hair is burnt off with li«hti<4 
straw, and tho cuticle of tho skin scraped off. Tlie oar« an« 
is hung up afler the entraiU ha\c been removed, ami tiitt 
next day, when it is quite cold, it is cut up into flitch- ^ 
Tlie Hpara ribs are taken out, and the bloody veins carvfi.Ii; 
removed: the whole is then covered with salt with a ^^ut : 1 

Quantity of saltpetre mixed with it Sometimca a I iW 
rown sugar is added, which gives a pleasant sweetnc^* t^ 
tho bacon. 

The flitches are laid on a low wooden table, which lia« a 
small raised border all round it. Tho table slanu a littU 
so as to let the It nne run off into a vessel placed undtT :t, 
b^ a small opening in tho border at the lover and. T>.f- 
flitches are turned and re-i^altod c\erT da) : tlnjse «hirh 
were uppermost are put under, and in tnrco wivk* l!.e\ .»:\- 
ready to be hung up to dry. Smoking the Ikscun !% r... 
longer so common as it u>ed'to be, tt* simply dnii< it •• 
found sufllrient to make it keep. ThoM? who, from iA'\% 
association, like the flavour gi>eh by tlie smoke tif wi. >i. 
burn saadust and fcha\iiii;s in a Muothcrvd fire ttr «• • • 
time under the flitches. When tlio) are quite «r>. t!.i 
arc either placed on a bacon-rurk for the u»e 4jf the fu . .'. 
or are packed with lUieat-chaff into chc»t4 uU tUt a;, 
sold. 

Tlio practice of cutting tho hogs into picci** and p.rV: ^ 
them in a \at hvm^ attviiditl utth lent tmublo, t» %c.^ ^t 
nrrallv prcforretl when tlivru is only a iufTinvnt nuui f.c « ;' 
hoj;* kilKd to mtvc the funiicr's family; but fl.tcli. % -i 
bociin, well cuitnl. an- uu»rc prtifl table for >ale. 

The fatting of hogs i« profitable when a p^mnd **( ^^ • 
Iwron, when it i< fir»t dried, h worth nu>n' tt*'i 
toiith part of the price t>f a bushel of harU*). f-r a I . • . 
of birlej- 1% •up|.«.Md. with gtcnl a:anaf:emrnt ai.l a . .. 
liftvd of^ h<»g%. to produci* lolb. of baruit Tlie ii«L . 
attendance are full) c«iuipen»uti<<| b) the laluc i f tL< *^ . 
maile by the Im;;*, which w of the rirhvst nature. II ., . 
may bo made fat with less expen«iw food, such sa U«c i 
loola macd with meal ; but in thu cmo tbo bacwn is cuucU 



HAM 



31 



« A M 



lea ^oablo, an4 u not superior to the Irish bacon, which 
is mostlv fitted on potatoes. 

The following are the principal fairs in Hampshire : — 
Alresford, last Thursday in July, Octoher 17; Alton, 
Saturday before May 1, September 29; Andover, May 13, 
November 17 and 18; Basingstoke, Easter Tuesday, Sep- 
tember 23, October 1 1 ; Botley, July 23. August 20, No- 
Tember 13 ; Christchurch, June 13, October 17 ; Ifainble- 
ton, February 13, October 2 ; Kingsclere, April 2, October 
1 J ; Lymington, May 12, October 2 ; Magdalen Hill, near 
Winchester, August 2 ; Newport, Isle' of Wiffht, Whit- 
Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday; Overton, May 4, July 
It^, October 22; Petersfield, March 5, July 10, December 
U; Portsmouth, July 10, lasts 14 days; Kumsey, Easter 
Monday, August 26, November 8 ; Southampton, Febru- 
arv 17, May 6, December 15; Stockbridge, Holy Thursday, 
July 10, October 7; Weyhill, October 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 I 



(tlus IB one of (he greatest ^irs |n England, ibr cattle^ 
sheep, wool, and hops); Whitchurch, 4 pril 23, Juno 17, 
July 7, October 19; Wickham, May 20; Wij>chestcr, first 
Monday in Lent, October 24. 

DivUions, Toums, ^.— -The most antient division of the 
county is into hundreds, of which there were fifty at the 
time of the Domesday survey. There are now tjjirty-uine 
hundreds, beside the city of Winchester with the {iberty of 
Soke, the borough of Portsmouth with the district of Port- 
sea and Portsea Guildable, the town and county of South- 
ampton, and eleven liberties, including the liberties of 
East and West Medina in the Isle of Wight. From the 
great number of the hundreds anil liberties they have been 
arranged in * divisions' for administrative purposes. At 
the time of the census in 1831, these divisions, with their 
situation in the county, included subdivisions, area, and po- 
pulation, were as follows : — ' 



Diviaiaa. 

L Alton, North' Division. 



* East. • • 



Hundreds. 



Aim. 



PopnlaUon 
in 1831. 



II. Alton, South Division. » • South-east 

III. Andover Divbion. • • • West . . 

IV. Basingstoka Division. • • North-eaat 



V. Fawley Division Central. • 

VI. Kingclere Division. . • • North. • 
Vil. New Forest, East Division, South. 

VIII. New Forest, West Division. South-west 



IX. Portadown Division. 



. South-east 



X. Isle of Wight Division. • . South. . 
Separate Jurisdictions • 



■ • • 



Alton, Bishop's Stitton, and Selbome, and 
the liberty of Alresford. . . 

East Meon and Finchdean. 

Andover, Barton Stacey, King's Sombourn, 
Thorngate, and Wherwell. 

Basingstoke, Bermondspit Crondall, Hold* 
shott, Mitcheldever, and Odiham, and the 
liberty of Bentley. 

Bountisborough, Buddlesgate, Fawley, Mains- 
borough, and Mansbridge. . • 

Chutely, Evingar, Kingsclere, Overton, and 
Pastrow. . . . 

New Forest rEast), New Forest (North), Red- 
bridge, Bishop's Waltham (part of). Ring- 
wood (part of), and the liberties of Boau- 
lieu, DibdiUi and Lymington. 

Christchurch, Fordingbridge, and Ringwood 
(the greater part of), with the liberties of 
Breamore and Westover, and that part of 
the New Forest which is not included in 
any parish. . • . • 

Bishop's Waltham (the greater part of). Bos- 
mere, Fareham, Hambledon, Mcon-Stoke, 
Portsdown, and Titchfield, and the liberties 
of Alverstoke and Gosport, and Havant . 

Liberties of East and West Medina. • 

City of Winchester and liberty of Soke. 

Borough of Portsmouth, with Portsea and 
Portsea Guidable.* 

Town and county of Southampton. 



74,320 acres. 14,968 
44,160 ,^ 7,483 



130,210 



144,800 
129,690 
102,500 



f» 



>» 



>i 



n 



27,465 



29,599 
24,020 
18,070 



62,360 



tt 



18,346 



133,870 



» 



19.127 



By a subsequent arrangement made under the direction 
/>rtb«; magistrates of the county, the divisions of the county 
have been increased to thirteen, not including the Isle of 
Wight They are as follows : — Alton, Andover, Basingstoke, 
Droxford, Fareham, Kingsclere, Lymington, Odiham, Pe- 
tersfield, Ringwood, Romsey, Southampton, and Winches- 
ter. Hampshire, not including the Isle of Wight, contains 
oiie city, Winchester ; six parliamentarv boroughs, Andover, 
Christchurch, Lymington, Petersfiela, Portsmouth, and 
S«)athaxnpton ; and thirteen other market-towns, Alresford, 
Alton. Basingstoke, Bishop's Waltham, Fareham, Fording- 
bridge, Grosport, Havant, Kingsclere, Odiham, Romsey, 
Strjckbridge, and Whitchurch, which last two were disfran- 
chl'^etl by the Reform Act. Of these some are described 
cl^owhereJALRESFORD; Alto ?f; Andover; Basingstoke ; 
Bishop's Waltham ; Christchurch ; Lymington ; Peters- 
h?:li>; Portsmouth; Southampton; Winchester.] Of 
the others an account is subjoined. 

Fareham is in the hundred of Fareham, at the head of 
the north-west branch of Portsmouth harbour, 73 miles 
fr.im London, at the intersection of the road from London 
to Gosport and that from Chichester to Southampton. 
The parish is extensive, containing 6070 acres: it con- 
Mitutes the whole of the hundred, and had in 1831 a po- 
pa.1ationof 4402. Fareham was in Leiand's time a fishing 
vilbge: it is now a tolerably thriving town, depending for 
it* pn«pcrity chiefly on its neighbourhood to Portsmouth, 
Sereral persons connected with the naval establishments at 
Portsmouth reside here. Some small vessels arc built at 
Fareham ; and cordage, sacking, and coarse pottery are 
uude. Vessels of 300 tons can got up to the port ; and 



100,520 „ 41,298 

86,810 „ 35,431 

2,230 „ 8,767 

5,090 „ 50,389 

1,970 „ 19,324 

1,018,550 814,260 

considerable trade in corn and ooal is carried on. The 
market is on Wednesday, and there is one yearly fair. Petty 
sessions are held here. The architecture of the church is of 
various dates and styles ; the chancel is early Enfflish. The 
living is a rectory in the peculiar jurisdiction of tne bishop 
of Winchester, in whose gift it is; the annual value is 67l2. 
There were in 1833 twenty-two day and four boarding- 
schools, with nearly 700 children: of these schools, one 
with 27 boys was an endowed free-school, another with 130 
children, a national school, and a third with 62 children, a 
subscription infant school. There were also three Sunday- 
schools, containing above 400 children. There are congre- 
gations of Independents and Methodists. 

Fordingbridge is in the hundred of Fordingbridge, on the 
right or west bank of the Avon, 92 miles from I^ndon on 
the road to Christchurch. The parish is large, containing 
5720 acres, and had in 1831 a population of 2822, more 
than half agricultural. Fordingbridge was formerly a place 
of greater extent than now, and has suiTcred several times 
from fire. Tliere is a stone bridge of seven arches over the 
river. There arc some manufactures of sail-cloth and bed- 
ticking. The market is on Saturday, and there is one 
yearly fair. Tlie living is a vicarage, united with the pa- 
rochial chapelry of Ibsby, or Ibsley, in the diocese and 
archdeaconry of Winchester, and in the gift of King's 
G)llcge, Cambridge: the annual value is 60U., with a 

flebe-house. There is an Independent congregation, 
'here were in the parish in 1833 one infant-scliool with 

* PoTt•^?a Gkiildable is a part of Uie parish of Portsea, not within tlio jiirii- 
tlictiou o( Um borough of PoxUBoutli, but oonpreheoded iu Uie hundifU o( 
FbrUtluqrn. 



HAM 



32 



HAM 



45 children, eight day and boarding-schools with 153 
children, one day and Sunday-school with 231 children daily 
and 113 on Sundays, partly supported by endowment, and 
one Sunday-school with 292 children. 

Two miles from the town, on a hill called GodsluU, over- 
grown with oaks, are the remains of an antient camp, 
perhaps of Saxon origin, secured on one side by a double 
trench, and on the other by the steep Hlope of the hill. 

Havant is in the liberty of Havant (which comprehends 
only this parish), near the head of Langston harbour, €6^ 
miles from London by Petersfield and Homdean. The 
parish comprehends 2560 acres, and had in 1831 a popula- 
tion of 2083, about one-fourth agricultural. The church is 
in the centre of the town, in the form of a cross, with a 
tower rising Arom the intersection : some parts of it are of 
Norman architecture. The living is a rectory, in the peculiar 
jurisdiction of the bishop of Winchester, who has the pre- 
sentation: it is of the yearly value of 489/., with a glebe- 
hou^e. There is an Independent congregation. Havant 
has little trade : some parchment is made, and some of the 
inhabitants are engaged' in fishing and fowling. The 
market is on Saturday, and there are two yearly fairs. 
There were in the parish hi 1833 two national-schools with 
about 200 children, one boarding and day-school and four 
duy-schools with 115 children, and one Sunday-school with 
13U children. 

Kingbclere is in Kingsclere hundred, 55 miles from 
London through Basingstoke. The parish is large, con- 
taining 17,240 acres, and had in 1831 a population of 3151, 
three-fourths agricultural : the parish extends into the 
hundred of Evingar. Kingsclere is a small town of mean 
appearance. There is some trade in malt curried on : the 
market is on Tuesday, and there are two fairs in the year. 
The living is a vicarage, with the chapelries of Ecchinwell 
and Sidmonton annexed, in the diocese and archdeaconry 
of Winchester ; of the yearly value of 400/,' There werc in 
the parish in 1 833 seven day-schools with 1 24 children, 
one of which (with 27 boys) is endowed; and one day and 
Sunday-school with 50 children daily and GO on Sundays. 
At Kingsclere was antiently a residence of the West Saxon 
kings, and there was a royal residence in the neighbourhood 
as late as the time of King John. 

Odiliam is in Oliham hundred, a little to the left of the 
great western (Salisbury and Exeter) road, 40 miles from 
l^ndon. The parish is large, comprehending 75/)0 acres, 
and had in 1831 a population of 2647, about half agricultu- 
ral. The market is on Friday, and there are t\\o yearly 
fairs. Odibam was formerly a free borough, belonging to 
the bishop of Winchester: it had a royal residence and 
park : the remains of the residence have been converted 
into a farm-house, still called Palace Gate, or Place Gate. 
There is an old almshouse near the church, which latter is 
a large, antient brick building. The living is a vicarage, 
with the parochial chapelry of Grewcll annexed, in the 
diocese and archdeaconry of Winchester; of the yearly 
value of 537i., with a glebe-house. There is an Indepen- 
dent congregation at Odiham. There were in the parish 
in 1 833 ten day or boarding and day-schools with about 
250 children: one of these schools, with 41 children, was 
]>artially supported by endowment : there was also one Sun- 
da v-school with 187 children. 

Kear Odiham are the remains of an old castle, which, in 
the civil wars at the close of King John's reign, was bravely 
but unsuccessfully defended by a gamson of thirteen 
ogainst the Dauphin, Louis of France. In this castle 
David Bruce, king of Scotland, was confined for eleven 
years after bis capture at Neville's Cross. 

Romsey is a corporate town, locally situated in the hun- 
dre<l of King's Sombourn, upon the left bank of the Anton 
or Test, over which is a bridge, and close to the Andover 
Canal. It is 73 miles from London, on a road leading by 
Wmchester to Ringwood and Po<jIe. The whole parish is 
very extensive, comprehending 9310 acres, with a popida- 
tionofu432. about one-fourth agricultural; but the borough 
comprehends only that part of the parish known as * Rom- 
sey Infra,' having an extent of 380 acres, and a population 
of 2046. The church formerly belonged to an abl)ey 
founded in the reign of Edward the Elder, and occupied by 
Benedictine nuns: the abbey was valued at the dissolution 
at 528/. Hs. \0d. per annum gross, or 393/. 10«. lOc/. clear. 
Tne church is a cross church, having its exterior for the most 
part of Norman architectur(>,much enriched in some portions 
iKith ligjtag and other omamenta* the central portion of 



the interior, the transepts, and the sides of the ehanocl, are 
also Norman : the west end of the church is in the early 
English style, very plain outside, but rich within. Thi ic 
are various windows of later date inserted, especially sonic 
fine ones at the east end. On the roof of the church grt)>A« 
an apple-tree, which for many years has borne fruit. Thcrv 
are dissenting meeting-houses, a town-hall, an ' audit-house,* 
supported on piers, with an open space below for the market 
people, a small borough gaol, and some almshouses. Tbiro 
were formerly considerable manufactures carried on «t 
Romsey of sacking and shalloon, but these have murh 
declined: there are in or about the town several paper and 
flour-mills and tan-yards. The market is on Thursday, for- 
merly on Saturday, and there are throe yearly fairs. Bv tho 
Municipal Reform Act, the council of the borough consl^ts 
of a mayor, four aldermen and twelve councillors. Tlie li\ ii i,; 
is a vicarage, in the diocese and archdeaconry of Winchciicr. 
of the yearly value of 3G5/. There were in the parish ui 
1 835 twelve infant or dame-schools with 1 36 childa*n, Iwciit) 
davschools with about f>.>0 children, and seven Suuda> • 
schools with about 700 children. Of the day-schools one is 
a free-school, another is a national-school, united with au 
old endowed free-school, and a third is wholly sup|)orte(l b> 
Lord PalnTerston and family. Sir William Potty was a 
native of Romsey, and lies buried in the church. 

Stockbridge is a borough in the hundred of King's Scmi- 
boum, on the left bank of the Antim or Test, and near the 
Andover canal ; it is CG§ miles from London on a road 
leading from Basingstoke to Salisbury. The parish nod 
borough limits coincide and comprehend 1220 acres; the 
population iu 1831 was 851, about one-third agricultuial. 
The town consists of one street, in which are seven bridges : 
it has little trade, but is chiefly supported by being a con- 
siderable thoroughfare. There are races in the neigh bitur- 
hood. The market is on Thursday, and there is a yearly 
fair (there were formerly three fairs), one of tlie large»l in 
the county for lambs. Stockbridge returned two meuilK-rj* 
to parliament up to the passing of the Reform Act, by whi^ h 
it was disfranchised: it is a borough by prescription ; the 
town-hall is a neat building. The living is a cnapclry, in 
the diocese and archdeaconry of Winchester, annexed to th<* 
vicarage of King*s Sombourn, to which the chapelry ut 
Little Sombourn is also annexed ; their joint yearly value 
is 696/. with a glebe-house. There were in Stockbvid^c in 
1833 five day-schools with 99 children, and two Sund.u- 
schools with 60 children. 

Whitchurch is a borough in the hundred of Evingar, jf-^ 
miles from London on the great Western road, botwcca 
Basingstoke and Andover, near the head of the ri\er An- 
ton. The parish comprehends 7330 acres, with a populaii >ii 
in 1831 of 1673, about half agricultural. Shalloonsi ;inl 
serges are manufactured ; also ])aper for the exclusi\e u>.(* 
of the Bank of England. The market, held on Friday, i:> ^a:ll 
in some of our authorities to be now disused. Whiichuirlt 
is a borough by prescription, and returned two members^ to 
parliament until disfranchised by the Reform Act 1 lu? 
livint^ is a rectory, in the peculiar jurisdiction of the bUhM|t 
of Wmchester ; of the yearly value of 140/. There wore m 
1833 seven day or boarding and day-schools, with about '^Mi 
children, and three Sunday-schools with above 300 childrett. 

Emsworth, a hamlet of the parish of Warblington, at tl.c 
head of a channel which forms a branch of Chichester 1 ar- 
bour, is a place of some trade as a port; ship-building ui d 
rope-making are carried on. Hayling Island is beeumii.L' 
a place of considerable resort for bathers, and numor>.)*.N 
new buildings have been recently erected. Titchfield, abo.it 
two miles from Fareham, on the road to Southampton, i> .i 
place of some trade: it is on a small river, by which Mnnil 
vc-nsoIs get up to the town. A customary market is hoM. 

Divisi'msfor Erclesiasiical and Legal purpftses, — II ai i. - 
shire is included in the diocese of Winchester and ii. ' 
ecclesiastical province of Canterbury, and constitutes m.- 
clusiveof the Isle of Wight), the arclideoconry of Wine Let- 
ter. This archdeaconry is subdivided into ten deaiu-n^ « 
viz., Alresford, Alton, Andover, Basingstoke, Durkinsr«»|.i 
or Droxford, Fordingbridge, Sombourn, Southampton, Wi.i- 
chester, and the Isle of Wight. The number of churr. i ^ 
and chapels is given in Warner's ' Collections for the H !>:• • > 
of Hampshire' at 277. In Lewis's *Topo'^raphi<vl i^ 
tionary* tlie number of benefices is given at 303, \iz. 1 « 
rectories, 72 \icarages, and the rest perpetual curacie:i. 

This county is in the Western circuit : the a&sue> aini 
quarter-t^essious are held at WinoheBter. For th« elcctiuu 



It A M 



33 



HAM 



of mombert of pariiament, the county was by the Reform 
Act divided into tW parts. The Northern division com- 
prehends Alton, Andover, Basinfrstoke, Droxford, Kings- 
riere, Odiham, Petersfleld, and Winchester divisions ; the 
chief place of election is Winchester, and the polling sta- 
tions are Winchester, Alton, Andover, Basingstoke, Kings- 
clere, Odiham, Petersfield, and Bishop*s Waltham. The 
Southern division comprehends Fareham, Lymington, Ring- 
voody Romsey, and Southampton divisions ; the chief place 
of election is Southampton, and the polling stations are 
Southampton, Fareham, Lymington, Portsmouth, Kiug- 
trood and Romsey. The 'divisions' are those made by 
the county magistrates, subseouently to the census of 
*1^3]. The Isle of Wight was by the same act severed 
from the county for parliamentary purposes, and al- 
lowed to return one member: the chief place of elec- 
tion is Newport, and the polling stations are Newport and 
West Cowes. Formerly, two members each were returned 
from the city of Winchester, the boroughs of Christchurch, 
Lymington, Portsmouth, Southampton, Andover, Peters- 
lield, Stockbridge, and Whitchurch, and for the boroughs 
of Newport, Newtown, and Yarmouth, in the Isle of Wight. 
By the Reform Act, Stockbridge, Whitchurch, Newtown, 
and Yarmouth were disfranchised, and Christchurch and 
petersfield reduced to one member each. The act, by re- 
fill at ing the franchise, opened the city of Winchester, and 
the boroughs of Portsmouth, Christchurch, Lymin^on, 
Petersfield Andover, and Newport, which were all pre- 
viously very close. 

Hutory, Antiquities^ ^. — ^Before the Roman invasion, 
this county was inhabited by three tribes : the Regni ('P^yvoi, 
Ptol.), who occupied the coast, as well as the counties of 
Sussex and Surrey ; the Belgte (BfXyat, Ptol.), who inha- 
bited the middle portion, and extended into Wiltshire ; and 
the Atrebates, or Atrebatii (Arp<j3arcoi, Ptol.), who occu- 
pied, it is likely, the northern part on the confines of Berk- 
shire. Winchester appears to have been a British town 
antecedently to its being occupied as a Roman station, and 
Silcheater also, if it may be identified with Calleva Atreba- 
tum. This part of the island was reduced by the Romans, 
probably under Vespasian, who is distinctly recorded by 
Suetonius {Veipoi^ c. iv.) as having subjugated the Isle of 
Wight, called by the Romans Vectis (O^ifcnc. Ptolemy). 
It was comprehended in Britannia Prima, and was crossed by 
several Roman roads, and contained several Roman stations. 
It was Camden's opinion that the Trisanton river men- 
tioned by Ptolemy {Tpuravr^tvo^ woraaov ic/3oXai) was the 
Anton or Test ; perhaps it was the Southampton Water, with 
all the streams that flow into it. Olhers however identify 
the Trisanton with the Arun of Sussex. If Trisanton be 
a r e pres e ntation of the British Traeth Anton, ' the sBstuary 
or frith of Anton,* it is a designation peculiarly suitable to 
Southampton Water. The Roman station Clausentum, 
mentioned in the Iter ni. of Antoninus, is generally ad- 
mitted to have been near Southampton. At Bittern Farm 
abtmdance of Roman remains are found, and modern anti- 
quaries seem to agree in fixing the station at this spot, 
vhich is on the east side of the Itchin, by a bend in which 
it if nearly surrounded. There are remains of the Roman 
vurks, a ditch and part of a rampart on the land side, com- 
posed of earth, flints, and large flat bricks, and faced roughly 
vith small square stones. A quantity of Roman coins and 
of fine red pottery, a glass urn, and sculptured and other 
stones have been dug up. The area of the station is about 
half a mile in circumference; Southampton probably arose 
from its ruins. In the latter part of the name Claus-entum 
ve probably discern the same root which may be traced in 
Tn« -anion, South-hampton, and Hampton- (now shortened 
into Hamp-) shire. Another station mentioned by Anto- 
n:a»s is Venta (a Roman modification of the more ant lent 
British name Oier Gwent, * the white city'), distinguished 
from some other places of the same name, as ' Venta Bel- 
girnm.* Ptolemy mentions Venta, or as he writes it Ovivra, 
as one of the towns of the BelgiB. It is the modem Win- 
rbester* the first part of which name is a corruption of the 
British Gwent, or the Roman Venta. This was an important 
station: the walls with which the Romans enclosed it yet 
fiirm the chief part, though frequently repaired and much 
altered, of the town walls. Roman tombs containing human 
bones, sepulchral urns, and some other antiquities, have 
been discovered just outside the town walls. An entrench- 
ment on St. Catherine's Hill, south of the city, is perhaps 
the Roman castra sstiva, or summer camp. 
P. C No. 728. 



But the most remarkable remains of a Roman station hn 
at Silchester, a village on the border of the county, due 
north from Basingstoke. It was certainly a station of im- 
portance, though it is difficult to determine whether it was 
the Calleva Atrebatum or the Vindomis of the Itinerary. 
Camden identifies it with the latter, and assigns to it the 
British name of Caer Segont^ which is said to have been 
destroyed in the invasion by Ella, who founded the 
kingdom of the South Saxons. The remains of this 
station are among the most entire in the kingdom. The 
walls form an irregular octagon and are about a mile 
and a half in compass ; they enclose a space of about 
100 acres, divided into seven fields, together with the 
parish church and church-yard, a fiirm-house and its offices. 
The enclosure contains several springs, and slopes to the 
south : the foundations of the streets may yet be traced 
running across it in parallel lines, and in the centre is an 
open space supposed to have been the forum, where the 
foundations of a large building and other remains have been 
dug up.* The walls are generally from fifteen to eighteen 
feet high ; on the south side, where they are most perfect, 
they are twenty feet. There are four gates, facing the four 
cardinal points: some other openings have been made since 
the ruin of the town. The walls are formed by layers of 
flat stones of variable dimensions, and of rubble-stone con- 
solidated by cement : the whole is surrounded by a ditch 
which has in many parts been filled up by the ruins of the 
wall. Coins, inscribed stones, and other antiquities have 
been dug up. At a short distance north-east of the walls 
are the remains of an amphitheatre. 

The remains of a Roman station, supposed to have been 
the Brige of Antoninus, were observed by Mr. Gale at 
Broughton, not far from Stockbridge. The walls of Por- 
chester Castle contain some portions of Roman architec- 
ture, and are probably on the site of one of the stations de- 
nominated Portus, either Portus Magnus, or more probably 
Portus Adurni, mentioned in the Notitia Imperii. Roman 
roads may be traced leading from Venta to Sorbiodunum 
(Old Sarum) ; to Silchester and toPorchester ; and from Sil- 
chester in various directions. 

This county appears to have been the scene of contest in 
the Saxon invasion. The invasion of Ella has been no- 
ticed. Cerdic, who founded the kingdom of Wcssex, 
is said to have defeated and slain in the New Forfsl 
a British chieftain who bore the name of Natanleod: 
and Porta, an ally of Cerdic, is said to have landed al Ports- 
mouth. Portsmouth obviously derives its name from its 
situation ; and the landing of Porta may have been fixed 
here by the ignorance of some who sought to give to the 
name an historical rather than a topographical origin. 
Hampshire was included in the kingdom of Wessex, and 
Venta, called by the Saxons Wintanceaster, became the scat 
of government. Here Cerdic was buried, and here, on the 
conversion of the West Saxons to Christianity, a bishop's 
see was established. In the contests of the Saxon princes 
the Isle of Wight was taken by Wulfhere, king of Mercia, 
and annexed by him to the kingdom of Sussex : it ^'as how- 
ever soon after reconquered by Ceadwalla, king of Wegsex. 
Upon the predominance of the West Saxon kings cv*iT the 
otuer Saxon potentates being permanently established by 
Egbert, Winchester became the metropolis of England. 

When the Northmen attacked the island, Hampshire was 
exposed to their ravages. In the reign of Ethelbert, grand- 
son of Egbert (a.d. 860 — 866), a body of them landed at 
Southampton, and advanced to Winchester, which they 
partially laid waste: they were routed however as they 
returned to their ships and much of the booty recovered. 
At Basing, near Basingstoke, Ethelred I., king of Wessex, 
and his brother Alfred, were defeated by the Danes, a.d. 
870. A year or two after, viz. in 871 or 873, in the reign 
of Alfred, the invaders made another attack on Winchester, 
damaged the cathedral and murdered the ecclesiatics be- 
longing to it. From the time of Alfred's restoration the 
county experienced scarcely any hostility till the time of 
Ethelred II., in whose reign, about the close of the tehth 
century, the Danes ravaged the Isle of Wight. In the civil 
dissensions of the reign of Edward the Confessor, the same 
island was infested by Godwin, earl of Kent, and his son 
Harold, then in rebellion : and in the subsequent reign, of 
Harold II., it was laid under contribution by Tostig, the 
king's rebellious brother. Winchester continued to be the 
principal seat of royalty in the reign of William the Con* 
queror. 

V0L.XI1— F 



HAM 



34 



U A M 



TIm extent i<m or fi>nnatu>n of the New Foretl by WOliam 
hat been already noticed ; it became tbe icene of seTeral 
diaaatere which befel his femily, and which were regarded 
as judgments on him for his arbitrary and cruel behaviour 
in the transaction, which however has been much exag:;e- 
rat4^. His son Richard lost his life here by what Camden 
describes as * a pestilential blast:' his grandson Henry, son 
of Robert, waa entangled among the branches and killed 
whtle hunting; and his suocet^sor William Rufus was shot 
by a random arrow by Walter Tyrrel, a.d. 11 00. Upon 
Rufus's death, Henry, his brother, hastened to Winchester, 
where he possessed himself of the royal treasure, and after- 
wards succeeded to the crown. Robert, his elder brother, 
to whom the succession rightfully belonged, landed at 
Portsmouth with an army the next year (a.d. 1101) to 
enforce his claim ; but finding hia rival too strong, came to 
an accommodation with him, and retired. 

In the civil war between the supporters of Kins Stephen 
(then a prisoner) and the Empress Maud, Winchester was 
the scene of cuntlict. The cathedral and Wolvesey Castle, 
the residence of Henry of Bluis, bishop of Winchester and 
brother of Stephen, were in the hands of the king's party, 
and Wiiiclu'ster Castle and other parts of the city in the 
hand<» of the empress. The empress's friends were gra- 
dually di>jx)sse^sed of all they held, except the castle ; and, 
when this was hard pressed, it is said that the empress 
escaped by being carrie<l through the opposing army, wrap- 
pod in a sheet of lead, like a corpse for interment licr na- 
tural brother and ch.ef supporter, the earl of Gloucester, 
wa.s taken soon after at Stockbrid^e and exchani^ed for the 
captive kin^. In the civil var which marked the close of 
the reiirn or John, Odiham Castle was gallantly but vainly 
defended for that prince against the revolted barons and 
the Dciuphin, Louis of France. 

At the commencement of the French war of Edward III., 
A.D. 1338. the town of Southampton was attacked by the 
French with their allies the Genoese and Spaniards. Their 
fleet was of fifty galleys. They took the town, burned the 
greater oart of it, and slaughtered many of the inhabitants. 
About the close of the reign of Edward III., or the com- 
mencement of that of Richard II., another attack was made 
on this town, but failed. About the same period the Isle of 
Wight was attacked by the French, and Newtown and 
Yarmouth burned, and Carisbrook Castle vainly besieged. 
In A.D. 1415, when Henry V. was about to embark at South- 
ampton for France, a conspiracy against his life was de- 
tected ; for which the Earl of Cambridge and others were 
executed in that town. In the rei^n of the same monarch 
the Isle of Wight was once attacked and a second time 
threatened by the French. About the close of the reign of 
Henry VIII. another attack was made by the same people, 
but repulsed. It was at Winchester that Mary L was mar- 
ried to Philip of Spain, A.D. 1554. 




great c ntiquity and doubtful origin. It is probable that the 
site h ft been occupied by a fortress from a period anterior 
to tlie Roman conquest ; and the present structure exhi- 
bits ti ioes of Roman, Saxon, and Norman architecture. It 
is a q adrangle enclosing an area of four or five acres, and is 
still I J sufficient preser\'ation to be used occasionally as a 
place of confinement f§r prisoners of war. The walls are 
frim eight to twelve feet thick and eighteen feet high, 
bavin i m many places a pas!»age round them, defended by 
a par ipet. It is enclosed by a ditch (double on the east 
side), and has eighteen towers including those of the 
ktN-p, which are four. The keep forms the north-west 
ant'le of the cattle, and enclosci a quadrangle of one 
hundred and fifteen feet by sixty-five. The remains 
of Roman workmanship are chieliy observable in the 
.wter walls. Many Roman coins and medals have been 
dug u[» at different limLS. The parish church of Porche»ter 
ii Hithin the outer court of the castle: it is a large Norman 
rn>ss church, of which the south transept has been de- 
hU'ty d. All the doors and window* s of the more antient 
part have semicircular arches. Calshot and Hurst castles 
are of the time of Henry VIII., and though still occupied 
as garii«»'jn«» are of little stren;^th. Both are on small 
K*«/4iand» jutting into the sea: Calshot, at tbe entrance of 
npton Water ; and Hurst, near Lymington. Nelley 
ear Netley Abbey, built about the same time, is 
in. 



The chief mcmastic remains beside thoie mentioiied e1to> 
where [CintincHrBCB ; Winch estek] are Netley and Benu- 
lieu abbeys, and the Priory of St. I>ion>sius, near South 
ampton, beside the church of Romser, mentioned above as 
having formeriy been oonventuaL Ketley Abbey is a shirt 
distance from the bank of the Southampton Water, abtmt 
three miles east of the town of Southampton. It appears 
to ha%'e been founded in the thirteenth century, though 
probably not by Henry IU-, to whom its origin is commonly 
attributed. It was of the Cistertian order. At the time of 
the dissolution its possessions were valued at 160/. *2« ''ti. 
gross, or 100/. la. ha. clear yearly value. Tbe ruins stand cm 
the declivity of a hill gently rising from the water, and arc smi 
ennroned by wood as to be scarcely obserrable. exeept on a 
near approach. The principal remains are tbe chapel, a 
crypt popularly called * the Ahbot*s Kitchen,' the chapter- 
house, and the refectory. The chapel was in the form of a 
cross ; the southern transept and the choir are the ni<»t 
perfect portions; the northern transept has been df^tro^ed, 
and many parts are much mutilated. The roof of the « hole 
has fallen in, and most of the windows have lost their 
tracery. Many parts of the ruins are finely mantled with 
ivy. The length of the chapel when entire was about 2uu 
feet : the breadth 60 feet, ana at the transepts 120 feet. The 
cnrpt is a curious vaulted apartment, 48 feet lontf by 1 S 
broad. Beaulieu Abbey, also Cii^tcrtian, was founded, a d. 
1-2U4, by King John: its yearly revenue at the dissolutuai 
was 42^/. G«. b^l gross, or 326/. I3i. 2d, clear. The stone 
«all which surrounded the precincts of the abbey i> in 
several places nearly entire and is finely mantled with i\ y. 
Tlic abbot*s apartments, converted after the dissolution iitta 
a family seat, having a well proportioned vaulted hall ; a 
long building, supposed, from the extent and height of the 
apartments, to have been the dormitorv; the antient kitchen 
and the refectory are still standing. Inhere are some tnce* 
of the cloisters ; a gateway leading to the area enclosed hy 
them is standing ; the church is entirely destroyed. T\,e 
refectory, a plain $>tone buildins, with strong buttrt.*SM.*«. 
and a curiously rafteied oak roof, forms the parish church 
of the village of Beaulieu. This abbey possessed the pri- 
vilege of sanctuary, and as such afforded shelter to Marga- 
ret of Aujou and her son Prince £dward, on their landihs^ 
in England at the time of the battle of Bamet, and t^ 
Peikin Warbeck, after the failure of his attempts in th« 
W^est of Enicland. St. Dionysius's (commonly called St. 
Denis's) Priory, is on the bank of the Itchin above South- 
ampton. It was founded by Henry I. for Augustinian or 
Black Canons. It yearly revenues at the dissolution were 
valued at 91/. 9«. gross, or &(J/. Us. 6</. clear. The ruins 
are of small extent, and appear to have formed the west 
end of the Pnorj- church. 

In the beginning of tbe rei^fn of Charles I. the duke ot 
Buckingham was stabbed at Portsmouth, and in the ci^il 
war of that reign this county was the scene of partial 
hostilities^ The strong posts of the Isle of Wight were 
early in the contest secured for the parliament, and the 
island was thus preser\'ed from subsequent disturbance. 
In December, 1643, the Royalists were defeated at Alien 
by Sir William Waller. But the most remarkable 
event in the contest that occurred in this county was the 
defence of Basing House, near Basingstoke, by its posses- 
sor, John Paulet, marquis of Winchester. The marquis 
was a Royalist, and fortified his mansion for the king \«i(h 
works, which inclosed a space of above fourteen acres. The 
outline of the works was irregular, but the ditches were 
deep (in some parts thirty-six feet perpendicular^ and tbe 
ramparts, of which there are yet some remains, ver^' h.«^h 
and strong. The investment commenced in August, \^\\ 
and Sir William Waller, who made the first serious assaul's 
after being repelled in three attempts to storm the place in 
nine days, was obliged to retreat to Famham, The mve>t- 
ment continued, probably at intervals, for two years. In 
1644 the garrison, when much pressed by hunger, ikas 
twice relieved by a detachment from the Royalist quartcn 
at Oxford, nndcr Colonel Gage. The final investment «a4 
by Cromwell, who, in Oct., 1645, took the house by storm, and 
butued it to the ground. The plunder in cash, jewels, at.d 
rich furniture, is said to have been immense. In aj>. 1647. 
Charles I., after his escape from Hampton Court, remaiH'.d 
concealed at Titchfield House till he gave himself uplo i^y- 
lonel Hammond, governor of the Isle of Wight He was 
imprisoned for some time at Carisbrook« tad ■Ifa gwa i ili 
at Hurst CaaUe 



HAM 



35 



HAM 



Statistics. 

A!piiAi/iofi«— Hampshire is an agricultural county, few 
of its inhabitants being enga^red in manufactures. Of 
74,711 males twenty years of age and upwards living in 
the county in 1831 there were 28,683 employed in agricul- 
tural j^UTsuits, and only 292 in manufactures or in manu- 
facturing machinery ; 10,348 were employed as labourers 
not agricultural. 

Hampshire ranks the 22nd in the list of agricultural 
counties. 

The population of this county at each of the fbur enu- 
merations made in the present century was — 





Mala. 


FemalOT. 


Total In 


tmamfm* 


1801 


105.667 


113,989 


219,656 


• • 


1811 


118,855 


126,225 


245,080 


11-57 


1821 


138,373 


144,925 


283,298 


15-59 


1831 


152,082 


162,198 


314,280 


10-94 



showing an increase between the first and last periods of 
94,624, or rather more than 43 per cent, which is 14 
per cent, below the whole rate of increase throughout 
£ngland. 

The following table contains a summary of the popular 
tion, &c., of every division, as taken in 1831 :-— 



Summary qfthe County qf Southampton {othervoUe Hampshire, or Hants). 





BOUSES. 


OCCUPATIONS. 


PERSONS. 














Families 


All uther 










DIVISIONS, BOROUGH, CITT, 
TOWNS. $tc 


Inhabited. 


FamOiea. 


BttUd- 
ing. 

11 


Unin- 
habited. 


Famillea 

ohieily 
employed 
inAfri- 
■ culture. 


chiefly 
emplo]^ 
in trade, 
manufac- 
tnrec. 
and han- 
dicraft 


Families 
notoom- 
priaed in 
the two 
preced- 
ing 
classes. 


Males. 




Total of 
Peieoni. 


Males, 

twenty 

years of 

age. 


Alton, North Division 


2.401 


2,883 


52 


1,523 


742 


618 


7,553 


7,415 


14,968 


3,763 


Alton, South Division • » 


1,238 


1,455 


8 


25 


847 


319 


289 


3,739 


3,744 


7,483 


1,854 


Andoi'er .... 


5,283 


5,925 


72 


167 


3,007 


1,734 


1,184 


13,862 


13,603 


27,465 


7,082 


Basingstoke 


5,232 


5,980 


30 


113 


3,568 


1,438 


974 


15,029 


14,563 


29,592 


7,558 


Fawley .... 


4,158 


4,733 


21 


93 


2,867 


1,047 


819 


12,260 


11,760 


24.020 


6.279 


Kingsclere 


3,442 


3,796 


23 


65 


2.454 


785 


557 


9,196 


8,874 


18,070 


4,561 


New Forest Bast 


3..'528 


3,788 


32 


110 


1,297 


1,134 


1,357 


9,031 


9,315 


18,346 


4,465 


New Forest West 


3,894 


4.097 


40 


165 


2,078 


988 


1,031 


9,473 


9,654 


19,127 


4,697 


Portsdown .... 


7,525 


8,175 


48 


372 


2,558 


3,253 


2,364 


19,902 


21,396 


41,298 


10,031 


I*le of Wight . . 


5,811 


6,684 


44 


254 


2,229 


2,220 


2,235 


17,205 


18,226 


35,431 


8,059 


Winchester, City, and Soke 
























Liberty 


1,415 


1,683 


12 


39 


71 


820 


792 


4,285 


4,482 


8,767 


2,138 


Portsmouth, Borough, and 
























Portsea, Town 


9,410 


11,394 


63 


367 


245 


4,765 


6,384 


21,902 


28,487 


50,389 


9,808 


Southampton, Town & County 


3,189 


4.059 


118 
522 


195 


17 


1,738 


2,304 


8,645 


10,679 


19,324 


4,416 


Totals . 


56,526 


64,652 


2017 


22,761 


20,983 


20,908 


152,082 


162,198 


314,280 74,711 



1601 
1811 
1831 
1831 



were 
»ff 

M 



d. 
3 

4 
7 
8 



for each inhabitant. 



•t 






County Expenses^ Crime, <fc.— The sums expended for 
the relief of the poor at the four dates of — 

£. s- 

124.019, being 11 

225,601 „ 18 

193,294 „ 13 

215.229 n 13 

The sum expended for the same purpose for the year 
ending March, 1837, was 123,840/. ; and assuming that the 
popalation had increased at the same rate of progression 
as in the ten preceding years, the above sum gives an 
avermge of 7g. 6d, for each inhabitant. These averages are 
all above those for the whole of England and Wales. 

The sum raised in Hampshire for poor-rate, county-rate, 
and other local purposes, in the year ending the 25th of 
March, 1833, was 248,176/. 3s., and was levied upon the 
various descriptions of property as follows : — 

On land . . . £180,534 4 

Dwelling-houses . 58,680 3 

Mill, factories, &c. 4,112 7 

Manorial profits, navigation, &c. 4,849 9 

The amount expended was — 
For the relief of the poor . 
In suits of law, removal of paupers, &o. 
For other purposes 



£211,075 

5.467 

35,980 



18 
2 

7 



252,523 7 
In the returns made up for subsequent years, the de- 
scriptions of property assessed are not specified. In the 
years 1834, 1835, 1836, and 1837. ther» were raised 243,525/. 
151., 211,826/. \7s., 177,547/. 2f., and 151,240/. re* 
spectively ; and the expenditure of each year was as fol- 
lows: — 

1894. 1835. 1836. 1837. 

£. «. £. t. £. I. £. 

Per the leilarorthe poor . 203^466 4 174^18 2 141.933 11 183340 

Jn«ait«ofIaw.r«nuiTato.&e. 6,545 11 4324 19 8.504 9 2.105 

Fflrailollwriiinpoen J 122.251 6 18,485 7 13297 



'l0lal 



ffsymM Sm^H^H 816,799 1 ^,864 19^ WJU» 



The saving effected on the whole sum expended in 1837, 
as compared with that expended in 1834, was therefore 
about 36^ per cent. ; and the saving effected on the sum 
expended fur the relief of the poor was rather more than 
39 per cent, in 1837, as compared with the expenditure in 
1834. 

The number of turnpike trusts in Hampshire, as ascer- 
tained in 1835, is 36 ; the number of miles of road under 
their charge is 810 ; the annual income in 1 835, arising from 
the tolls and parish composition, was 30,321/. 13«. 6c/. ; 
and the annual expenditure, 29,894/. 1 Is, 7d, 

The county expenditure in 1834, exclusive of that for 
the relief of the poor, was 19,618/. 3s. 5d., disbursed as 
follows : — 



£. 
1,247 



s, 
3 



d 
5 



} 



3,909 18 3 
898 19 8 



2,999 

732 

791 

91 

71 

298 



8 

2 

15 



1 

12 

10 

12 



5 
6 
5 




7 



Bridges, building, and repairs, &c. 
Gaols, houses of correction, &c., and 1 

maintaining prisoners, &c . i 
Shire-halls and courts of justice, build-' 

ing, repairing, &c. . 
Prosecutions 
Clerk of the peace 
Conveyance of prisoners before trial 

„ transports 

Constables, high ana special 
Coroner 

Debt, payment of, principal and interest 6,165 
Miscellaneous . . 2,412 

The number of persons charged with criminal offences in 
the three septennial periods ending with 1820, 1827, and 
1834, were 2085,2190, and 3187 respectively ; making an 
averasre of 298 annually in the first period, of 313 in tbo 
second period, and of 455 in the third period. The number 
of persons tried at quarter-sessions, in each of the years 
1831, 1832, and 1833, in respect to which any costs \vci9 
paid out of the county rates, were 109, 156, and 202 respec^ 
tively. Among the persons charged with offecoes, there 
were committed for — 

lS3t 1833. 1833. 

Felonies . . 82 129 144 

Misdemeanors • I 9 Q It 



HAM 



36 



HAM 



1832. 


1833. 


167 


163 


23 


43 


37 


43 



The total number of committals in each of the same 
yean was 15l» 227, 249 respectively. 

1881. 

The number convicted was • 96 
M acquitted . 18 

Discharged by proclamatiou . 36 

In 1837, at the assizes and sessions, 622 persons were 
charged with crime in Hampshire. Of these, 42 were 
charged with offences against the person, 15 of which were 
for common assaults; there were 24 offences against pro- 
perty, committed with violence ; 512 offences against pro- 
perty, committed without violence; 2 for setting fire to 
crops, &C. ; 4 for maiming cattle ; 13 for forging and coin- 
ing ; 16 for poaching ; 5 for riot ; 4 for other misdemeanors. 
Of the whole number of offenders, 437 were convicted, 138 
were acquitted, no bill was found against 36, and 1 1 others 
were not prosecuted. Of those convicted, 8 were condemned 
to death, none of whom were executed, but the sentence of 

6 was commuted to transportation for life ; and of 2 to im- 
prisonment for six months or under. Besides the above 
six, 19 were transported for life, 3 for 14 years, and 45 for 

7 years ; 3 were sentenced to imprisonment for 2 years and 
above one, 49 for one year and above 6 months, and 308 for 
6 months and under ; 2 were fined. Of the whole number 
of offenders, 509 were males, and 1 1 3 were females ; 225 
could neither read nor write ; 344 could read and write im* 
perfectly ; 47 could read and write well ; 2 had a superior 
mstruction, and the degree of instruction of 4 could not be 
ascertained. 

The number of persons qualified to vote for the county 
metubers of Hamj^hire is 8983, being about 1 in 35 of the 
whole population, and above 1 in 8 of the male population 
twenty years and upwards, as taken in 1831. The ex- 
penses of the last election of county members to parliament 
iK'ere to the inhabitanta of the county 233/. 17«. 2d,, and 
were paid out of the general county-rate. 

There are 1 1 savings' banks in this county. The number 
of depositors and amount of deposita on the 26th of No- 
vember in each of the following years were — 

1838. 1833. 1834. 1835. 1886. 

Number of de- 
positors 7,700 8,581 9,237 9,898 10,408 

Amount of de- 
posits £279,299 £301,906 £322.493 £341,155 £356,456 
The various sums placed in the savings' banks in 1 835 

and ltt36 were distributed as under:— 

183&. 1S36. 

Depotiton. Deposiu. Dtpodton. Dapodtt. 



Not exceeding 


£20 


4,805 


£35,629 


5,018 


£36,067 


f* 


50 


2,885 


89,323 


3,056 


95.660 


n 


100 


1,381 


92,851 


1,473 


95,838 


f> 


150 


487 


58,629 


501 


60,758 


»» 


200 


260 


43,922 


*J82 


47,298 


Above 


200 


80 


20,801 


78 


20,835 



9898 341,155 10,408 356,456 
£(/ttca/ton.— The following summary is taken firum the 
ParUamentary Returns on Education, made in the sessiun 
of 1835:— 

Schoolfl. SchuUn. Total. 

Infant schools 99 

Number of infanta at such schools ; ages 
from 2 to 7 years: — 

Males • . • • 627 

Females . . , 634 

Sex Dot specified . 805 



Daily schools 1197 

Number of children at such schools ; 
ages fh>m 4 to 14 vears : — 

Males . . . 15,911 

Females . . . 13,577 

Sex not specified . 7,179 



2,0G6 



Schools . 1,296 
Total of children under daily instruction 

Sunday-schools 440 

Number of children at such schools; 
ages from 4 to 15 years : — 

Males • • • • 12,088 

Females • • • 12,714 

Sex not specified • 7,610 



— 36.667 



38,733 



32,412 



Assuming that the population between the im oft and 
) 5 has increased in the same proportion with the whole 
population since 1821, when the relative popuUtion at dif- 
ferent ages was last taken, and likewise assuming that the 
whole populatiou has increased since 1831 in the same ratio 
as it did the ten years preceding that date, we find by ap- 
proximation that there were 108,217 children between the 
ages of two and fifteen in the county of Hampshire in 1834, 
the time the educational inauiry was made. Sixteen 
Sunday-schools are returned from places where no other 
school exists, and tlie children, 441 in number, who are in- 
structed therein, cannot be supposed to attend any other 
school ; at all other places Sunday-school children ha\e 
opportunity of resorting to other schools also; but in what 
number or in what proportion duplicate entry of the sam* 
children is thus produced must remain uncertain. Ninety 
schools, containing 6215 children, which are both dailv and 
Sunday-schools, are returned from various places, ana du- 
plicate entry is therefore known to have been thus far 
created. Making allowance from this cause for a number 
of children having been entered twice as under instruction, 
we may perhaps fairly conclude that not two-thirds of the 
children between the ages of 2 and 1 5 are receiving instruc 
tion in this county. 

Maintenance qf Sekoole, 



DHcripllaaof 




B J MtaOTiirtlan 


fraoiieMan. 


SakMTtp sad p«v. 
aim tfotm icbAUra. 


Sdite. 


Seho- 

lan. 


SdiU. 


Scb*. 
Ian. 


SckU. 


Scb»- 

lOT. 


Schb. 


"— ^ 


iD&nt Scbods 
DailT Schools 
Sunday Schoob 


8 

93 
15 


185 

8143 

783 


398 


139 

8,962 

29/178 




iioa 

19.436 


13 

111 

33 


699 

€4M 

9eo7 


Totml... 


110 


3271 


M7 ,37.673 


948 


20^1 


157 


97«» 



The schools established by dissenters, included in tbe 
above statement, are : — 

Schools. ffffhfllaTi- 

Infknt school • . 1, containing 69 

Daily schools . . 29, „ 1,499 

Sunday-schools . 125, „ 12,888 

The schools established since 1818 are: — 



Infant and other daily schools 794, containing 22,399 
Sunday-schools . • . . • 334 „ 23,706 

One hundred boarding-schools are included in the 
number uf daily schools given above. No school in thi^ 
county appears to be confined to the children of the Eua- 
blished Church, or of any other religious denomination, such 
exclusion being disclaimed in almost every instance, espc^ 
cially in schools established by Dissenters, with whom axe 
here included Wesleyan Methodists and Roman Catholics. 
Lending-libraries of books are attached to 92 schools in th:& 
county. 

HAMPSHIRE, NEW. [New Hampshirk.] 

HAMPSTEAD. [Middlbsbx.] 

HAMPTON. [PoLYBius.] 

HAMSTER, Cricetus, the name of a genua of Rodents; 
whose economy makes them one of the most interesting of 
the great Linna^an genus Mum, or the family of Murida m 
its most extensive sense. 

Generic Character — Molar teeth simple; their crown 
furnii^hed with blunt tubercles. Four toea and the vestige 
of a thumb on the fore- feet; five toes on the hind leet; 
nails robust. Tail short and hairy. 

2 3 — 3 
Dental Formula.-*Incisors-; molars s 16. 

2 3-3 

Geographical Distribution qf the Gemit. — ^All the north 
of Europe and of Asia, the temperate countnes o^ Persui, 
and the deserts of Astrakan. If the Canada pameked rat 
{Hmmier du Canada — Cricetus bureariui of Desmarest, 
Mtt>t hurMtrius of Shaw) is to be considered a hamster, 
Canada and the borders of Lake Superior must be added ; 
and it must be remembered that the Tucan of Hemaodei, 
an inhabitant of New Spain, is coiisidered by some to be 
ideuticul with thie 'Canada Rat' (Dr. Rtchardion thinks 
on insufficient grounds). But the last-mentioned soologist 
places Desmarest's Canada Hamster under the genus 
Geomys, with a note of interrogation ; and Say has giv 
it a generic distinction under the name of Pttuthetoma^ 



Tbov an Ave or six species of the genu* ; but we shall 
•elect ss onr exunplo the Common Hamtter, Cricetut vul- 
garit, Sfia Crieelut of Pallas, Le Hamtter of Buffun and 
the FVench authon. 




^.CiRbnO 



Deteriplion. — Reddish brovD above; black below, vitb 
lbr«e great irbilish spots on the sides. Feel white; a 
while spot on the throat, and another on the breait. 
Lenj^b about 9 inches ; tail 3. Males bigger tban fbmalee. 
Weisht of some males from 12 to 16 ounces; weight of 
female* teldom exceeding from 4 to 6. 

VarietitM. — Variatians in colour are not uncommon. 
Tliere is one variehr entirely black. Pennant flares one 
which is entirely black, with the exception of tbe edge of 
tlie ear. tbe muule, the under-iaw and foot. 

Lnealitie*.—ft.\\ the north of Europe and Asia (Lesson), 
Austria, Silesia, and many parts of German;, Poland, and 
theUkraiue; all the southern and temperate parts of Russia 
and Siberia; and oven about the river Yenesei, but not 
Tirtber to the east. In the Tartarian deserta, in sandy soil : 
■bey dislike moisl places. Swarming in Gotha (Pennant). 

Fond. Habitt, Reproduction. — The Common Hamttert 
ace ill friends to the farmer. Tbe quantity of grain which 
ihey consume ij very great, nor does Ihe doslruction slop 
vilh mere satiety of appetite; tbe animal never forgets its 
hoard, and fills its two cheek-pouches till they seem burst- 
ing with tbe booty. They are also said to be very fbnd of 
thtr seeds of linuonoe. Their dwellings are under the earth; 
Ihoir modeofforming them, and the purposes towhii:h they 
apply ttaeiD, have been thus described : — They flist form an 
cntnnce, burrowing down obliquely. At the end of this 
passat^ one perpendicular hole is sunk by tbe male; the 
female sinks several. At the end of these they excavate 
various vaults, some as lodges for themselves and young, 
some as storehouses for their food. Every young one 
a said to have ils separate apartment; each sort of 
grain its different vault. The ' living apartments,' as 
they may be rolled, are lined with sltaff or grass. The 
vaults are said to be of different depths, ocoordmg to the 
s^ of the oonstruclor: a young hamster, it is stated, makes 
tbem scarcely a foot deep, en old one sinks to tbe depth of 
bur or five ; and the whole ' curlitage,' so to speak, is some- 
time* eight or ten feet in diameter. From the mode of 
pfoceeding in their work, the reader will be prepared for 
tbe ttatemcQt that the male and female live in separate 
apoiiiaents; and indeed it appears that, excepting at the 
thort Mason of courtship, they have (-ery lilllo or no intcr- 
coonck Pennant gives them a very unamiahle character. 
'Tbe whole race,' writes that loologisl, 'is so malevolent oa 
b) eonataatlj rqect all lociet; with one another. They will 



HAN 

flgbt, kill, and devour their own species, Bi well sa other 
lesser animals ; so may be a^d to be carnivorous as well at 
granivorous. If it happens that two males meet in search 
of a female, a battle ensues; the female makes a short at- 
tachment to the conqueror, after which the connection 
ceases. She brings forth two or three times in a year, and 
brings from sixteen to eighteen at a birtb: their growth ia 
very quick, and at about the age of tliree weeks tbe old one 
forces them out of the burrows to take care of themselves; 
she shows little affection for them ; for if any one digs into 
the hole, she attempts to save herself by burrowing deeper 
into Ihe earth, and totally neglects the safety of her brood; 
on the contrary, if she is attacked in the season of court' 
ship, she defends the male with the utmost fury.' 

Tbe harvest of these animals commences in August. 
Grains of corn, ears of corn, peas and beans in the pods, all 
Snd their way into their cheek •pouches, which will hold a 
quarter of a pint Knglish. This foragt; Is carefully cleaned 
in their burrows, and the busks and chaff carried out 
When all is in order, they stop up the entrance and prepare 
for their hybernation, which lasts during the whole of the 
severe season; the provision they have made having been 
collected for the purpose of their support before their tor- 
pidity actually commences, and also in tbe spring and 
summer before the season has produced a supply fur them 
in the fields. If alt tales be true, they are a bold genera' 
tion, and will jump at a horse if he tread near them, and - 
hang by its nose so as to be disengaged with difficulty. 
"Their voice is said to be like the barking of a dog. Fierce 
as they are, they quail before their deadly enemy the pole- 
cat, which, chasing them into their holes, destroys tnem 
unrelentingly. Notwithstanding this check, they are said 

Uiuils to Mirn.— The fur of the animal is said to be 
valuable; and the peasant, when he 'goes a Harruter- 
nesting' in the winter, not only possesses himself of the 
skin of the plunderer, but of tne plunder, which is said 
commonly to amount to two bushels of good grain in each 
magazine. Buffan, quoting Sulxer, says that in Golha, 
where these animals were proscribcJ on account of their 
vast devastations among the corn, 11,564 of their skins 
were delivered at the HOlel de Ville of the t^pital in one 
year; 54,429 in another, and 80,139 in a third. 




Fossil UAUSTBa. 

Professor Kaup records Cricetut vulgarit /ostilis, from 
the Bpjilesheim sand. 

HANAPER OFFICJE. one of the offices belonging to 
the Court of Chancery. Wrlis relating to the business of 
the subject, and their returns, were, according to the sim- 
plicity uf autient timet, originally kept in a hamper, in ha- 
tiaperio ; and (he others, relating to matters wherein the 
Crown was immediately or mediately concerned, were pre- 
served in a little sack or bag, in parvA bag3; whence the 
distinction of the Hanaper Office and Petty Bag Office, both 
belonging to the Common-L^w Court in Chancery. 

The business of the clerk of the Hanaper is to receive all 
money due to the king for the seals of charters, patents, 
commissions, and writs, as well as all fees due to the officers 
for enrolling and examining them. 

HANAU-MUNZENBERG U acounty In Ihe electorate 
of Hesse Ca»sel, on the north hank of the Main, a very 
fertile and well-cullivalcd district, containing about 490 
snuare miles, with a population of above 90.000 inhabitants. 
Tlie county had formerly its own count, but the family wu 
subsequently divided into two branches, that of Miinzen- 
bei^ and that of Lichtenbe^. Both biaaches becoming 



HAN 



38 



HAN 



«xtinct in the male line, ttanau-Muncenberg came, in 
]736, to the electorate of Hesse Cassel, with i^-hich it has 
ever since been united (except from 1806, when the French 
took possession of it, to 1814, when the elector recovered it). 
tt is Contains some mountainous tracts, extensive forests, and 
hch mines of copper, silver, cobalt, and salt. The inhabit- 
ants are Protestants, with the exception of between 400 and 
500 Roman Catholics and 800 Jews. In 1818 (he Luthe- 
rans and Calvinists agreed to unite together as an evan- 
gelical church. There are some manufactures, chiefly in 
Hanau, the capital. 

Hanau-Lichtenberg was formerly nearly equal in extent 
to IlanBU-Miinzenbere, but the larger portion, lyine in 
Alsace, Is now part of France; and the remainder, which 
occupies about 100 square miles, with 20,000 inhabitants, 
oelongs to Baden. 

HANAU, the capital of Hanau- Munsenberg, situated in 
an extensive plain on the river Kinzig, near its junction 
with the Main, consists of the old and the new town. In 
the former is the magnificent castle, the g> mnasium, the 
theatre, the hospital, and the synagogue. The new town 
has straight broad streets, and in the middle of it a large 
market place, forming an oblong parallelogram, with hand- 
some fountains in the four comers, and the largo town -hall 
at one end. The cathedral has a leaning tower, like that 
at Pisa. The inhabitants are 13,000, among whom are 
some descendants of the Walloons and Flemini^s who fled 
from the tyrannv of Philip II. ; likewise some of the French 
Calvinists expelled by the revocation of the edict of Nantes. 
Hanau is the most manufacturing place in Hesse Cassel, 
and has a Considerable trade. In the vicinity are the 
telectoral palace of Philipsruhe and the baths of Wilhclms- 
W. On October 30, 1813, a dreadful battle was fought 
he^r Hanau, when an army of Bavarians and Austrians, 
Commanded by Prince Wrede, endeavoured to stop Napoleon 
on his retreat to France. The loss was very great on both 
■ides, especially on that of the French, who were stated to 
have had 15,000 killed and wounded and 10,000 prisoners, 
but Napoleon made good his passage. 

HAND. [Man.] 

HANDEL, GEORGE FREDERICK, who, from hav- 
ing passed nearly the whole of his life in this country, and 
t>i^uced in it all his great works, the English feel some 
right to claim as their own, was bom at Halle, in Saxony, 
on the 24th of February, 1684. He was the issue of a 
second marriage, which his father, an eminent physician 
and surg:eon, contracted aAer he had reached his grand 
climacteric. This son of his rather advanced ago he des- 
tined fur the profession of the civil law, but tlie child's 
passion for music, his sacrifice of play-hours, often of his 
meals, to its pursuit, and the determined manner in which 
he evaded or resisted all attempts to divert him from a 
purpose nature seems to have prompted, at length softened 
the obduracy of his father, who, by the earnest advice of the 
duke of Saxe-Weissenfels, placed him under Friedrich 
Zacbau, organist of the cathedral of Halle, an excellent 
musician. This professor soon made so willing a pupil 
Acquainted with the principles of the science aiiu the laws 
of harmony ; he then placed in his hands the best works 
of the greatest composers, without directing his attention 
to any one in particular, thus leaving him to form a style of 
his own out of an acquaintance with numerous models of 
acknowledged suocriority. So successful was this plan of 
ciducation, that tne youthful student composed a set of 
sontitas when only ten years of age, which was in the pos- 
session of George II L, and most probably still forms a part 
of tliv Queeu*s library. 

Handel continued his attendance on the same master 
till he attained his fourteenth year, when ho was taken to 
Berlin, whcm the Italian opera was (louiishing \mder the 
dirertiun of Bononcini and Ariostt, afterwards his rivals in 
London. He there attracte<l the notice of the elector, who 
proposed to send him to Italy, which ofTer, for somo reason 
unknown, Mas declined by his father, who shortly after 
died; and from this perictd we lose all trace of the young 
1 andel till the year 1703, when he reached Hamburg, in 
which city he may be said to have commenced his pro- 
fes>ional life. He there found Reinhard Kei>er in the 
office of director of the opera, a composer of the highest 
celebrity, but whose expensive and somewhat dissipated 
habits led him fre'{uently to ab^snt himself from his post, 
on ^hicb occasions Haiulv'l was appointed to fill his situa- 
tiont » pr«leieaoe so irritating to MattbeMn, an able 



musician and a volnminous writer on th« art, that he rio* 
lentl^ assailed his favoured rival. A duel ensued, an 
nothmg but a scores buttoned under Handera ooat, on which 
his antagonist's weapon broke, aaved a life that soor 
proved oi such inestimable value. Shortly after this ho 
was employed to set a drama entitled Almeria^ the succe^^ 
of which was remarkable; it ran thirty nights uninter- 
ruptedly. Next year he produced FloriruLu and Nenme 
in the vear following, botn of which were as favourably 
received as his former work. He now found himst-lf 
possessed of the means of visiting Italy, then tlte lin«l 
of song. At Florence he was welcomed in the must 
flattering manner by the grand-duke, and there, in 
1709» produced the opera of RodrigOt for which he was 
rewarded with a hundred sequins (50/.), and a ser^iro <>f 
plate, presents which now seem quite disproportioticd t<> 
each other. He then proceeded to Venice, and br(>u;.'tt( 
oat his Agriypina, which was performed twentyscM n 
nights successively. In this, we are told, horns anil other 
i»ind instruments were first used in Italy, ss accom)*..>. 
ments to the voice. *Here the charms of his music m i !• 
an impression on the fiimous beauty and sin^rer, 8uii< i.i 
Vittoria, a lady particularly distinguished by the trt i:. t 
duke ; but in this, as in every instance of a similar k i. 1 
Handel showed no disposition to avail himself of an) i> i . • 
tialities exhibited in his favour. His thoughts were \u\\ U 
all absorbed by his art; and it is but jast to conclude ih t 
he was also influenced by those sentiments of moral p ••- 
priety which so distinctly marked his conduct thion li 
life. {Gallery qf Poriraits, vol. ii^ p.41.) 

Quitting Venice, Handel wont to Rome, where he i« - 
hospitably entertained by the Cardinal Ottoboni, whu 1. ! 
in his service a band of excellent performers, under u v- 
direction of the famous Corelli [Corblli], with vlu.* .. 
as well as with Domenico Scarlatti, the young Saxon spiked i ;. 
formed an acquaintance. There he produced // 7V/r,/'i 
del Tempo, the text written for him by the Cardinal I'ani- 
philii, and a sacred opera, a kind of mystery. La Ilt^surf,- 
ziotie. The former altered and enlarged, with Entrlt^M 
words by Dr. Morell, he afterwards broueht out in Lond"::. 
as an oratorio, under the name of The Triumph of Tf 
and Truth, From Rome he advanced to Naples; but 1». - 
ing anxious to return to Germany he declined manv prt( 
fcied eni^agemcnts, and in 1710 reached Hano\*er. timli' :; 
there a generous patron in the Elector, afterwards Geor-r I , 
who soon appointed him \i\% Maestro di Capelhu wi I. » 
salary of 1500 crowns, on condition that he would, on i!,** 
termination of his travels, return to perform the duu. • . i 
his office. 

In 1710 this great musician first arrived in Londnu. :j . ! 
was soon honoured by the notice of Queen Anne. Air . 
Hill, then manai^er of the opera, having formed a drama I;. . 
Tasso's Gerusalemme Liber ata, which RoUi worked inn. , .; 
opera under the title of Rtnaldo, Handel set music to ii, .t: 1 
it was produced in March, 1711. He then returned to H.i , • 
ver ; but the attractions of London brought him back t* - 
following year to this metropolis, which lhencer.ru a r 1 
became his home. At the peace of Utrecht he. by iIk 
mieen's command, composed a Te Deum and Jubilal^.\ I r 
the rejoicings on that event, A pension of two hundnd 
pounds was the reward of this ser\-ice. His pruni vo 'j 
return to Hanover was now either forgotten or its fulflluu . t 
delayed; when, in 1741. the demise of Queen Anne pl;» 1 
the elector of Hanover on the Rritis>h throne. Hji,:. . 
taken by surprise, and conscious of having offended 1 * 
patron, did not dare present himself at court; bi i I .« 
friend Baron Kilmansegge having contri\ed that he A\* 
meet the kirg. during a royal excur>ii)n uu the Tli:ij. . 
with a band of wind-instruments, playnij? the chiu. 
H'ater-Music, written for the occasion', the ciimp-^f »• 
again received into favour, and never afler lo>t .he i . 
protection. His pension was immediately doublctl ; ;i . 
many years afler, when appointed to leach the ptindx . 
Queen Caroline, consort of Georn;e 11., adde<l another : 
to the former grants; making altogether 600^. pur ann. • 
no small income a century ago. From 1 7 1 5 to 1 7 1 8 1 L. • ' . 
was an inmate in the house of the Earl of Burlington. \\ lu . 
he constantly met Pope, whose regard for the German r 
poser is manifbst from all he said and wrote oonccrninj: h . • 
During the same period he produced three operas, Atut." . 
Tesen^ and 11 Pastor Fido, be:>ides several detarhed i».e« i - 
In 1 7 1 8 he undertook the direction of the Duke of Chun •! /» 
chapel at Cannonsi for ivhich he composed many fine an* 



HAN 



40 



U A N 



more and mote moist, and at last is saturated ; this circum- 
ambient humidity is re-absorbed by the leaves, or branches, 
or soil, and thus restored to the plant which had lost it; in 
addition to vhich, perspiration itself necessarily goes on 
the more slowly in proportion as the air itself is charged 
with humidity. It may also be presumed that a handglass, 
or any such transparent cover, keeps the temperature in 
which the plant breathes higher than the external air, and 
thus stimulates the languid powers of vegetation. 

HA'NNIBAL, the ion of Hamilcar Barcas, was bom 
B.C. 247. At the age of nine he accompanied his father to 
Spain, who, previous to his departure, took his son to the 
altar, and placing his hand on the victim, made him swear 
that he would never be a friend to the Romans. It does 
not appear how long Hannibal remained in Spain, but lie 
was at a very early age associated with Hasdrubal, who suc- 
ceeded his father in the command of the Cathaginian army 
in that country. On the death of Hasdrubal, b.c. 221, he 
obtained the undivided command of the army, and quickly 
conquered the Olcades, Vaccsans, Carpesians, and the other 
Spanish tribes that had not been subdued by Hasdrubal. 
Tne inhabitants of Saguntum, alarmed at his success, sent 
messengers to Rome to inform the Romans of their dan- 
ger. A Roman embassy was accordingly sent to Hannibal, 
who was passing the winter at New Carthage, to announce 
to him that the independence of Saguntum was guaranteed 
by a treaty between the Carthaeinians and Romans (con- 
cluded B.C. 226), and that they »iould consider any injury 
done to the Saguntines as a declaration of war against 
themselves. Hannibal however paid no regard to this re- 
monstrance. 

More than twenty years had elapsed since the ter- 
mination of the iii-st Punic war, during which neriod the 
Carthaginians had recovered their strength, ancl had ob 
tained possession of the greater part of Spain; and the 
favourable opportunity had arrived for renewing the war 
with the Romans. 

In B.C. 219 Hannibal took Saguntum, aAer a siege of 
e<ght months, and employed the winter in making pre- 
parations for the invadiun of Italy. He first provided 
ior the security of Africa and Spain by leaving an army 
of about 16,000 men in each country; the army in Africa 
consisted principally of Spanish troops, and that in Spnin 
of Africans, under the command of his brother Hais- 
drubal. He had already received promise of support from 
the Gauls who inhabited the north of Italy, and who 
were anxious to deliver themselves from the Roman do- 
minion. 

Having thus made every necessary preparation he 8et 
out fh)m New Carthage late in the sprin*r of b c. 218, >vith 
an army of 80,000 foot and 12,000 hoi*se. In his march 
from the Ebro to the Pyrenees he was opposed by a great 
number of the native tribes, but they were quickly de- 
feated though with loss. Before crossing the Pyrenees he 
left Hanno to secure his recent conquests with a det;ioh- 
ment fh)m his own army of II,OOU men. He sent back 
the same number of Spanish troops to their own cities, and 
with an army now reduced to 50,000 foot and 9000 horse, 
he advanced to the Rhone. Meantime two Roman armies 
had been levied ; one, commanded by the consul P. Cor- 
nelius S( ipio, was intended to oppose Hannibal in Spain, and 
a second, under the other consul T. Sempronius, was de- 
sii^ned fur the invasion of Africa. The departure of Scipio 
wns delayed by a revolt of the Boian and Insubrian Gauls, 
ai^ainst whom the army was sent which had been intended 
for the invasion of Spain, under the command of one of 
the prstors. Scipio was therefore obliged to remain in 
Rome till a new army could be raised. When the forces 
were ready he sailed with them to the Rhone and anchored 
in the eastern mouth of the river; being persuaded that 
Hannibal must still be at a considerable distance from him, 
as the country through which he had to march was dilllcult, 
and inhabited by many warlike tribes. Hannibal however 
quickly surmounted all these obstacles, crossed the Rhone, 
though not without some opposition from the Gauls, and 
continued his march up the left bank of the river. Scipio 
did not arrive at the place where the Carthaginians had 
crossed the river till throe days afterwards ; and despairing 
of overtakinf^ them, he sailed back to Italy with the inten- 
tion of meetmg Hannibal when he should descend from 
the Alps. Scipio sent his brother Cnaeus into Spain with 
"^-» greater part of the troops to oppose Hasdrubal. 

lODibal continued his march up the Rhone till he came 



to the Is^re. Marchins along that river, he crowad the 
Alps (probably) by the Little St Bernard, dncended into 
the vaUey of the Dora Baltea, and followed the course of 
the river till he arrived in the territories of the Insubrian 
Gauls. The passage of Hannibal across the Alps has been 
a matter of much dispute. Whittaker, in a work entiU«ti 
'The Course of Hannibal over the Alna ascertained,* 
Lond., 1794, 2 vols. Svo., maintains that the passage wa* 
made over the Great St. Bernard: thoae who wish fur 
further information on the subject may consult * A Disser- 
tation on the Passage of Hannibal over the Alpa,' by Wick- 
ham and Cramer, 2nd ed., Oxford. 

Hannibal completed his march from New Carthage to 
Italy in five montns, during which he lost a great number 
of men, especially in his passage over the Alps. According 
to a statement engraved by his order on a column at Lact* 
nium, in Bruttia, which' Polybius saw, his army was 
reduced to 12,000 Africans, 8000 Spaniards, and 6000 
cavalry, when he arrived in the teiritories of the Insubrian 
Gauls. After remaining some time among the InsubrianA 
to recruit his army, he marched southward and enoounteced 
P. Cornelius Scipio on the ri^ht bank of the river Ticinus 
(Tesino). In the battle which ensued the Romans were 
defeated, and Scipio with the remainder of the army re- 
treating along the left bank of the Po, crossed the hyer 
before Hannibal could overtake him, and encamped near 
Placentia. He afterwards retreated more to the south, and 
entrenched himself strongly on the right bank of the 
Trebia, where he waited for the arrival of the army under 
the other consul T. Sempronius. Sempronius had already 
crossed over into Sicily with the intention of sailing u» 
Africa, when he was recalled to join his colleague. After 
the union of the two armies Sempronius determined, again b.t 
the advice o^ Scipio, to risk another battle. The skill and 
fortune of Hannibal a^ain prevailed; the Romans wtrrt 
entirely defeated, and the troops which survived took re- 
fuge in the fortifled cities. In consequence of these vk-* 
tories the whole of Cisalpine Gaul (the northern part of 
Italy) fell into the hands of Hannibal ; and the GaulN uh> 
on ins first arrival were prevented from joining him by t iir 
presence of Scipio*s army in their country, now eager .^ 
assisted him with men and supplies. 

In the following year (b.c. 217) the Romans made !*?>> .'.? 
preparations to oppose their formidable enemy. Two !>« . 
armies were leviea ; one was posted at Arret lum, under * li.* 
command of the consul Flaminius, and the other at Ai*- 
minum, under the other consul Servilius. Hanmun 
determined to attack Flaminius first. In his march v>uih 
ward through the swami>s of the basin of the Arno !. - 
army suffered greatly, and he himself lost the sight of or* 
eye. After resting his troops for a short tune in 1 1 v 
neighbourhood of Frosuls, he marched past ArrK'tu;- . 
rava^ng the country as he went, with the view of dr-w.. 
out Flaminius to a battle. Flaminius, who apjears u* hj. . 
been a rasli, headstrong man, hastily followed Uannihal, a' . 
being attacked in the basin of the Lake Trasimenum, n , 
completely defeated by the Carthaginians, who were pvMi . 
on the mountains which encircled the valley. Thnt- . 
four days after Hannibal cut off a detachiuent uf U* n 
c-avah-y, amounting to 4000 men, which bad been >ciii ■ > 
Servilius to assist his colleague. 

Hannibal appears to have entertained ho]M's of i>veri ht • 
ing the Roman dominion, and to liave e\)Kxted that 
other states of Italv would take up arms against Rome, 
order to recover their independence. To cunciha.v i. * 
affectionsof the Italians, he dismissed without ransom z.i 
the prisoners whom he took in battle ; and to give them j 
opportunity of joining his army, he marched slow]) aJo-.?: 
the eastern side of the peninsula, through Umbria and P.- 
cenum, into Apuha ; but he did not meet with that ct> upr 
ration which he appears to have expected. 

After the defeat of Flaminius, Q. Fabius Maximos wt » 
appointed dictator, and a defensive system of warfisre wa* 
adopted by the Romans till the end of the year. 

In the following year, b.c. 216, the Romans resolved u| -i 
another battle. An army of 80,000 foot and 6.000 b««r»« 
was raised, which was commanded by the consuls L. Mui • 
lius Paulus and C. Terentius Varro. The Carthaginian ara t 
now amounted to 40,000 foot and 10,000 horse. The amii«'« 
were encamped in the neighbourhood of Cannn, in Apu'.ia 
In the battle which was fought near this place tbe 
Romans were defeated with dreuiftil eamaice^ and witb a 
1 loss which, as stoted by Polybius, is quite inaudible: Um 



H AK 



42 



HAN 



by Falconer, with an English translation and many notes, 
8vo., Lond., 1797. Many remarks uoon this voyage are 
madehy Coropomanes, *Antignedad Maritima de la Re- 

Sublica de Cartogo,* Mad., 1756 ; Bougainville, ' M^moires 
e la Acad^mie des Inscriptions,' vols, xxvu, xxviiL; Gosse- 
lin, ' Recherches sur la Geographic des Anciens ;* Rennell, 
* Geography of Herodotus,' vol ii., p. 409-443, 8vo. ed. ; 
Heeren, ^ Researches on the Antient Nations of Africa,' 
vol. i., p. 492-501, Engl. TransL 

Many other Carthaginians of the name of Hanno are 
mentioned. Of these the most celebrated was the leader of 
the party at Carthage which was opposed to a war with the 
Romans at the time of the first and commencement of the 
second Punic wars 

HANOVER, THE KINGDOM OF. is situated between 
59" 20' and 53" 51'N. lat, and 6** 51' and 11** 51' long. E. of 
Greenwich. It is hounded on the north-west by the German 
Ocean, on the north by the Elbe (which separates it from the 
territories of Hamburg, Denmark, and Mecklenburg), on 
the east and south-east by Prussia and Brunswick ; on the 
south-west by Hesse Cassel, Lippe, and Prussia ; and on the 
west by Holland. The whole contains an area of 14,570 
square miles. 

DivisioTU.— The kingdom of Hanover is divided into 
SIX provinces, called Landdrostei, and one Mining Inten- 
dancy (Berghauptmannschaft), the total population being 
1,662,500 :— 

I. Hanover (320,180 inhabiants) consisU of, 1, the 
principality of Calenberg (177,920 inh.), containing the 
towns of Hanover the capital, Pattensen, Hameln; 2, the 
county of Hoya ( 122, 1 60 inh.), chief town Nienberg; 3, the 
county of Dtepholz (20,100 inh.), chief town Diepholz. 

II. HiLDESHEiM (352,196 inh.) consists of, 1, the prin- 
cipality of Hildesheim (155,014 inh.), chief towns, Hil- 
desheim the capital. Peine, Goslar, Bokenem, Gronau, 
Alfeld; 2, the principality of Gottingen (113,886 inh.), 
chief towns, Gottingen the capital, Miinden, Moringen, 
Uslar; 3, the principality of Grubenhagen (74,187 inh.), 
chief towns, Eimbeck the capital, Osterode, Duderstadt; 
4, the county of Hohrutein (9,109 inh.)i chief towns, Neu- 
stadt, Ilefeld. 

III. LuNKBURG (303,1 1 4 inh.) ; chief towns, Luneburg 
the capital (13,486 inh.), Harburg (5430 inh.). Gelle, other- 
wise Zell (10,137 inh.). 

IV. Stadb (241,142 inh.) consists of, 1, the duchy of 
Bremen (190,119 inh.), chief towns, Stade (5680 inh.), 
Buxtchude; 2, the district of Hadeln (17,400 inh.), chief 
town Ottorndorf (2050 inh.) ; 3, tlie principality of Verden 
(33,563 inh.), chief town Verden (5117 inh.). 

V. OsNABRUCK (263,624 inh.) consists of, 1, the prin- 
cipality of 0«na6ri«c^ (162,534 inh.), chief towns, ($sna- 
briick (12,500 inh.), Fiirstenau, Quackenbriick ; 2, the 
lower county of Lingen (23,014 inh.), chief towns, Freesen 
(2840 inh.), Lingen ; 3, the county of Bentheim (27,209 
^lih^h chief town Bentheim (1530 inh.); 4, the circle of 
Meppen (44,720 inh.), chief towns, Meppen (1820 inh.), 
Pappenburg (4700 inh.) ; 5, the circle of Emsbuhren, part 
of the county Rheina-Wolbeck (5141 inh.), chief town 
Rbetua. 

VL AuRtCR, or the principality of East Friksland 
(153,671 inh.), chief town.% Emden (12,780 inh.), Norden 
(6350 inh). Leer (6573 inh.). 

VII. The Mining Intendancy of Clausthai., or the 
XJPPBR Harz (28,573 inh.), chief towns, Clausthai (8370 
inh.), Gellerfeld (3870 inh.). St. Andreasberg (4310 ink). 

The Lower Harz consists of detached districts on the 
northern and western declivities of the Harz, lying in the 
territory of Hanover and Brunswick, and belonging to both 
m common, Hanover having four-sevenths and Brunswick 
three seveuths of the revenue. 

Hanover, as a member of the (^rman Confederation, is 
the fifth in rank, with four votes in the full council. It fur- 
nishes a contingent of 13,054 men to the army of the Con- 
federation, which forms part of the 10th corps, and contri- 
butes 2000 florins annually to the treasury of the Confe- 
deration« 

I\Mce of the Country^ Soil, Climate.— The southern pro-, 
vincea of Grubenhaeeu and, Gottingen are mbuntainoU^: 
.m the former is the Harz £G^»iiANvi in the latter theSo)- 
lingerwdd. Lower ranges, uniting these, traverse the greater 
MTt of Uiidesheim asd Calenberg; hut from the cities of 
;^ldeaheim,Haiiovef, andpsnahriick, tp the sea -coast, the 
'whole poufktfy ia qfe vaat plaiii, widi only oocaaiohal and; 



not considerable elevations. 'The mountains abound in 
mineral wealth, and are covered with forests of rod pine and 
fir, with some oaks and other timber. The largest oak io 
the kingdom is in the village of Hartmannsbausen, near 
Celle. Its circumference close to the ground is 43 feet, and 
immediately below the first branches 25 feet. Between the 
mountains are the most fertile valleys, and where the country 
slopes f^om the mountains to the plain there is excellent 
arable land. Then follows a sandy tract from 50 to 70 mile^ 
in breadth, which crosses the kingdom from east to west, and, 
where left to itself, is covered with heath, and in some plac«;s 
with fir: it is an elevated flat, broken only towaros the 
north by sand-hills. In the lower tracts are great marshes, 
and the most productive parts are the banks of the rivers. 
All this part of the country is alluvial, and numerous 
marine substances are found preserved in it The 
climate is on the whole mild and temperate, diflTering 
of course according to the relative situation of mountain 
or plain, and the state of cultivation. In the lower parts 
fogs are firequen^ and on the sea-coast violent hurricanea. 
The prevaihng winds are the north-west in winter, the east 
in spring, and the south-west in summer. The principal 
rivers are the Elbe, the Weser, and the Ems, which receive 
in their course numerous secondary streams, as the Alter, 
Leine, Ilmenau, and Liihe, and empty themselves into the 
German Ocean. There are only two large lakes; the 
Steinhudermeer and the Diimersee, which latter abounds in 
fish. In East Frieslaud is the subterraneous Lake Jordan* 
the surface of which is so thickly overgrown with vegetation 
that Waggons can pass over it 

Natural Productiom. — Agriculture is the chief source of 
subsistence to the inhabitants, which is much favoured by 
the facilities for exportation when the harvest is abundant, 
as well as by the transit trade, and the consumption of the 
neighbouring maritime towns. The richest com provinces 
are Hildesheim, Gottingen, the south of Calenberg, the lower 
part of Grubenhagen, the marsh lands on the Elbe, Jecze, 
Oste, Weser, Leine, and Aller, part of Osnabruck and Ea^t 
Frieslaud. In the marsh land the breeding of cattle is 
more followed than agriculture. East Frieslaud has the 
finest breed of cattle: it possesses nearly 100,000 cows, 
50,000 oxen, &c., 50,000 sheep, and excellent horses, of 
which above 5000 are annually exported to Italy. Tim 
immense heaths in the Duchy of Luneburg are partly 
used as sheep-walks, and when the heath is in blossom the 
keepers of bees go with their hives (above 60,000 hi\c>> 
from the villages to the heath : the honey so obtained i& 
valued at 40,Ouo/. per annum. The countrv produces flax, 
tobacco, hops, fruit, pulse, potatoes, &c. Timber is abundant, 
and considerable quantities are exported. If a better sybtcnt 
of agriculture were introduced, the produce of the country 
might be very much increased. Many hundred thousand 
acres of land susceptible of cultivation still lie waste. 

Mantf/actures and Trade. — Manufactures are not car* 
ricd on to any considerable extent Thread and linen 
are manufactured, partly for exportation, at Osnabruck and 
some other places, and woollens and calicoes at Gottingen. 
Munden, and some other towns. The commerce of the 
kingdom, though considerable, is far from being what might 
be expected from its favourable situation and fine navigable 
rivers. It is chiefly confined to the exportation of the pro- 
duce of the country, and the importation of colonial articles, 
English manufactures, French silks, jewellery, and wines, 
fruits, &c The principal commercial port is Emden ; and 
Munden, at the junction of the Werra and the Fulda, hat 
an active trade with the interior of Germanv. There ari> 
four annual fkirs at Hanover, and two at Osnabruck. to 
which goods are brought fi'om the ikirs of Brunswick* 
Leipzig, and Frankfort 

The Revenue of the kingdom is larger than might be ex- 
pected. The new system of financial adminUtration began 
on the 1st of July, 1834. There are two exchequers, the 
Roval General Exchequer, for the revenues of the state, 
and the Exchequer of the Roval Crown Demesnes. The 
latest official account, publishea in AprQ, 1838, is for the 
year ending 1st July, 1837. iTHe Royal demesnes and 
forests had produced a net, Revenue of 2,660,96'« rl\- 
doUars^ of which 513,888 were ^iven iilto the Cr\.ui4 
Exchequer, and the remaining ^,147,094 rix-dollars iri-^ 
the Geiieral Exchequer. The xeipainder of the n'>cnue 
was produced by the mines and saltiworks, the U)iu uti 
the Blbe and Wese^^,,,tli0 post-oflice^ direct and indircri 
taxes» export, import, and txmdatt dMUes^ Thf ^tal ncz 



HAN 



43 



HAN 



Wfeliue WM 6,306,173 rix dollars, being 445,876 above tbe 
estimate. The total expenditure was 5,747,994, leaving a 
surplus of 558,579 rix-aollars. 

The military establishment is 20,000 infantry, 2700 ca- 
valry, and 18,000 militia, or Landwehr. All men able to 
bear arms» from the age of 17 to that of 50, without ex- 
ception, are liable to serve in the Landsturm, or local mili- 
tia. There are 10 garrison towns. The manufSiustures con- 
nected with the army are, one of small-arms at Herzberg, 
one of gunpowder at Hersen, and a cannon- foundry in Ha- 
nover. 

Religion, Education, National Church,-^The religion is 
Protestant: of the inhabitants, 1,340,000 are Lutherans, 
100,000 Calviniats, and about 2000 Mennonites and 
Moravians. There are 210,000 Roman Catholics and 
10,000 Jews. In 1830 a superior board was established 
in Hanover for the direction of all matters relative to the 
schools. Hanover has a university at Gottingen [Gorrm- 
gen] ; an acadenay for the equestrian order ; an academy 
for the general staflf, founded in 1824 ; a seminary for school- 
masters; 16 gymnasia; 20 central schools; 5 seminaries; a 
surgical and two veterinary schools; and 3426 schools in the 
towDs and country, of which 3085 are Protestant, and 341 
Roman Catholic;, There are besides, numerous poorhouses 
and work-houses and charitable institutions. 

Bistort/. — In the remotest times of which we have any 
record the countries between the Elbe and the Weser were 
inhabited by small independent tribes of hunters and 
herdsmen. Tlie Cherusci, celebrated for their victory over 
the Roman General Quintilius Varus, dwelt about thd Harz 
and far into Westphalia ; the Chauci were at the mouth 
of the Wese^ ; the Longobardi, or Lombards, on both sides 
of the Elbe. When Cftiarlemagne first introduced the 
Christian religion, the country was in the power of the 
Saxons. Though subsequently, as the imperial power de- 
clined, many powerful lords, both spiritual and temporal, 
arose, with altnast despotic authority, yet the condition of 
the people improved ; the mines of the Harz and the salt 
springs of Luneburg were discovered, and a considerable 
traffic began, by which Bardowieck and Gandersheim in 
particular profiteid. Otho the Great gave, in 970, the inves- 
titure of the duchy of Saxony to Hermann Rilling, a weal- 
thy lord in Liineburg, in whose fkmily it remained till the 
death of the last descendant, Magnus, in 1 1 07. His succes- 
sor, Henry the black, duke of Bavaria, and brother of 
Guelf, or Wel£ a prince of the north of Italy, marrjing h 
princess of the house of Billing, obtained with her the duchy 
of Lunebure, and afterwards acquired Brunswick, Gottin- 
gen, and other principalities. His son, Henry the Lion, 
fU\x)ured trade, though he treated With great severity the 
towns that resisted him; for instance, Bardowieck, which 
he totally destroyed in 1189. 

The broils and troubles which continued for nearly a 
hundred years after his death proved the advantage of 
living in fortified towns. Numerous little republics rose, 
several of which became considerable cities. The Hanseatio 
League found great favour here, and of the 85 towns com- 
po^ng that celebrated confederation, 1 3 were in the present 
kingdom of Hanover. We cannot trace the various parti- 
tions of territory which took place in consequence of the 
division of the fkmily into different branches, all which 
h^vc however become extinct, except those of Brunswick 
Wolfenbtittel and Brunswick Liinebuig, the latter of which 
succeeded to the throne of England on the death of Queen 
Anne in 1712. [Gkoroe Louis L] In consequence of 
this event the electors of Hanover continued to be kings of 
Great Brihiin, till, on the death of his late majesty William 
IV^ lh« crown of Great Britain devolving on Queen Vic- 
toria, and the succession to the throne of Hanover beinff 
Lmited to the male line, the two countries were separated, 
and the Duke of Cumberland, eldest surviving brother of 
King WiUiam, ascended the throne of Hanover by the name 
of Ernest Augustus. That Hanover ^ned great advan- 
tages by the union of the two crowns m one person cannot 
be denied, but whether they were not more than compen- 
sated by the disadvantages is a question that has often been 
di- cu5sed, but still remains doubtful. It is at least certain, 
that with the eighteenth century a period of prosperity 
commenr>ed such as Hanover had not yet seen. But then 
it ro-operated with Great BriUin in the war of 1741, and 
in the Seven Years' War, which latter was peculiarly dis- 
aatiDus to it, as the country was through the whole time the 
arena of hostile armies* and suffered both from ^friends and 



foes. The tranquillity which Northern Germany enjoyed 
for nearly 30 years after the peace of Paris. 1763, and the 
vast increase of the commerce of England in North 
America, doubled the trade of Bremen, Hamburg, and 
Altona with the interior of Germany, which was still fur- 
ther augmented from 1792 to 1803 by the ruin of tho 
commerce of France and Holland ; and this trade being 
carried on from those seaports through Hanover, gave an 
extraordinary impulse to the prosperity of that kingdom. 

From the spring of 1793 Hanover took part in the war 
with France ; but in 1 795 was included in the convention 
between France and Prussia for the neutrality of the North 
of Germany. In the spring of 1801, when differences arose 
between England and the Northern powers, Prussia occu- 
pied Hanover as hostile territory; but the death of the 
Emperor Paul produced another change, and the Prussians 
left Hanover. Bonaparte took possession of it in 1803, 
and treated it like a conquered country. In 1805, when 
the alliance was concluded between Austria, England, 
Prussia, and Sweden, it was hoped that Prussia would join, 
but instead of that, Prussia declared, on April 1, 1806, that 
Hanover had been ceded by France in exchange for An- 
spach, Cleve, and Neuchatel, and was for ever incorporated 
with P^issia. Bonaparte however again took possession of it 
in the following year; when the greater part of it was included 
in the new kingdom of Wes^ihalia, and the remaining part 
administered by a French governor-general. In 1810 the 
whole of the former electorate, except Liineburg, was 
assigned to Westphalia; but before the end of the year 
Napoleon drew a line opposite Liineburg, from the Elbe, 
in a south-west direction, through the kingdom of West- 
phalia, and all to the north of that line, with the Hanseatio 
cities, Oldenburg, &c., was incorporated with the French 
empire. After the battle of Leipzig in 1813, the whole 
electorate was restored to the lawful sovereign, who assumed 
in 1815 the title of King of Hanover, that of elector having 
in fact ceased by the dissolution of the German empire. In 
1816 the Duke of Cambridge was appointed governor- 
general ; in 1 8 1 9 a constitution was introduced with a general 
assembly of the estates of the kingdom in one cluimber. 
In spite of many improvements, the people became dissatis- 
fied with the government, and the French Revolution in 
July, 1830, gave the signal for disturbances at Osterode, on 
the 5tli of January, 1831, and for more serious troubles at 
Gottingen on the 8th of May, which were however suppressed 
by the intervention of the military. In 1831 the duke of 
Cambridge was made viceroy, and a new constitution, agreed 
to by the estates, was in 1 833 sanctioned as the constitution 
of the kingdom by King William IV., who however, without 
consulting the estates, made of his own authority various 
changes in fourteen of the articles. According to the con- 
stitution of 1833, the general assembly of the estates of the 
kingdom consists of a first and a second chamber. The 
first consists of members personally entitled to sit (as 
princes of the blood, nobles, or by virtue of their offices, 
such as the hereditary postmaster-general and the abbot of 
Loccum), and the deputies of the equestrian order. The 
second chamber is composed of the deputies of the towns, 
of certain religious foundations, and of the landowners 
and farmers. The depiities are elected for six years, 
and meet annually. What the constiiution may be when 
this article is printed is uncertain ; for his present majesty. 
King Ernest Augustus, soon after his accession declared 
the constitution not to be binding on him, partly on account 
of the changes arbitrarily made by WiUiam IV. (though 
the estates would not reject the constitution of 1833 on that 
account), and partly because he had not given his assent to 
it. He has accordingly abolished it, dissolved the as- 
sembly of the estates, and convoked a new assembly 
accoraing to the constitution of 1819, to which he has pre- 
sented a plan for a new constitution, which is now (May, 
1838) actually under discussion. The result seems very 
doubtful ; many public ofiScers who took the oaths to the 
constitution of 1833 consider it to be still binding ; seven 
of the professors of Gottingen published a vehement pro- 
test against the king's proceeding, and were dismissed by 
him in consequence. Several of the principal towns have 
refused to elect deputies, so that there are scarcely mem- 
bers enough present to transact any business. The affair 
causes an extraordinary sensation throughout Germnny, 
and the conduct of the king has been most bitterly cen- 
sured bv some, though it is defended by others. 

HANOVER, the capital of the kingdom and of tha 

Q% 



HAN 



44 



H A N^ 



principality of Calenberg. lies in 52"" 22' N. lat. and 9"* 42' 
E. long. It it situated in an agreeable, well-cultivated 
plain, on tbe river Leine, which is navigable from the city 
to its junction with the Weser. The city consis»ts of three 
parts, the OldTown, tbe iBgidian New Town, and the New 
Town on the left bonk of the river. In the first tbe streets 
are for the most part crooked and narrow, and the houses 
old fashioned and irregular ; but the two other parts are hand- 
somely and regularly built. In the last is George Street, 
consisting of a row of houses built on one plan, and facing 
the rampart now converted into nublic walks« A tract or 
suburb outside of the walls, called the Gartcngemeinde, 
contains above 500 houses with handsome gardens. The 
most interesting public buildings are the palace (with the 
opera-house and palace church), which the French converted 
into barracks and an hospital, and which is now used for 
the government offices, the palace of the duke of Cambridge, 
the mint, the arsenal, the royal mews, the town-hall, with 
a good library of 40,000 vols., the royal library with the 
archives, both situated on the esplanade (or parade). Han- 
over has also four Lutheran, one German Calvinist, one 
French Calvin is t, and one Roman Catholic church, and a sy- 
na'^ogue. Among the charitable institutions are the Orphan 
As>lum, infirmaries, hospitals, and poor-houses. For the 
purposes of education there is a lyceum, a female school of 
industry, many elementary schools, and a seminary for 
fcchuol masters. The Georgianum was founded in 1776, for 
the education of forty sons of Hanoverian nobles, who are ad- 
mitted at the age of ten years, paying; a small sum on their 
admi^sion, after which the expense of their education is de- 
frayed by the establishment. A flourishing Bible Society 
has been establiahed here for some years. Tlie manufac- 
tures aie numerous, and tne trade extensive. In the neigh- 
bouihood are the royal country palace of Montbrillant, the 
gardens formerly belonp^ng to (3ount Walmoden, and now 
to the crown, with fine collections of works of art, and the 
royal palace of Herrenhausen. The approach to this build- 
ing, which is by no means remarkable for its architecture, 
is by a long avenue of lime-trees. The pleasure-grounds 
are extensive, in which there are remarkable water-works 
that throw up a column of water as thick as a man*s body to 
the height of 120 feet. The orangery, greenhouses, and hot- 
houses of Herrenhausen were formerly very celebrated, and 
the collection of rare e.xotics supposed to be exceeded only by 
that of the emperor of Austria at Schoenbrunn. But the 
French carried away all the finest plants, particularly an 
almost unique collection of Cape heaths, as they did the 
swans from the parks, to adorn the empress Josephine's 
seat at Malmaison. Great efforts have since been made to 
10] lace the loss. 

Hanover wai founded at the latter end of the eleventh 
century, and in 1203 was assignerl to the eldest son of Henry 
the Lion. In 1641 duke Christian Louis took up his abode 
in the palace which had been lately erected, and it has ever 
Since betrn the residence of the prince and the capital of 
tiic ctMintry. In 1 72.i the alliance between England, France, 
a id Prussia was concluded here: and in 174d the conven- 
tion which pre<*edcd the peace of Dresden. The walls, with 
five i^ateis, and broad ditches, were partly levelled in 1780, 
and laid out in streets, and the remainder converted into a 
handsome esplanade, on which is the marble bust of Leib- 
nitz, by an Irish sculptor of the name of Hewetson, placed 
under a cupola in the antique style ; and the Waterloo 
Column, 162 feet high, with the figure of Victory on the 
summit, which was finished in 18.32. 

tSjiielckcr's Description qfthe City qf Hanover, Hanover, 
IHID ; and W. L/}hmann, Geachichtsoiriss tmd Topog. Ge- 
nuiUie der Stadt Hanover, H. D. A. Sonne, ErdSbeschrei- 
btdftsr dett Kottig. Hanover; H. Liiden, D<u Kon. Hanover; 
C P. Jansen, Statist. Handbuch des Konig, Hanover^ be- 
sides numerous lo<*al and provincial works.) 

H.\NSE TOWNS, called also the Hansa,and the Han- 
seitic League, a celebrated commercial confederacy, which 
took its name from the antient German word * Hanse,' sig- 
nif)ing an association for mutual support, in which sense 
it :s UM'd in two charters granted by king John, in 1 199, to 
DunwK h in Norfolk and to the city of York. The cities 
of Ha.nbur;^, Ltibeck, and Bremen were in the middle ages 
the dcpo^itorii^ of the manufactures of Italy and Germany, 
ira(K)rted by sea, with which they suppUed the northern coun- 
tries of Europe in exchange for their raw produce. Tbe wealth 
** they acquired b) their commerce excited the envy and 
lacity of the princes and nobles; tlie imposition of new 



and the augmentation of old tolls were great impediments te 
trade, whicn was likewise rendered tmsafe by numeroiu 
banditti and pirates who infested the roads and the neigh- 
bouring leas and ri%*ers. In order to protect the commerce 
on the Elbe and the German Ocean, Hamburg; concluded 
in 1239 an alliance with the inhabitants of Ditmarsch, at 
that time independent, and those of the land of Hadeln. 
Two years later Lubeck concluded a similar allianco with 
Hamburg ; the two cities engaged to maintain ships and 
soldiers at their ioint expense, to clear the road be- 
tween the Elbe and the Trave, and the waters from Ham- 
burg to the ocean, from robbers and |iirates; and they 
fhrtner bound themselves to promote their commercial in- 
terest, and to defend their rights and privilege The city 
of Brunswick, v.hich was used by those twociiies as a staple, 
joined the alliance in 1247; for while Italy was in posse^^n 
of the trade to the Levant and India, a commercial route 
was opened, throueh the upper Palatinate, Franoonia, and to 
the east of the Harz, by way of Brunswick to Hamburg. 
Other cities soon followed the example of Brunswick, and 
joined the league. The cities were divided into four classes, 
or quarters, the chief cities of which were Ltibeck, Cologne, 
Brunswick, and Danzig. Liibeck was at the head of the 
league, issued the summons for the regular assemblies of 
the deputies of all the cities, which were held once in three 
years at Whitsuntide (the first in 1260), and also for the 
extraordinary assemblies, generally held once in ten veara, 
in which they solemnly renewed their league, admitted new 
members, and excluded those that had not observed ail 
obligations, compacts, &c Lubeck also had the oommoa 
treasury and the archives. 

In 1 266 they established in London their fiustory called 
the Steelyard. The number of the towns composing the 
League fluctuated; the greatest number was eighty -five, 
among which were Bergen in Norway, Berlin, Bremen, 
Brunswick, Colberg, Cologne, Cracow, Danzig, Devon ter 
Dorpat, Elbing, Frankfort on the Oder, Goslar, Goctingea. 
Groningen, Halberstadt, Halle, Hamburg, Hameln, Hano- 
ver, Hudesheim, Koaigsberg, Liibeck, Liineburg, Magde- 
burg, Milnster, Nimeguen, Osnabriick, Reval, Riga, Rure- 
monde, Stade, Stettin, Stralsund, Thorn, Venloo, Warberg 
in Sweden, Wesel, Wisby in the Isle of Gothland, Wismar, 
Zutphen, and ZwoU in Guelderland. Their four principa.1 
factories in foreign countries were at London, Bruges, N^ 
vogorod, and Bergen. 

This powerful confederacy formed the first systematic 
plan of commerce known in the middle ages. In its fac- 
tories a discipline approaching in rigour that of the mona.*v 
teries was observed, which even extended to the celibacy «.>r 
factors, clerks, &c The power of the Hansa ruse datl>. 
The cities enjoyed in England the privilege of export u.g 
G^oods duty-free, and in I^nmark of importing dut\-(fi :• 
Their alliance was courted and their hostility Ycar«.i 
by the greatest powers. The Hanseatic League defiaicd 
kings Erich and Hakon, in Norway, and Waldemar 111, 
king of Denmark, in 1348; they deposed Magnus, kii.,; 
of Sweden, and gave his crown to bis nephew Albect, 
duke of Mecklenburg; they equipped in 1428 a tit et 
of 248 ships, with 12,000 soldiers on board, a«niii^«' 
Erich, king of Denmark ; and the League conclude <l 
commercial treaties with Denmark, Flanders, and Englan'I. 
where Heni^ III., in 12G6, granted them great immunities. 
But when the roads and seas were no longer insecure ; 
when princes began to be sensible of the commercial mic 
rest of their own states ; and above all, when the disco%cry 
of America, and the way to India by the Cape of G« . d 
Hope, gave an entirely new form and direction to com- 
merce, the Hanseatic League gradually declined, and ac 
the last general assembly at Lu^k, in 1630, the deputit-^ 
from the several cities appeared merely to declare the.r 
secession iVom the League. Hamburg, Liibeck, and Bnu. a 
formed an association in 1641, and remained firce repub- 
lics till December, 1810, when they were incorporated vi; *i 
the French empire, but on the deliverance of German y n 
1813 they were again separated from France, and >»i h 
Fran kfort-on-the- Maine are now called the free llan*«.a*j - 
Cities of the Germanic Confederation. For a parttru.:.r 
account of their connexion with Englatid, see Stkslya>jv 
There are numerous works treating of this league. 1 . 
English, vol. i. of Anderson's * Deduction of Trade a . i 
Commerce' may be consulted. Tbe most recent work 
German is F. SartoriusV ' Histor}* of the German H 
3 vols., 1 802-8, continued by LAppenbeig, 2 Tola., 183U 



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H A R 



46 



BAR 



may ckne. In 1715 bo edited a now edition of 'The 
Cbuncds,* printed at the royal press in 12 vols, folio. 

pare Hardouin diedat Paris, Sept. 3rd, 1729. After his 
death a volume of his ' Opuscula, in folio, was published 
by an anonymous friend. 

HARDWICKE, PHILIP YORKK (first Earl oO, 
was the son of an attorney at Dover, where he was bom 
the 1st December, 1690. His father was in very indifferent 
circumstances, and wholly unable to afford him the educa* 
tion generally bestowed upon young men in his station of 
life. The great abilities of the son enabled him however 
to surmount all difficulties. He was a great favourite with 
Mr. Samuel Morland, a man of considerable learning, who 
kept a school at Bethnal Green, at which he was placed 
for a short time. When removed to the office of Mr. 
Salkeld, an eminent solicitor in London, his diligence and 
talents won the respect and esteem of that gentleman also. 
So steady was his perseverance, and so rapid his progress 
in the knowledge ox the law, that Mr. Salkeld caused him 
to be entered of the Middle Temple, in November, 1708. 
as a preparatory step to his call to the bar. During the 
time he waa keeping his terms» he became acquainted with 
Mr. Parker, one of ue sons of Lord Chief-Justice Maccles- 
field, the conseauenoe of which was an introduction to Lord 
Macclesfield, wno highly appreciated Yorke*s merits, and 
employed him as the companion and tutor of his sons. To 
this lucky acouaintance the rapid and extraordinary 
success of Mr. Yorke at the bar is mainly attributable. In 
May, 1715, he was called to the bar, when the support of 
his old benefactor Salkeld, who was in very extensive 
practice as a solicitor, together with the favour and patron- 
age of Lord Macclesfield, enabled him at the very outset to 
acquire an extensive practice: indeed the fovouritism of 
Lord Macclesfield, even in court, justly offended and ag> 
grieved many old and eminent practitioners. 

The elevation of Lord Macclesfield to the woolsack (1719) 
enabled bim Airtber to promote the interests of his favourite, 
and accordingly, through his interference, in the same year 
Yorke took his seat in the House of Commons as member 
for I^wes, the whole expenses of his election being de- 
frayed by the ministry. In the same year he married 
Mrs. Lygon, a young widow, the daughter of Mr. Cooks, 
a gentleman of good estate in Worcestershire, and the 
niece of Lord Somers and Sir Joseph Jekyl, then master 
of the rolls. 

In March, 1720, while upon the circuit, and within five 
years after his call to the bar, he was, through the influence 
of liis patron the chancellor, appointed solicitor-general. 
This step was a very hazardous one ; for besides the profes- 
sional jealousy which was perhaps not unjustly excited to- 
wards him, he had to contend with the doubts felt by all 
parties whether so young a man could be possessed of suffi- 
cient learning and experience to discharge the duties of a 
leading counseL The talents however which he displayed 
in tlic conduct of the business in which he was employed 
soon made it evident that he was fully equal to the duties of 
his new station. Shortly alter his appointment he was 
knighted, and in 1 724 he was made attorney-general. It 
was after this period that his patron. Lord Macclesfield, 
was impeached for gross corruption in office, and Sir 
Philip Yorke had great difficulty in procuring himself to 
he excused from the task of assisting the managers of the 
Commons in making good their charge. In 1733, having 
held the office of attorney -general nearly ten years, he was 
appointed lord-chief-justice of the King's Bench, and created 
Baron Hardwicke. He presided in the King's Bench for 
three years and a half, during which period he added largely 
to his former high reputation. On the death of Lord Chan- 
cellot Talbot (1737) he waa raised to the dignity of lord 
chancellor. It is upon his Judgments as chancellor that 
the Imputation of Lm Hardwicke is principally founded ; 
he held the great seal during nearly twenty years, dispensing 
ju8tit:e throughout that period with the most consummate 
skill at a time when the principles of equity jurisdiction 
were by no means in a settled state. His integrity was 
never called in question ; the wisdom of his decrees was 
the theme of universal eulogy, and it is a remarkable fact 
that during the whole time that he presided in the Court of 
Chancery three only of his judgments were appealed from, 
and those were confirmed by the House of Lords. In 1 754 
"a created Earl of Hardwicke and Viscount Royston. 
n tinned to bold the great seal until the 191h of No- 
^r, 1756 j the Duka of Newcastle having resigned 



the premiership on the 11th. After hii retiremeiit ftom 

public life Lora Hardwicke divided his time between hia 
seat at Wimpole in Cambridgeshire and his house in Groa- 
venor Sauare, enjoving unimpaired hit vigorous intellect until 
nearly tne close of hia 73rd year, when be was attacked by 
a disorder which proved fatal on the 6th March, 1764. Tlie 
labours of Lord Hardwicke*s mind are recorded in his legal 
judgments. They are preserved, so &r as the points de- 
cided by them, in the reports of Atkyns and Vesey, seti., 
and in a volume recently published from Lord Hardwicke* V 
own notes, by Mr. West Some notes of his decisions hav<f 
also been made public by Mr. Lee. These volumes hnu • 
ever do not give any notion of the language in which the 
judgments were delivered. Few specimens of his st) le uf 
writing remain. A short treatise, ' A discourse of the 
Judicial Authority of the Master of the Rolls,* has been 
attributed to him, and some few letters have been presertcd 
by Dr. Birch, It has also been said that he waa the author 
of the paper in the * Soectator* for the 28th April, 1 7 \ £, 
signed Philip Homcbrea; but this statement is eueedingly 
doubtful. 

This brief memoir and the facta and dates are taken from 
a very able Life of Lord Hardwicke, in the 3rd No. of the 
* I^w Magazine.' 

HARDYNG, JOHN, one of our old historians. de> 
scended of a respectable northern fiunfly, was born in 1374. 
and at the early age of twelve was admitted into the family 
of Sir Henry Percy, eldest son to the earl of Northumber- 
land, known by the name of Hotspur, with whom he fought 
as a volunteer at the battles of Homildon and Cokelawo. 
After the death of his patron, whom he accompanied m 
the fl^ht of Shrewsbury, as soon as a pardon nad been 

f proclaimed for the adherents of the Perdes, Hardy ng en- 
iiited under the banner of Sir Robert Umfravile, who was 
connected with the Percies by a£Bnity, and under whom in 
1,405 he became constable of the castle of Warkworth in 
Northumberland. How long he remained at Warkwurih 
is unknown; but his knowledge of Scottish geography 
seems soon to have engaged him in the secret service of hi» 
country. The exact time when Hardyng was first sent to 
obtain restitution of the deeds of homage, which Jiad bev'U 
given up by Mortimer in the minority of Edward III., do«» 
not appear ; but it must have been early in the reign of 
Henr^ V. He remained in Scotland three years and a 
half, indefatigable in the search* and obtained some at the 
hazard of his life. In 1415 we find him, with Sir Robert 
Umfravile, attendant on the king at Harfleur. His journal 
of the march which preceded the memorable battle of Agm- 
court forms one of the most curious passages in his chro- 
nicle. In 1416 he accompanied the duke of Bedford to the 
sea-fight at the mouth of the Seine. 

An obscure notice in a rubric of the Lansdowne manu- 
script of Hardy ng's Chronicle intimates that he wa^ at 
Rome in 1424. Soon after we find him again employed in 
aseertaining the fealty due from the S<»ttish kings. In one 
or two passages of his Chronicle he distinctly alludes to an 
incurable iiyury received, as he himself expresses it, for 
England's nght; and in one or two others ne states the 
oSer of a thousand marks which had been made to him by 
king James I. of Scotland, on condition of his embeialin^ 
some of the earlier iustniments he had procured. The 
letter of protection from king James, making this offer, is 
still preserved among the antient deeds in the Chapter 
House at Westminster. In another passage of his Chr\>- 
nicle, as well as in an address to king Henry VI., Hardy a^ 
mentions 450 marks as the price for which he obtained 
some other of the deeds of homage. Notwithstanding the^c 
declarations however several writers have considered our 
author as a dexterous and notable forger, who manufac- 
tured the deeds for which he sought reward. The spuriousi 
instruments by which king David IL and king Robert II. 
were made to acknowledge the superiority of Eni^land ap- 
pear principally to have occasioned this strong change of 
fabrication. But whether Hardyng in his iieid fur hii 
country became the tool of some more powerful person. t.r 
was imposed upon in the purchase of the deeds, cannot now 
be thoroughly ascertained. 

Actively as Hardyng was engaged in life, he seems i> 
have been constantly employed in gathering materials fur 
his Chronicle, the first compositbn of which he finishcJ 
toward the latter end of the minority of Henry VI. The 
lansdowne manuscript already referred to cloece with tlm 
life of Sir Robert Umfravile, who died January 87th U^ 



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H A R 



48 



H A R 



R»4iior» piofiMBing for tome time the wbig prineiplet of his 
fluniljr. Alter « transiUon period however, in which he 
IbUowed a ooune that perplexed and snroessively excited 
the expectations of all parties, he went fairly over to the 
tones, and soon hecame one of their roost active and effi- 
cient comhatants in the House of Comroons. In the House 
which met under the tory administration of Rochester and 
Godolphin, in Fehruary, 1701, Harley was elected speaker 
by a great majority; and exen in the next parliament, 
which assembled in Decemher ofthe same year, although 
his friends now appeared in diminished numbers, they were 
still strong enougn to place him again in the chair. He 
vas a tbird time dioaen to the same ofRoe by Queen Anne's 
fir^t parliament, in October, 1702, and retained it till April, 

1704, when he was made secretary of state. He is believed 
to have been principally indebted for this promotion to the 
good offices of Miss Abigail Hill, who had been introduced 
into the royal household by her cousin Sarah, Duchess of 
Marlborough, and who was by this time beginning to sup- 
plant her patroness in the queen*s favour. Miss Hill's 
father, it seems, a merchant in the city, who bad fallen 
into distressed circumstances, was as near a relation of 
Harley as her mother was of the duchess ; and this cir- 
cumstance had probably something to do in bringing him 
and the daughter together. Aoeording to the scandal- 
ous chronicle of the duchess of Marlborough, Miss Hill, 
having fixed her affections on Mr. Masham, the queen*s 
page, applied to her cousin Harley for his aid in for- 
\Farding her object: by Harley *s management she he- 
came Mrs. Masham ; and in return she exerted all her in- 
fluence to attach the weak mind of the queen to Harley 
and his friends. It is certain that from this time she and 
Harley acted in confederacy against the Marlborough in- 
terest. In this state of things the latter party began to 
seek a new support by inclining towards the whigs ; and 
various circumstances chanced for the moment to favour 
this line of policy. In the parliament which met in October, 

1 705, the wnigs were stronger than they had been since the 
beginning of the reign ; this sufficed to introduce into the 
cabinet two distinguished members of that party, William 
Cowper Esq. (afterwards Lord Cowper), as lord chancellor, 
and Charles, Earl of Sunderland, the son-in-law of Marl- 
borough, as one of the secretaries of state. But the strug- 
gle was finally decidad aeainst Harley by the public suspi- 
cion and odium to which he became exposed in consequence 
ofthe conviction of one of his clerks named Gre^, for car- 
rying on a treasonable correspondence with France. Gregg, 
who was executed fbr his crime, left a paper with the sheriff, 
in which he entirely exculpated Harley : even this however 
did not allay the outcry a^inst the latter; it was said 
that he himself was the writer of the paper, which he had 
mduced Gregg to sii^n and to deliver by the promise of a 
reprieve. On the other hand, Harley*s friends asserted 
that the strongest endeavours were made by the opposite 
party to suborn Gregg, and to prevail upon him, by the 
promise of a pardon, to accuse Harley. In the beginning 
of Februarv, 1708, after the conviction, but before the exe- 
cution, of 6regg, the Duke of Marlboroueh and Lord Go- 
dolphin intimated to the oueen that unless Harley were 
removed, they would leave ner service; on this, although it 
is believed that the queen was herself willing to incur the 
threatened risk of continuing to support him, the secretary 
resigned, along with his friend St. John (afterwards Lord 
Bolingbroke). Harley remained out of power for about two 
years and a half; at the end of which time the whig mi- 
nistry was partly undermined by his intrigues and those of 
Mrs. Masham, partly destroyed by its own imnnidence and 
over-confidence. In August, 1710, Gkdolpnin was dis- 
missed* and Harley was appointed chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, all the other whig members of the cabinet having 
at toe same time resigned or been turned out, and tories 
put in their places. A new parliament was soon after 
called, which completely sanctioned this arrangement; so 
inflamed was the temper of the pubtic mind against the 
late ministry, that only about a hundred of their friends 
were returned from all England. The duke and duchess 
of Marlborough, and all their connexions, were i^ow copi- 
ptetely discarded both from office uttd n^m the ^tti^nV 
Bvonr, which continued to the end 6f ner VH^ to b^ ^vboHy' 
engrossed bv^cs. Masham (whose hu^baiid wa^ "^oh 'after 
^ade' a peer), and by those to whotal' shd T^ het $nfltieiibe 

* nroteciion. . . ... ^ •. . .".• •..'r>'.^'«j.i.. 

th^ «lb qf Vtir^lL trt'lL^a tfir<j»dnt hA^j^^tMrtoi' 



Harley, which in the end proved ymj aemeeahle to hi* 

schemes of ambition: a French emigrant, who ealled 
himself the Marquis de Guiscard (he was in ihet an abb6, 
and brother of the Count de Guiscard), having been ap- 
prehended on a charge of high treason and brought lor 
examination to the cockpit, suddenly seised a penknife and 
struck at the minister. Harley's wound was very slight, 
but he took care to remain as long as possible in the sur- 
geon's hands. In May following he was appointed lord 
high treasurer, being about the same time created earl of 
Oxford and earl Mortimer, and invested with the order of 
the garter. As the victories of Marlborough constitute! 
the glory of the Godolphin administration, the peace of 
Utrecht, concluded 5th May, 1713, is the event for which 
that of Harley is chiefly memorable. It was alter thtj 
that the jealousy between the premier and BoUngbruke 
assumed Uie character of an open rivalry, although it is 
believed to have been fermenting in secret for years before, 
one account deducing its origin from so remote a date as 
the affair of Guiscard, of whose blow, which he asserted 
was intended for himself, Bolingbroke never forgaxe Ins 
colleague for taking all the credit and reaping all the ad- 
vantage. The ambitious and intriguing dispositions of the 
men, both, it is probable, equally unprincipled, made it im- 
possible that they shoiUd long continue to act together 
after their one common object, the achievement of peace 
with France, ceased to unite their efforts. Bolingbroke had 
now the art to gain the favourite. Lady Masham, whose in- 
fluence Harley, on the other hand, seems to have erroneously 
calculated that he was by this time sufficiently established 
to despise. It was soon proved that he was wrong: on the 
27th of July, 1714, the lord treasurer received his dismissal 
It is Eaid that a few days before he had excited the deter- 
mined vengeance of Lady Masham by demurring to a grant 
of an annuity of 1500/. a year which she had obtained from 
the queen. The Queen's death, three days aAer, put an end 
for ever to the political existence of both Oxfoni and Bo- 
lingbroke. In August, 1715, both were impeached by the 
House of Commons. When St John made his escape to 
France, Harley was committed to the Tower, and there he 
lay for nearly two years. At last, in June, 1717, he was on 
his own petition brought to trial before the House of Ix>rds ; 
but the Commons not appearing to prosecute their im- 
peachment, the prisoner was on the 1st of July acquitted 
and discharged. After this the earl of Oxford lived in rt>- 
tirement till his death, 21st May, 1724. He was succeeded 
iq his titles and estates by Edward, his eldest son b>' hi« 
first marriage with Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas ruler, 
Esq., whose brother was made Baron Foley in 171 1, bcin^ 
one of the twelve peers then introduced in a body into the 
House of Lords. The present earl of Oxford is descended 
from a younger brother of the lord treasurer, the peerage 
having been bestowed with remainder to the issue male of 
his grandfather. By his second wife, Sarah, daughter of 
Thomas Middleton, Esq., he had no issue. Lord Oxford 
showed his attachment to literature both by his patronage 
of Swift, Pope, and others, and by the extensive and 
valuable Ubrary of printed books and manuscripts ^hich 
he spared no pains or expense to collect [British Mi:sEUii.] 
His own writings do not show much Uterary talent They 
are, a Letter to Swift on Correcting and Improving the 
English Tongue ; an Essay on Public Credit ; an Essay on 
Loans ; and a Vindication of the Rights of the Commons 
of England. He has given an account of his own admi* 
nistration in a letter to the queen, written a few days before 
his dismissal, which is pnnted in Tindal's History and 
elsewhere. On this subject also may be consulted the 
Duchess of Marlborough s Account of her own Life, and 
the anonvmous reply to that work by James Ralph, entitled 
'The Other Side of the Question'* (8vo., London. 174J^, 
many of the materials of which had evidentW been supplied 
by the Oxford family. The proceedings on the trial of Lord 
Oxford are in the * State Trials.' Some verv strong evidence, 
implicating both Bolingbroke and Oxford in the crime of 
cawrmg on secret negotiations with the French eourt fur 
some years before the peace of Utrecht, has been laielv laid 
before the public in the ' Ed inbnrgh Review,* No. Its, 'in an 




, HARMEr, THOMAS, t'Ph»teMxft'asMflll|riBtiHSter, 

%U Wrii aif Hbti^x^ Xt). ^719, of pkm iNU^ia. ^He r^ 
''ei^ hb t^ut^^oh'Idn&^'tAe'^ ^ W^Im^ 



H A R 



49 



H A R 



don, &nd was ordained in the twentieth year of his age as 
the minister of the Independent church of Watesfield, in 
SuSblk. In this place he continued till liis death in 1788, 
* beloved by all and useful to many.' 

The work by which Harmer is principally known is his 
'Observations on various. passages of Scripture, placing 
them in a new light ; compiled from relations incidentally 
mentioned in books of Voyages and Travels into the East.' 
By the interest of Dr. Lowth, bishop of London, who warmly 
approved of the work, Harmer- obtained the MS. papei-s of 
Chardin, which furnished him with a variety of curious 
additions to his book. The last and best edition was pub- 
lished by Dr. Adam Cloi'ko in 1816, in 4 vols. Hyo. Harmer 
was also the author of 'An Account of the Jewibli Doctrine 
of the Resurrection of tbe' Dead,' and of 'Outlines of a 
New Commentary on the Book of Solomon's Song,' 8vo., 
1768* 2nd ed, 1775. 

(Afemoirt of the Li/e, Character, and Writings qf Mr. 
Harmer, prefixed to Dr. Clarke's edition of the 'Obser^ 
Tations/) 

HARMO'DIUS. [Aristooiton.] 

HARMODYTES, a genus of tubular stony corals, pro* 
posed by Fischer and adopted by Bronn. The same species 
were afterwards designated by Goldfuss, Syringopora, a name 
generally adopted. 

HARMONIC PROPORTION. The reciprocals of 
numbers which are in arithmetical proportion are them- 
selves said to be in harmonic proportion ; thus 



1 



-. &c.. 



fa* o -h 6 , a 4- 26' 

is a series in harmonic progression. 

A line A B is said to be harmonically divided when two 

A C B D 

I L_L ^i 

points, C and D, one within it and one on its continuation, 
ure so placed that A C is to C B as A D to D B. In this 
construction, C D is an harmonic mean between A D and 
B D. or A D, C D, and B D, are as the reciprocals of terms 
in arithmetical proportion. 

H ARMONICS (Acoustics). By the harmonics of a mu- 
sical note are meant all those other notes in which the 
number of vibrations per second are twice, three times, 
four times, or any multiple of, the number of vibrations 
which produce the note in question. Thus the harmonics 
of a note which is sounded by 200 vibrations per second are 
those notes which require 400, 600, 800, &c., vibrations per 
wcond. The following explanation will be rendered com- 
plete by T^erence to Acoustics (vol. i., p. 96) and Tbm- 
PKiiAiiK?rT. It presumes the reader to be acquainted with 
the fundamental mathematical laws of the scale. The 
harmonics of a note aro infinite in number, theoretically 
fpeaking, and proceed by less and less intervals. And 
since every note may be considered as identical with any of 
its octaves, every harmonic has a corresponding note in 
any given octave. Denoting any key-note by C, and the 
octave above it by C^ there is no possible sound between C 
and C' which is not theoretically either an harmonic of C, 
or as near to one as we please (which is equivalent to the 
mathematical proposition that a whole number, divided by 
a whule power of 2, may be made as near as we please to 
any given number or fraction), 

But, in practice, not only is it imnossible to produce any 
number of harmonics we please, that is, to maintain in 
vibration any aliquot part we please of a string or column 
cif air, but even among the harmonics which we can produce 
we find a limit to the number of those distinct harmonics 
which deserve the name, etymologically considered. Some 
few of the first harmonics are melodious sounds, considered 
\\\ relation to the key-note, but others are discordant, and 
find no place In the scale according to any system of tem- 
perament. We shall therefore, taking a given note, 
say C, simply mention the most important harmonics, and 
reduce them to their proper places between C and C. 

Let a be the number of vibrations per second which 
pr.iduce C; then 2a is well known to produce C, or the 
ttil liormonic of a note is its octave. The next has 3a 
vibrations, answering to C; so that the- twelfth, or octave 
uf the fifth, is the second harmonic. The third has 4a 
Ttbnitions, and answers to C", the octave of the octave. 
The fourth harmonic has 5a vibrations, aAd gives E", the 
duubte octave above the third, in the untempered diatonic 
P. C, No. 730. 



scale. The fifth harmonic, with 6a vibrations, gives C, 
the octave of G' the second harmonic. In general, every 
harmonic whose vibrations are an even multiple of those in 
the key-note, is an octave to a preceding harmonic, and 
presents no new character. The sixth harmonic, having 7a 
vibrations, is an imperfect (being too flat) double octave to 
the flat seventh above the key-note, orB flat. This last 
note, in the common mode of tempering, makes 1*7 7a 
vibrations per second ; whereas the same note derived ft-om 
the harmonic makes r75a vibrations. The eighth harmo- 
nic, with 9a vibrations, is correctly D'", or three octaves 
above the untempered major second. The tenth, with 1 la 
vibrations, is a little too sharp for F'", being I la instead of 
lOja. The twelfth, with 13a vibrations, is a little too flat 
for A'", being iSa instead of 13Ja. 

The preceding summation is useful, as giving an account . 
of the scale of all those musical instruments which consist 
of one unaltered pipe. These are the bugle, the French 
horn, the trumpet, and (but for its slide) the trombone ;' in 
all of which (except the last) no note can be produced 
except an harmonic of the fundamental note of tne whole 
tube. Calling the fundamental note C (which however is 
not very easily sounded), the ordinary scale of these instru- 
ments is — 

C C G' C" K" G" (B" flat) C" D'" E'" F"' G'" A'", 

in which B" flat is too flat, F''' is too sharp, and A''' too 
flat. A short pipe however will not produce many har- 
monics; the bugle goes no further than G'^ at least with 
common lips. Various contrivances have been introduced 
to extend and correct this scale ; the keyed bugle, the use 
of the hand in the French horn, the pistons sometimes ap- 
plied to the same instrument, and the short slide of the 
trumpet, to sav nothing of the slide which is the principal 
distinction of the trombone, will suggest themselves to all 
who are acquainted with musical instruments. In other 
instruments harmonics are much used, particularly in 
those of the violin class, and in the flute. The perform- 
ance of Paganini upon a single string, which a few years 
ago created great sensation among violin players, arose 
from extraordinary power of ]producing harmonics. In the 
flute C"^ may be attained without much practice, as an 
harmonic of the fundamental note of the instrument ; and 
we have heard of players who could produce \y and even 
W" in the same way. On the long strings of a piano-forte, 
as the fundamental note subsides, G^ C", and £" may be 
perceived ; and we have heard, among the vaulted roofs of 
a cathedral, several of the harmonics of the notes sounded 
in chanting. For further information see the references in 
Acoustics. 

HARMONY (in Music), musical sounds simultaneously 
produced according to certain rules, forming a chord, or a 
succession of chords. The simplest harmony, namely, the 
triad, or common chord, is the Tesult of the vibration of 
all sonorous bodies, and the foundation on which much 
artificial harmony is built. Under the word Chord the 
reader will find this matter ibrther explained. M. Catel, 
a modern French theorist of great authority, has divided 
harmony into natural and artificial, including in the 
former all chords not requiring preparation ; in the latter, 
adl that are formed by retardation, suspension, &o. But we 
cannot acquiesce in this arrangement, for it places tbe chord 
of the seventh, which is the source of the three real chords 
of dissonance, in the same category as the triad, or the chord 
of nature, which of course will never be admitted. It is true 
that the chord of the seventh requires no preparation — that 
is, the dissonant note need not be heard as a concord in the 
immediately preceding chord [Discord] ; nevertheless this 
pri\ilege cannot make natund that which is essentially 
artificial. 

Harmony and Counterpoint are now practically considered 
as synonymous terms, and for some rules concerning the 
latter, as well as for examples, we refer to that word. To 
what has been said under the head Chord, we also again 
call attention* Chords are the language in which harmony 
expresses itself, and the laws whereby the one is governed 
likewise regulate the other. Besides the rules given under 
different heads in this work, we here add the few follow- 
ing :— 

1. No two perfect concords, namely, two 5th8 or two %\n% 
are allowed to succeed each other in the same progression* 
but are permitted in contrary motion ; that is, when tho 
one rises and the other Ms. Examples : 

VoL.Xn.«-H 



H A R 



SO 



H A R 



Similar motion, 
bad. 




Contrary motion, 
good. 





2. Most discords require to be prepared, and all must be 
retolved; i.e. the dissonant note is to be first heard as a 
concord, and after percustioti, or being sounded, must pass 
into a concord, generally by falling a tone or semitone. But 
sometimes the resolution is brought about by the base, as in 
the inttanoe of the discord of the 2nd. Examples : 




3. It is in the nature of sharpened interyals to rise, and 
of flattened ones to fall ; but extreme sharp intervals almost 
mvliriably must rise, and extreme flat ones as invariably 
muat fiUI. Example : 




fz:i3 



T 



S 



16 $S 



f=^ 



T 

►7 



£ 



I 



s 



^ 



-e — 



These cxamplea will also show a reason for giving two 
names and appearances to that which is, practically speak- 
ing, one and the same note ; though, theoretically, a sharp 
and B flat are different sounds. 

4. In musio in four or more parts, the parts should be 
dispersed, or separated, in a manner as nearly equal aa poa- 
aibie : thus a more perfect symmetry ia obtained, and a 
rioher harmony produced. But with a view to some parti- 
eular effect, a very different distribution of the parts is oe- 
easionally made. 

ft. As a general rule, every composition, whatever its 
kind, is to commence in ita key ; but as regards the termi- 
nation, the rule is without exception, and peremptory: 
though lometimea the third ia cnanged, fWmi minor to 
major. 

To enter fblly into the subject of Harmony would be to 
give a treatise on musical composition, and require the ap- 
propriation of a much larger portion of a volume than the 
nature of our work admita. The symbols of harmony — or 
eertain fljgures, some written, some implied — will be ex- 
plained in the article TROBOUGR-BAax, a term of the 
most inadequate, and indeed unmeaning kind, but which 
time, and the backwardness of musicians in the march of 
improvement, have so flrmlv fixed, that any attempt to sub- 
stitute a better would be vehemently opposed, and rendered 
nugatory. For the accompaniment of tne scale — La Rigie 
de r Octave, as the French call it — a very important study 
when properly carried out, see AccoMPANiMSifT. 

That the term har m amf was not used in the same sense 
bf the ancienta aa bv the moderns, aeema now to be gene- 

*> admitted, but aonittid withoot stall aflMtiaf the loBg- 



and, we believe, undeeidable quMtiem, u to th* 
knowledge of counterpoint possessed by the Oreeka and 
Romans, or compromismg any opinion delivered or enter- 
tained on that most obscure and perplexing subject By 
Harmtoia {iipftop'ui) the Greeks meant simply to express the 
proper relationship of one sound to another, the plcasini; 
amement of intervals, in a melody, and nothing beyond. 
Though, however, thev employed the word harmony in a very 
difl^Brent sense from that given to it in later ages, it deea not 
thence necessarily follow that they were ignorant of the 
high branch of the science to which we apply the terio. 
TSmX they played and sung in octaves ia undeniable ; and it 
ia almost equally certain that they occasionally used simul- 
taneous thirds, instrumentally and vocally. It seems un- 
likely, then, that so active, so ingenious and musical a peo- 
ple, famished with an abundance of many-stringed lyres, 
of double-flutes, as well as other instruments, should nut 
have discovered, even by BMre accident, something of har- 
mony, and have been led to investigate its nature and cul 
tivate its practice. But on the other hand, if they were ac- 
quainted with the effect of combined sounds, and, aa a sure 
consequence, had converted their knowledge to some useful 
purpiQ^, they would, to almost a moral certainty, have left, 
among the numerous disquisitions and lengthened conver- 
sations on the subject of music which have reached us, 
some undeniable evidence of so important a fact 

HARMCXTOME. AndreoliU; Ercinite. Thisminer&l 
occurs in attached crystala, generally intersecting each other 
lengthwise. Primary form a right rhombic prism ; cleavage 
parallel to the primary planes, and to both the diagonaU of 
the prism ; hardness 4*5; colour greyish-reddish, yellowish- 
white; firacture uneven; lustre vitreous, and aometiraes 
pearly ; streak white; sp. gr. 2*35, 2 '4. 

By adds, unless heateo, harmotome is scarcely acted upon. 
Before the blowpipe it fuses into a clear glass. It occurs 
at Strontian in Scotland, and at Andreasberg and Ober- 
stein in Germany. 

The analvses of this substance do not rreatly differ in 
general. The harmotome of Strontian yielded, \Sj the ana- 
lysis of Mr. Connell-— 



Silica 




47' 


04 


Alumina • 




15 


24 


Borytes , 




20' 


'85 


Lime 




0' 


10 


Soda or potash 




0*88 


Water . 




14' 


92 



99*03 

HAROLD I., sumamed Harelbot, was the younger of the 
two sons of Canute the Great, by his mistress, or, acoordm^ 
to others, his first wife Alfgiva. On the death of his father, 
in 1035, Harold disputed the possession of the Engluth 
crown with his half-brother Hardicanute, whom their father 
had designed for his successor, and succeeded in aoquirui|; 
the sovereignty of London and all the country to the north 
of the Thamea. [H ahoxcanutb.] In 1 037 the thanes aiul 
people of Wessex also submitted to him, on which he wus 
crowned king of all England, although it ia stated that 
Egelnotb, the archbishop of Canterbury, at first refuftetl 
either to perform the cerem6ny himself, or to norm it any of 
his brother bishops to officiate in his stead, rlo events nf 
the reign of Harold, after he became sole king, have been 
preserved. Even his character may be said to be unknov n 
—some of the chroniclers representing him as a friund to 
the church, others as not even professing a belief in christj- 
anity. He died in 1040, and was succeeded by his brother 
Hardicanute. The common account of his surname of 
' Harefoot' is that it was given him for hia swiftness in run- 
ning; it is said that, in his &vourite amusement of tht* 
chase, he used often to pursue the game on ibot. Acoordut^ 
to Brompton it refers merely to his general preference of 
walking to riding — a most unbecoming taste, says that an- 
nalist, for a king. Another explanation ia that hia foot wa:i 
all over hairy. 

HAROLD n. was the second of the sons of Godwin, 
earl of Kent. This Godwin, or Gudin, makes his fir^t ap- 
pearance in English histoiy in the reign of Canute, and ap- 
pears to have been bom a few years Mfore the close of the 
tenth century. He was undoubtedly of Saxon descent Th«^ 
English writers call him the son oi Wulfnoth, a * child* 
(which may perhaps mean a peasant) of Sussex. One 
writer, Raauiphua Nigv (whoot MS. chronicle is in th« 



H A K 



51 



H A R 



Britiali If usattM), tm iUtmcAf tfast ht was tiM aon of a 
€owtMrd C filittfl bebnW). Hicm •Utonaoti aro ooaaiBteiit, 
so Ikr M they go, wkli a eurimit aooount wbich Mr. TunMNr 
has iiaiMlated ftvtt Oie Kajrtlinga Saga, aud which cepra- 
••nta Godvpia to hare beea tha wm of a peasant aaSMd 
Ulfbadr (erldeiilly the same naiM with Wuifboth), and to 
have owed his introduetioB at the ceiirt of Canute to a aer- 
viee which he perfenned to Ulfr, one of the BeUe eiqitaiiis 
of that Danish conqueror* who, hanng lost hiauelf in a 
wood after the battle of Skovstein, or Sceorstan [Emund 
ILl aeeidentally met with Godwin driving his fitther s catUe, 
and was by him oonduoted in salbty irst to the oettage 
of UHiwdr aad then te the camp of Canute, This story 
however makes Ulftiadr to hate bad an uncle Sdric 
who had already raised himself from the same hum* 
ble sUtion to be duke or chief goyernor of Mercia. God- 
win's talents and addrem, his handsome person and 
fluent speedi, speedily enabled him to make his way 
at conrt. In course of time he manried Gyda, or Githa, 
the sister of UUr, who was himself married to a sister 
of Canute; and on this Canute made him a jarl, or 
eaii Baii Godwin's first appearance in political history is 
after the death of Canute, as a supporter, in ooneect with 
Queen Emma, of the succession of Haidicanute. [Haboi- 
CA.XUTB.] On this occasion, as in the i^eneral course of his 
after-ltfe, he attached himself to what was considered the 
Saxon, in opposition to the Dani^ or other Ibrdgn interest. 
It seems improbable therefore that he should soon after this 
have beea a party, as the historians after the Norman Con- 
ouest allege, to the treacherous murder of Prince Alfred, 
the younger brother of Edward the Confessor. [Edward thb 
Co:«rxcsoR.] The common story indeed affirms that God- 
win in this instance acted again in concert with Queen 
Emma; but, besides the extreme unlikeliliood that the 
mother shouM thus plot the destruction of her own child, 
whose death was, at ttie moment at least, to benefit nobody 
except Harold Harefoot, the enemy of herself and of her 
femiiies by both her husbands, the actual immediate result 
nf this mnrder was her own exile as a fugitive, and tibe 
complete overthrow, for the time, of whatever power she or 
her son Hardicanute, for whom she was acting, possessed in 
England. The contemporary author, it may be further 
observed, of the 'Encomium Emmm,' addressed to her, 
and written by her orders, never would have made the 
murder, as he does, one of the subjects of his detail, if there 
had then been the least suspicion of her participation in it 
If Emma was innocent, Godwin, who was and had all along 
been her associate in governing Wessex t&r Hardicanute, 
was in all probability equally so. It is true that a few years 
after, in the reign of Hardicanute, he was, in a<{uaiTel with 
AUrie, ardibishop of York, passionately accused by that 
prelate of having been the instrument through whom the 
nmider was effected ; but he immediately met the charge 
by demanding to be put upon his trial, and the reault was 
bis complete acouittal. Wnen Alfted and his followers were 
fidlen upon by lae soldiers of Harold, they weve under the 

E o tect i on of Godwin, who had met them on their landing, 
ivtDg, as he asserted, been sent by Emma to be their con- 
ductor ; this circumstance seems to have formed the sole 
ground fbr an imputation which pursued him to his grave, 
and after his death was eageriy taken up by the Norman 
historians, when everything that could blacken the chaiac- 
tem of Godwin and his fhmily was grat^l to the reigning 
dynasty. AfVer the accession of Hardicanute, Godwin was 
etoplo}ied in conjunction with Archbishop Alfric to disinter 
the body of Harold Harefoot, and see the firagments thrown 
into the Thames. It was a disagreement arising out of 
Iha barbarous commission that gave occasion to the 
quarrel between the archbishop and the earl. The history 
of Godwin and his fomily during the next reign has been 
sketched in the notice of Edward the Confbssor. The his* 
torians after the Conquest assert that his dea^ which cer- 
tainly happened in consequence of a sudden seixure of ill- 
ness as be sat at the royal ti^le on Easter Monday, 1053, 
was occasioned by his being choked in attempting to swal- 
low a ]»ece of bread, whicfa^ in reply to an observation of 
the king obliquely hinting that he had been the murderer 
of Prince AlfM, he had wished might stick in bis throat 
if there was anv truth in the charge. The story, which was 
unknown to the contemporary annalists, is of a kind too 
well adapted to the credulous superstition of the age in 
which Its first relators lived, as well as to their interests and 
prvjudiees, to leave much doubt as to its origin. At the 
tuna of hia dsath Godwin wai the aost powgrful lub^sct in 



England, he aaa bi» sons dividing among them the pnrnnr 
ment of a large portion of the kingdom, while h» only 
daughterwas the wife of the king. His eldest soau Sweyn, 
indeed, after having been repeatedly pardoned for vesistanee 
to the royil authority and other crimes, had died abraad a 
aheit tiflw before tfae death of his father. On Gedwin's 
death his earldom of Kent, whieh, bestdes that oouaty, com- 
prehended all Wesaax and Sussex, was given te his second 
son, Hareld ; Harold's own earldom, under which were in- 
cluded the eountiea ef Essex, Middlesex, Huntingdon, 
Cambridge^ and the rest of the antient kingdom of East 
Anglia, being at the same time transferred to Ali^ar, the 
son of ieofric, styled Earl of Leicester, the potent rival of 
the Godwin fomily. This latter anraagement was not 
tamely submitted to ^ Haiold : Alfjgar was outlawed by 
the witenagemot, on a charge of treason which Harold 
brought against him; on which flying to Ireland he 
speedily returned with a force of Danes from that country, 
and of auxiliaries fron Wales, to levy open war against the 
Saxon king^ Harold was despatched by Edward to meet 
the rebels ; out a contest of arms was prevented by a nego- 
tiation which restored his earldom to Al%Br, who soon 
after also succeeded to the honours and estates of his father 
Leoftie, but did not live above a year to enjoy them. 
Harold meanwhile, as the king's commander-in-chief, 
turned to chastise the Welsh for tne aid they had given to 
the revolt ; and a series of hostflities with that people eom- 
menced, which did not finally terminate until, in 1063, after 
Harold had twice canried fire uid sword through their 
country, they sent him the head ef their Prince Griffith, in 
token of their entire submission. It was about two years 
after this that Harold was shinwrecked on the coast ef 
Ponthieu, where he was immeaiately seiied by the Esrl 
Guy, and on the demand of William, duke of Nermandy 
(afterwards king of Enghmd), delivcied ever to that prince. 
William did not permit his prisoner to emlMsrk for England 
tfll he had compelled him to take a solemn eath, in pre- 
sence of the assembled Norman barons, that he Would do 
every thing in his power, on the decease of Edward, to pro- 
mote the ttuke^s succession to the English crown. It would 
appear to have been already well uiiderstood, or at least 
generally suspected, that the English eari looked to this 
prise for himself. Immediately after he returned home 
Harold found himself involved in a new affair of difficulty. 
This was the insurrectioA ef the people of Northumber- 
land aninst his youn^ brother Tostig, who a fow years 
before nad been appomted their earl on the death of Uie 
great Siward, but whose miigovemment and savage ex- 
cesses of despotism had at length become insupportable. 
The insurgents had placed at their head Morear, the eldest 
of the two sons of Uie recently deceased Earl Al%ar ; and 
he and his brother Edwin bad oome to their assistance, 
with the taen of Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, and Leices- 
ter, and also a body of Welsh aoxilkriea. Handd, who was 
sent to meet them, either deemed their foroe too formidable, 
or their demands too just, to be resisted ; it was agieed, 
widiout coming to blows, that the earldom should be taken 
from Tostig and given to Morear. On this Tostig retired 
to Bruges, brooding, as it presently appeared, on schemes 
of vengeance. The dea^ of Edward the Confessor (6th 
January, 1066) Mbwed in Uttie more than a month after 
this pacification, which had been peibapa tiie more readily 
accorded by Harold in consequence of the near prospect of 
that event : he was at hand wlm it took place. On the even- 
ing of the same day, a repcMrt having been circulated that 
Edward had named him for his aucoessor before he 
breathed his last, he was proclaimed king in an assembly ef 
the thanes and of the citizens ef London, held in the cathe- 
dral of St Paul's. The next day he was solemnly crowned 
in the same place, a few hours after the interment of the 
late king. 

For more than half a year Harold was left to occupy the 
throne he bad thus obtained in quiet. His accession evi- 
dently took place with the general assent of the nation ; 
the nobility with few exceptions^ and the bishops with 
scarcely any, avowed themsdves its authors and supporters ; 
the acquiescence of tiie people was complete everywhere, 
except, for a brief space at flnt, among Uie Northumbrians, 
who were however easily induced to lay aside theur scruples 

Sthe infiuence of their Eari Morear, whose sister Ediiba 
arold had married ; and on the whole there is no reason 
to suppose that he would have had any trouble in maintain- 
ing mmscAf if he had been idlowed to remain unmolested 
by attacks firtm abread* Two foreign enemiea however at 



H A R 



52 



H AR 



length Rssftiled him nearly at the same time. His brother 
Tostig, having formed a confederacy with Harold Har- 
drada, king of Norway, first made a descent upon the Isle 
of Wight, and after he had levied contributions from the 
inhabitants, sailed round at the head of bis fleet of sUty 
t'esaels to the mouth of the Tyne, where he was joined about 
the beginning of September by Hardrada with a navy of 
three hundred sail. The invaiters had driven back Earls 
Morcar and Edwin, and made themselves masters of the 
entire province of York before Harold came up. On the 
25th however he engaged them at Stamford Bridge, on the 
Derwent, when both Haidrada and Tostig fell, and the 
English kin^ obtained a complete victory. Only three 
days after this the Duke of Normandy landed at Bulver- 
hithe, between Pevensey and Hastings, on the southern 
coast, with a mighty armament, which he had spent the 
preceding eight months in fitting out. Harold, having 
first proceed^ to London, did not reach the Norman camp 
till the 13th of October. On the morning of the following 
day battle was joined at a place then called Senlac (now 
Battle), about nine miles from Hastings. The issue of 
this memorable engagement, which lasted the whole day, 
was the complete defeat and rout of the English, after 
Harold himself had fallen, pierced through the head by an 
arrow — his two brothers, Gurth and Leofwine, hating also 
been already slain. This victory, as all know, gave the 
crown of England to the Duke of Normandy, by whose de- 
scendants it has ever since been worn. 

Harold is said to have been twice married. By his first 
wife, whose name has not been presert'ed, he had three 
sous, Edmund, Grodwin, and Magnus, who, on the death of 
their father, fled to Ireland, from which they afterwards 
attempted some descents on the western coasts of England, 
but eventually retired v to Denmark. His second wife, 
Editha, otherwise called Algitha, the daughter of Earl 
Alfgar, is said to have been tl^ widow of Griflith, the Welsh 
prince, whose head had been sent by his subjects as a 
peaco-oflering to Harold. By her Harold is asserted to 
nave had a son and two daughters ; but, as it is admitted 
that he was only married to her some time in 1065 at the 
earliest, we may doubt if she could already have produced so 
considerable a family. The son, named Wolf, is said to 
have been knighted by William RufUs: Gunilda, the 
eldest daughter, became blind, and passed her life in a 
nunnery ; the second, whose name is unknown, is supposed 
to have gone to Denmark with her half-brothers. Queen 
Editha survived her husband many years, during which 
she is said to have lived in obscurity in Westminster. This 
ladv, according to. the Scottish historians, was the mother, 
by her first husband, of a daughter who married Fleance, the 
son of Banquo, thane of Lochaber, whose son Walter, marr>'- 
ing a daughter of Alan the Red, earl ofBritanny, became 
the progenitor of the Stewarts. (On this story see appendix 
No. A. to the first volume of Hailes's ' Annals of Scotland.') 
I HARP (beapp, hearp, Saxon), amusical instrument which, 
under diflerent forms and denominations, may be traced to 
the remotest ages. According to Holy Writ, J ubal, seventh 
only in descent from Adam, was its inventor; be *was the 
father of all such as handle the harp and organ,' as Moses tells 
Ui. Notwithstanding the wonders related of Amphion's lyre, 
or harp, we are compelled to believe, judging from Representa- 
tions in sculpture and on coins, that the Greeks themselves 
did not so much improve the instrument as their writings 
would lead us to conjecture. But there now seems little 
doubt that the Egyptians brought the harp to a compara- 
tively high degree of perfection: the fresco painting dis- 
covered by Bruce near the ruins of Thebes, which he 
thinks was executed by order of Sesostris, who reigned be- 
tween fourteen and fifteen hundred years before the Chris- 
tian sera, exhibits a harp so much resembling that of the 
present day, in form, dimensions, and ornament, that it 
might, upon a hasty inspection, be mistaken for one of mo- 
dern manufacture. He dencribcs it as wanting the pillar, 
an omission, most likely, of the painter. * The back part, 
he says, * is the sounding-board, composed of four thin 
pieces of wood, joined together in form of a cone, that is, 

growing wider towards the bottom Besides that 

the principles on which the harp is constructed are rational 
and ingenious, the ornamental parts are likewise executed 
in the best manner. The bottom and sides of the frame 
seem to be veneered, or inlaid, probably with ivory, tortoise- 
ahcll, and mother-of-pearl, the ordinary produce of the 

'"^hbouring seas and deserts. It woula be now impossi- 
finish an ipatrument with more ^te and elegance/ 



This aoconnt, among others by the same, vaa at first 
received with some suspicion; but later tra\elleiB in Eg>pi, 
among whom is Denon, have vindicated Bruce and con- 
firmed his statemenU. RoselUni too, one of the latest anrl 
best authorities, in his splendid work, I MommenH delC 
Egitto, &c., published at Pisa in lb32, has given colouri^ 
engravings of^ harps corresponding in nearlvall respects with 
the instrument designed and described by Bruce, which 
prove beyond every reasonable doubt his. fidelity in tlii% 
nistance, and the great superiority of the Egyptian harp 
over every instrument of the kind known to have been m 
use among the Greeks or Romans. 

Many learned persons, obsencs M. Ginguenf, are of 
opinion that the Europeans are not indebted to tlie Ej:> p- 
tians for the harp, notwithstanding the resemblance of tiic 
instruments used by both the former and the latter ; tli<v 
believe that it originated in the north, that it was introduce. •! 
into England, and subsequently into Ireland, by the Saxon^^ 
and other piratical hordes from the Baltic. Martianus Ca- 
pcUu found it among the northern tribes jivhirh overran the 
Roman empire in the flflh century. Jones, the Welsh bard, 
claims for his country the possession of a harp of twenty-^. \ 
diatonic notes, so early as the beginning of the sixth cen- 
tury, and moreover adds that musical compositions pro^ini; 
the validity of his claim were extant in his time, that l% 
about fifty or sixty years ago. But he offers no authority 
for the statement. Tlie Irish were, we are persuaded, wci; 
acquainted with the harp from a very early period, and \i 
the inquiries pursuing by Sir William fiietham into t'lic 
origin of their language lead to the results he not very un- 
reasonably anticipates, it may become probable that hai{» 
of the Eg}'ptian kind were known in Ireland long bcfotc 
our lera. In Bunting's HutoriaU and Critical Dissrrdt- 
iion on the Harp is an engraving and description of an 
antient Irish one still in being, though fti an imperfect 
state. It had in a row forty-five strings, and an adaitiutau^ 
seven in the centre, as unisons. Its form is not unlike that 
of the modern instrument, but the pillar is curved out- 
wards, and in point of workmanship the whole it remark- 
able 'both for the elegance of its crowded ornaments an*! 
for the general execution of those parts on which the cv»r- 
rectness of a musical instrument acpends.' Its height w 
3 feet 10 inches, and the longest string is 3 feet 4 inclics. 

The Welsh triple-stringed harp of the present day ex- 
tends firom G an octave below the hrst line in the base, tn a 
or A in altissimo on the ri^ht side ; and from o, the fir^t liia^ 
in the base, to the same upper notes on the left hand ; the 
middle row consists of the semitones of the outward ruM^. 
Hence, if the outside rows be tuned in the diatonic scale of 
6, each parallel note being in perfect unison, the note^ of 
the midule row are tuned a semitone higher ; ' that is, u is 
made sharp, &c, so that in modulating from the key of u 
to that of D, the performer introduces a finger between the 
c natural and d of the outside strings to strike c sharp, 
which is in tlie middle row.' 

Tlie harp, as a generally useful instrument, may be ^ai'l 
to date its existence from the time when pedals were addi-ti 
to it With these it is possible to modulate into all ki*v>, 
and to execute any music suited to keyed- instruments. Wt* 
are indebted for the present improved and nearly perfect 
state of the harp to the late M. Sebastian Erard, ikIio, m 
1794, took out a patent for a harp ^ith seven pedals that 
rendered the chromatic scale. This was a single-act ion- 
harp, the pedals only effecting one change on the strinc^ 
In 1808 the same admirable mechanist produced his doul>le- 
action harp, the pedals of which have two actiona. Thi^ 
last is tuned in the key of c fiat. By fixing the pedals m 
the first groove the instrument is at once transposed into c 
natural; and by fixing them in the second groove it i% 
tr.ins|>osQd another semitone higher, into the key of c sharp. 
The compaas of the harp thus improved is from double k 
below the base to £ in altissimo ; or— 




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H A R 



54 



H A R 



HARPOCRATION, VALE'RIUS.aGraekrfaeUmcian 

of Alexandria. We have no partieulara of his life, nor of 
the time in which he lived. He wrote a * Lexicon to the 
Ten Orators/ which contains an account of many of the 
persons and facte mentioned in the orations of the ten prin- 
cipal orators of Athens, and also an explanation of many 
words and phrases in their writings. 

The 'Lexicon' was first printed by Aldus in 1503, with 
the scholia of Ulpian on the Philippic orations of Demos- 
thenes. The work has been also published by Massac, 4to., 
Paris, 1614, with many notes; Blancard, with a Latin 
translation, Leyden, 1683, 4to. ; Gronovius, 4to., 1696; 
W. Dindorf, Leip^ 1B24, 2 vols. 8va; Bekker, 8ve., Berlin, 
1833. 

Suidos also mentions another work of Harpocrates, 
entitled ' A Collection of Flowery Extiacts,' which has not 
come down to us. 

HARPSICHORD (originally, and with some reason, 
written Harpnccn), a keyed musical instrument, in form 
the samo as the grand piano-forte, but smaller, strung with 
steel and brass wires, two to eadi note, which are struck by 
facks armed with small pieces of quill, acting as plectrums, 
and thus made to render a brilliant but somewhat harsh 
sound, wholly unlike that produced by the hammers of the 
piano- forte. The compass of the harpsichord did not at first 
exceed three octaves, but by decrees reached five, from 
double F below the base to f in altissime * or— 



^"-^ 



All harpsichords had Hope* which increased or diminish- 
ed the string power: they also were generally furnished 
with tk swell, or a means of opening and closing the lid: 
and many were supplied with two rows of keys, the 
upper actmg on a separate set of strings, which gave a 
very soft sound, intended as an imitation of a muted 
violin, &c. 

The period at which the harpsichord was invented is quite 
uncertain. It b not absurd to surmise that the organ 
speedily suggested some instrument of the keyed kind, in 
which strings were substituted for pipes, but of that under 
notice there are no traces before the fifteenth century. In- 
deed we find lio Intimation of the harpsichord having been 
introduced into England till the early part of the seven- 
teenth century ; ana in less than two hundred years it bad 
fallen into disuse in this, as well, we believe, as in every other, 
country. During the present year (1838) Mr. Moscheles, 
wishing at his Soirees Musicales to perform some of the 
lessons of Scarlatti, Handel, and Seb. Bach on the instru- 
ment for which they were written, had great difficulty in 
finding, in the vast city of London, a harpsichord to enable 
him to accomplish his purpose. 

HARPY. HARPY EAGLE. [Falconidjb, vol. x, 

pp. 174-175.] 

HARQUEBUSS. [Arms] 

HARRIER (Ornithology), a name applied to certain 
Hawks (Circus), [Falconid.«, vol. x., p. 183]; and see, 
among other works, Crould's Birds qf Europe, ziA Yarrell's 
British Birds. 

HARRIER, the Enc^lish name for the hound employed 
in hunting the Hare. The size and breed of the Harrier 
depend upon the taste of the owner, and that is most fre- 
quently regulated by the nature of the country in which the 
pack is to hunt. Mr. Bcckford, a great authority in such 
cases, says, * The hounds, I think, most likely to show you 
sport are between the large slow hunting harrier and the 
little fox-beagle; the former arc too dull, too heavy, and 
too slow ; the latter too lively, too light, and too fleet. The 
first, it is true, have most excellent noses, and, I make no 
doubt, will kill their game at lost if the day be long enough, 
but you know the clan's are short in winter, and it is bad 
***'nting in the dark. The other, on the contrary, fiing, 
, and arc all alive; but every cold blast affects them, 
if }our country bo deep and wet, it is not impossible 
fronic of them may be drowned. My hounds were a 
of both tliusv kindb, in which it was my •ndaavowr to 



get as much boaa and stMnsth in m mmH a 
possible. It was a difficult undertaking. I brad' osanT 
yean, and an infinity of hounds, befon 1 oouU ^ whai \ 
wanted. I at last had the pleasure to see then verv hand- 
some; small, yet very beny; they mn cemarkaUy wrti 
together ; went £Mt enough ; had all the akerity that eouiil 
be desired, and would hunt the coldest seeot' 

Hare-hunting, it has been said, is geneially fidlowed by 
sportsmen in the decline of life ; though when the distru'i 
is tolerably open and the hare * flies the eeuntry,* there i« 
often oopoctunity for a good hone and bold rider Co show 
themselves. But these capital mas come *few and fdu- 
between,* and the old fbs-himter can aeidom broek th<* 
change. In a dose or voodjr district, the oenstant rep^* • 
tition of the same scene, and the discovery thai in eoii*c" 
quenoe of a sadden double of the hare a nistio upon h t% 
galloway who knows the country is 'frequently as near ihe 
hounds as the man who is mounted on a first-faCe buntrr 
and has taken some daring leaps at the first bunt, pro\ e 
rather disgusting both to the ardour of youth and the ex- 
perience of age. The rapidity, variety, and dangen ff 
a fox-chace arc more congenial to the young man and 
the good horse, and are not readily forgotten by the oM 
sportsman. In most of the eountries where harrien art* 
kept, a bag-fox, or * bagman,* as he ifr aemetimes face- 
tiously termed, is occasionally procured by way of gi\uu' 
the weary ' thistle-whippera ' a taste of the nobler hunting. 
But the authority to wliich we have already referrrd 
strongly reprobates this practice. ' Harrien to be gDc»«l.' 
says Mr. Beckford, ' like all other hounds, must be kept to 
their own game : if you run fox with them you spoil them : 
hounds cannot be perfect unless used to one aoent and oi tr 
style of huntinf^. Harrien run fox in so different a st> U< 
fVom hare that it is of great disservice to them when thc> 
return to hare again ; it makes them wild and teaches thi-m 
to skirt. The high scent which a fox leaves* the straight - 
ness of his running, the eagerness of the punuit, and t be 
noise that generally accompanies it, all contribute to spoil a 
harrier.' 

HARINGTON, SIR JOHN, was born at Kelston nour 
Bath, in the year 1561. His mother was a natural dau^rh- 
ter of Henry VIII., and his father held an office in the court 
of that monarch. This pair having on one occssion sho« u 
great fidelity to the princess (afterwards queen) BlizabeTh 
she manifested her gratitude by standing godmother to thii r 
son John. She was afterwards wont to speak of him a« 
' that witty fellow, my godson,* or ' that menry poet, my gt*.!- 
son,' or in some such way. 

Having been educated at Eton and at Christ's ColIeLrc, 
Cambridge, and having afterwards for a riiort time made a 
pretence of studying law, he, by means of his wit and maM\ 
accomplishments, gained the notice of Queen* Elizabeth, 
and became a member of her court. He had exercise<] b !» 
wit, on one occasion, in translating a tale out of Ario»to <• 
' Orlando Furioso.' (the story of Giacondo, in the twent> 
eighth book), and he circulated this amon^ the ladic» i>i 
the court, who were greatly pleased with it. When l\\^r 
queen saw it, we are told that she affected great indignati- u 
at the indelicacY of some passages, and, by way of punish- 
ment, forbad Harington tbe court until he had transLiio 1 
the whole poem. This he accomplished in 1591, and de- 
dicated it to the queen. 

When the Earl of Essex was appointed Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland in 1699. Harington was made a commander « i 
horse under Lord Southampton, in his service. Wb<.:i 
Essex shortly af\er made his precipitate return to Englai .1, 
Harington was one of the few officers whom he chu^o t • 
accompany him, and he came in for a share of the qu<HMi\ 
indignation. She was an^ry also, we are told, that £ss.4>\ 
had, in Ireland, conferred on Harington the honour <•( 
knighthood. * I came to court,' writes Harington to or.o 
of his friends, ' in the very heat and height of all dispU a- 
sures; aAer I had been there but an hour, I was threaten c. I 
with the Fleet; I answered poetically that " coming so las- 
from the land-ser>ice, I hoped that I should not be pr«i*«-'I 
to serve in her majesty's fleet in Fleet Street.** AAer thr w 
days every man wondered to see me at liberty.* But ku* 
queen shortly relented, and then, writes Sir John in the trt2<* 
style of a courtier, * I seemed to myself, for the time, hko 
St. Paul, rapt up in the third heaven, where he beani 
words not to be uttered by men.* On the aooession •>( 
James L in ]608« Harington continued in possession * t 
royal favour| for with the new monarchi who niected l«arn« 



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H A R 



56 



H A R 



of a certain number of these councillors, ^hioh is also 
managed by ballot. Harrin.^on is a very powerful advo- 
cate of the plan of vote by ballot. 

HARRIOT, THOMAS, an eminent mathematician and 
astronomer, vms born at Oxford in the year 1 J60. He took 
his degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1579, and in 1 j84 he 
accompanied Sir falter Raleip^h in his expe<lition to Vir- 
ginia, where he was employed in surveying and map])ing 
the country, and upon his return to England in 158s he 
published his * Report of the Newfoundland of Virginia, 
the commodities there found to be raised, &c.' Harriet 
was introduced by Sir Walter Raleigh to the earl of North- 
umberland, whose zeal for the promotion of science had 
led him to maintain scveml learned men of the day, siu*h 
as Robert Hues, Walter Warner, and Nathaniel Tarporloy. 
This enlightened nobleman received Harriot into his house, 
and settled on him an annual salary of 300/., which lie 
enjoyed to the time of his death, in July, 1621. His body 
was interred in St. Christopher's Church, London, and a 
monument erected to his memory, which, with the chur* h 
itself, w^as destroyed by the great fire of 1666. During his 
lifetime Harriot was known to the world merely as an emi- 
nent algebraist ; but from a paper by Zach in the • Astro- 
nomical Ephemeris * of the Ro} al Academy of Sciences at 
Berlin for tne year 1788, it appears that he was equally de- 
serving of eminence as an astronomer. The paper referred 
to contains an account of the manuscripts found by Zach at 
the seat of the earl of Egremont, to whom they had 
descended from the earl of Northumberland. From it we 
learn that Harriot carried on a correspondence with Kepler 
concerning the rainbow ; that he had discovered the solar 
spots prior to any mention having been made of them by 
Galileo, Scheiner, or Phrysius : also that the satellites of 
Jupiter were observed by him January 16, 1610, although 
their first discovery is generally attributed to Galileo, who 
states that he had observed them on the 7th of that month. 
A correspondence with Kepler on various optical and other 
subjects is printed among the letters of Kepler. Ten years 
after Harriot's death his algebra, entitled ' Artis Analyticee 
Praxis, ad iEquationes Algebraicns nova, exne<lita,et Gencrali 
Methoda, resolvendas,' was published by liis friend Walter 
Warner. It is with reference to this particular work that 
Des Cartes was accused of plagiarism by Wallis, whose ad- 
niiration of its author was so high, that he could not even 
see the discoveries of Vieta anywhere but in the * Praxis ' 
of Harriot. This charge however has sunk with time, 
though the French writers still continue to answer it. The 
geometry of Des Cartes appeared in 1637, six years after 
t he publ ication of Harriot's algebra. ( H utton*s Dictionary ; 
Mathematical Tracts, vol. il, &c. ; and Montucla's Histoire 
des Mathcmatiques^ torn, ii., p. 105.) 

HARRIS. JOHN, D.D., born about 1667, died Sept. 7, 
1719, a voluminous writer, in the list of whose works we 
find numbers of sermons, treatises on algebra and fiuxions, 
geometry, trigonometry, astronomy, and navigation. He 
also wrote, * Remarks on some late papers relating to the 
Universal Deluge and the Nat. Hist, of the Earth;' * Na- 
vigantium atq. Ilinerantium Bibliotheca, or a complete 
collection of Voyages and Travels,' &c., 1705, 2 vols, fol., 
reprinted with additions and conections in J 744 and 1764; 
* Lexicon Technologicum, or an Universal English Dic- 
tionary of the Arts and Sciences, explaining not only the 
terms of Arts, but the Arts themselves,' 2 vols, fol., 1704-10. 
From this, says Watt, • ha\'e originated all the other dic- 
tionaries of arts- and science and cyclopaodias that have since 
appeared ;* and it is as the originator of this important and 
useful class of works that his memory best deserves to be 
preserved. [Dictionary.] * History of Kent,' 2 vols. 
fi»l., 1719. Harris was secretary and vice-president of tlie 
Royal Society, and possessed considerable church prefer- 
ment, but was reduced to poverty by neglect of his aflairs. 
He died in want, and was buried at the exi>ense of his 
friends. 

H.\RRIS, JAMES, born July 20, 1709, was the eldest 
son of James Harris, Esq., of Salisbury, by the Lady Eliz. 
Ashley Cooper, sister of Lord Shaftesbury, the author of 
the * Characteristics.' He was educated at the grammar- 
tichuol in his native place, and pa.<sed thence to Wudham 
CoUetre, Oxford. In bis twenty-fifih year he lost his father, 
and thereby Itecarae independent in fuitunc, and able to 
devote his time to studies more congenial to his taste than 
in which he had been engaged. For fourteen 
life h« did litHe else than study the Greek and 



t»i - 



l«OM-». 



l-~. 



Latin authors with the greatest diligence, and his iror*ic« 
show how deeply imbued he was with tneir spirit In 1 74^ 
he married the daughter of John Clailte, Esq., of Sandf^r d, 
near Bridgewater, by whom he had five children. In 176 1 
he was returned for Christchurch, which seat be relaincJ 
till his death. In 1 762 he was appointed to the post of a 
lord of the Admiralty, and next year to that of a lord of the 
Treasury, which he held for two years, when his j'art> 
went out of office. In 1 774 he became secretary and cu»n» - 
troller to the queen. He died in 17H0. 

Harris is best known by his * Hermes, or a Philosopliu :.l 
Inquiry concerning Ijinguage and Universal Grammar,* 
a work which Lowth characterised as one of the !»<•* t 
beautiful pieces of analysis which had appeared since t)i»- 
days of Aristotle. He begins by defining grammar, (u.il 
giving Bacon's distinction between literary and phil«><*'i- 
phical or imiversal grammar, turns directly to the lattt-r. 
which he proposes to treat in two ways; first, by dividsrii,' 
s|>eech into its constituent parts; and secondly, by ri 
solving it into its matter and form. In pursuing the f 
mer inquiry he determines speech to consist of senierir 
and these sentences to be resolvable into two grand cla 
those which refer to our perceptions, and those wlni-ii 
refer to our will; the first includmg all forms of anj^^Tti'ti. 
the other all forms of command. A sentence he drlin.-, 
with Aristotle, to be ' a compound quantity of sound sijiui- 
ficant of which certain parts are themselves also signifi' .uit. 
and these parts or words to be * sounds significant of « h.-it 
no part is of itself significant.* Giving instances of woriU. 
he says that in the sentence * the sun shineth^* the wur^i^ 
sun and shineth have each a meaning; but that th'^re i 
' certainly no meaning in any of their parts, neilhfr lu 
the syllables of the one, nor in the letters of the otlier.* 

Going next to words, he divides them into those sigtnt:- 
cant by themselves, and those significant by relation, 'it.' 
former class, he observes, are significant either of substano. ^ 
or of attributes ; the latter from being associated either wi* ,'i 
one word or with more. Hence he arrives at four s^hvm* 
of words, substantives, attributives, definitives, and cornier* 
tives, which he further explains by giving them the bettor- 
known names of noun, verb, article, and conjunct K'Ti. 
Substantives he divides into primary and secoudani', < r 
nouns and pronouns; the first of which denote things gcti«-. 
ral, special, or particular. On arriving at attributives, whu .i 
include adjectives, verbs, and participles, he finds it neri«- 
sary to qualify his assertion that there is no meaning in t > «* 
parts of words, which he does by sa)ing that the \erh r< 
becomes a latent part in every other verb, so that n." "i 
means i* risivg, and writeth, is tcriting. The contemplut » .• i 
of tlie verb brincrs him to a discussion of the nature of tm ■ 
in which he stops just short of the conclusion that it titili 
exists in the mind, but does not quite arrive at it His .i-- 
^umcnt in this, as well as in many other parts of his b>>k. 
IS taken nearly word for word from Aristotle. In t^<- 
matter of tenses his exposition is very intelligible, foum!* i 
on the distinction between absolute and relative time : Im.: 
when we get to number and person, all he tells us is t)>..! 
they are ^supposed aflections of the verb.' of which Mi- 
most that can be said is that verbs, in the more cU-^.ir : 
languages, are provided with certain terminations, wit 'i 
res|)ect the number and person of every substantive^ th it 
we may know with more precision, in a complex senli wn . 
each particular substance, with its attendant verbal u''r> 
butes.' As verbs consist of an attribute, time, end .-.w 
assertion, by abstracting the last we get a participle, .i . 
by abstracting the two last an adjective. Furthermore •..»• 
have attributives of attributives, or adverbs, which oouclu:i< ^ 
the subject of attributes. - 

Definitions, or aiticles, cost him very little trouMo, a ,.! 
he passes thence to connectives, or conjunctions and pre| • 
sit ions. What he says on this subject is not so 8ati»ta< t. % 
as might be wished, as, in dcBning a conjunction t<t :• 
a part of speech void of signification itself, but so fbrmi ^ .i 
to help signification, he makes an assertion very horl t 
undei'stand under any known meaning of the won> • i 
which it Is couched. This brings us to the end ui f.. • 
second book. The third treats of the matter or souti«1. .• . . 
the form or meaning of language, and under the Ut'/ 
head he defines a word to be ' a voice articulate and s:*.*!. - 
ficant by compact:' under which definition we are at a ■ . 
to know, first, how it can include those words whxh 
has before asserted to be without signification ; and s« - 
condly» by what oommunication that compact was inkUtutt d. 



H A R 



57 



H A R 



thfOQgh whieh W6 now derive oar only channel of eonmn- 
nie»tion. 

Having now got through the subject-matter of his essay* 
he concludes it by a rapid glance at the genius of differont 
languages; and m his admiration of the Oreek» what 
scholar is there who will not go along with him? 

The real merit of this work of Hanris is perhaps best ex* 
pressed in the following few words from the first sentence 
of his sensible piefiioe: 'The chief end proposed by the 
author of this treatise in making it public has been to ex- 
cite his readers to curiosity and inquiry.' A careAil perusal 
of the treatise cannot Ikil to make a man think more accu- 
talely, though he may, as he ought to do, reject some of the 
writer's nremises. 

Hairiss' Hermes* was published in 1751. Some years be- 
fore, be had written three treatises, on Art, on Music, Paint- 
ing and Pbetry» and on Happiness; and in 1775 he pub- 
lisoed his 'Philosophical Arrangements,' a part of a large 
work on the Aristotelian Logic. His last work is called 
' Philological Enquiries ;' it does not h. jrever answer to its 
title, as it is in fact a history of literature subjoined to dis- 
sertatioDS on criticism. It is considerably interlarded with 
qnolmtioos ftxxn the anthoia of antiquity, but not nearly to 
such an extent as his other works. 

His private character appears to have been excellent, 
and his son*s admiration for him proves that his moral 
nature was so perfect as to secure the respect of those who 
bad the best possible opportunity of judgmg it It rarely 
happens, let a man deceive the world ever so completely, 
tloU he saeeeeds in deceiving his own children. 

HARRISON. [HoLiNSHXD.] 

HARRISON, JOHN, was bom at Faulby, near Pon- 
tefract, in York^re, in the year 1693. He was the son of 
a carpenter, which pfofession he aJso followed during several 
yean. In 1700 the fomily removed to Barrow, in Lincoln- 
shire. Harrison early displayed an attachment to mechani- 
cal {iniauits, and his rtention was ptxticularly directed to 
the inprovemeot of clocks. After many failures and many 
minor improvements, he at lengtn succeeded in constructing 
a pendulum, the excellence of which depended on the 
different degrees in which metals are expanded or con- 
tracted by variations of temperature. This important 
principle is now emptoyed in the constniction of the balance- 
wheels of chronometers, and is that on which the accuracy 
of those timekeepers mainly depends. rCHBONOifXTBB.] 

In tiie vear 1714 an act was passed offering a reward 
of lO.OOO^, 15,000/., and 80,000/. respectively, for a me- 
thod of aaoertaining the longitude within 60, 40, or 30 miles. 
In 1735 Harrison came up to London with a timepiece 
which he had constructed. Having obtained certificates 
of its excellence from Halley, Graham, and others, he was 
allowed, in 1736. to proceed with it to Lisbon in a Jr'.ng's 
shin, and was enabled to correct the reckoning a degree 
ana a half. On this the commissioners under the act gave 
him 500/L to enable him to proceed with his improvements. 
Altar constructing two other timepieces, he at last made 
a third, which he considered sufficiently correct to entitle 
him to claim a trial of it, and the commissioners accordingly, 
in 1 76 1, sent ont his son William in a king's ship to Jamaica. 
On his arrival at Port Royal, the watch was found to be 
wrong only 5^ seconds ; and on his return to Portsmouth, 
in 1762, onlv 1 minute 5^ seconds. This was sulBcient to 
deCennine the longitude within 18 miles, and Harrison ac- 
ceidingly claimed th# reward. After another voyage to 
Jamaica and some further trials, an act was passed, in 1 765, 
which awarded the 20,000/. to Harrison, one-half to be paid 
on hia explaining the principle of its construction, the other 
half aa soon as it was ascertained that the instrument could 
be made by others. After some delays and disputes, Har-^ 
risoo, in 1767, received the whole sum of 20,000iL 

Next to the principle of the different expansibility of 
metals, which is applicable both to the pendulums of clocks 
and the balance-wheels of watches, the most important of 
the OHUiy inventions and improvements which in the course 
of fifty years he introduced, ts perhaps that of the foing 
/utest hj which a watch can be wound up without mter- 
ntpting its movemenL 

He oied at his house in Red Lion*square in 1 776, in his 
63rd year. Hia phraseology is said to have been uncouth. 
On mechanics and subjeeta connected with that science he 
ooold converse with considerable deamess; but he found 
ipraat diifieulty in exnressing his sentiments in writing, as 
IS evident in his ' Description oonseniing such Meoha- 



nism as will afford a nice or true Mensuration of Time.* 
In the last volume of the Biographia Briiannica, pub- 
lished in 1766, there is a memoir of Harrison drawn up 
from materials ftunished by himself See also Hutton^ 
Mathemat, Diet, and the GaUery qf PortraiU, vol v., p. 153. 

HARROW. [MiDOLBssx.] 

HARROWOATE. [Yorkshirk.] 

HARRY, BLIND, as he was commonly called, or Henry 
the Mimtrel^ lived towards the close of the fifteenth 
century. Mijor, the Scottish historian, remembered him 
to have been alive in his own boyhood, and he was bom 
about the year 1470, according to Warton. The work for 
which Blind Harry is celebrated is a poem on the adven- 
tures of Wallace. It is in eleven books, in the heroic metre. 
Readers of Walter Scott will remember a note to one of 
his poems where he relates ftrom Blind Harry the account 
of Wallace's meeting with Fawdoun in the ' Oask Hall.' 
There axe many other verv spirited descriptions in the poem, 
particularly those of flgnting and war. BUnd Harry is 
chiefly remarkable as arordi^ a modern and true parallel 
to the account, true or folse, which we have of Homer. 
(Warton, vol. i.; J%e Bruce and IFaUaeet by Jameson, 
preface passim.) 

HARTB, WALTER, was educated at Marlborough 
school and Oxford. The dates of his birth and academic 
life are uncertain ; he seems to have been bom about 1700, 
and to have graduated as MA. of St. Mary Hall, January 
21, 1730, according to the Catalogue of Oxford Graduates. 
At an early age he became acquainted with Pope, whose 
stvle he imitated ; and in return the great poet corrected hia 
admirer*s verses. With this advantage Harte published 
' Poems on Seveial Occasions,* 1727 ; ' Essay on Satire^* 
1730 ; ' Essay on Reason,' 1 735, to which Pope is said to 
have contributed very considerably ; ' Essay on Painting,' 
date unmentioned; *The Amaranth,' 1767, his last work. 
As a poet however he is not distinguished from other once 
successfhl but now forgotten imitators; but be has made a 
valuable addition to our literature in his ' History of the 
lifeof OusUvus Adolphus,* 2 vols. 4to., 1759; republished 
in 8vo., corrected ana improved, in 1763. An affected, 
harsh, and pedantic style has done much to throw dis- 
credit and neglect on this laborious and able work. It is 
translated into German, with pre&ce, notes, and corrections 
by J. Gottl. Bohme, and, if the translator has done his work 
well, will probably appear to most advantage in its foreign 

?irb. Harte left unfinished, in MS., a * History of the Thirty 
ears' War.' The account of his life is soon told. He took 
orders, acovi A reputation as a preacher, was appointed 
Princippi ' i St, Mary Hall, and through the interest of 
Lord Chesterfield, whose son's tutor he had been, canon of 
Windsor. He died at Bath in 1774. (Biog. Univ.) 

HARTLEPOOL. [Durham.] 

HARTLEY, DAVID, was bora on the 30th of August, 
1705, and was the son of a clergyman of Armley in York- 
shire. Having been first educated at a private school, he 
entered, at fifteen years of age, at Jesus College, Cambridg;e, 
and became in time a Fellow of that society. Scruples which 
would not allow him to subscribe the Thirty-nine Articles 

grevented him from afterwards entering tl^s church, as 
ad been originally intended: and he applied himself to the 
medical profession. In this profession he practised with 
success, and attained to eonsiderable eminence. 

He commenced the composition of the work by means of 
which he has become universally known, the * Observations 
on Man, his Frame, his Duty, and his Expectations,' at the 
age of twenty-five. ^\ had been the subject of his thoughts 
even previously to thL. He tells the world in his Preface, * 
that the ftindamental idea of the work, the possibility of ■ 
explaining all states of mind by association, was first sug- 
gested to liim by Mr. Chiy's admirable ' Essay on the Fun- 
damental Principle of Virtue or Morality,' prefixed to 
Law's translation of Archbishop King's * Origm of Evil.' 
Having been begun so early as 1730, tl;. «ork was not 
finished until sixteen yeara after; and it was ultimately 
published in 1 748. It had constantly occupied his thoughU 
during the best and most important period of his life; and 
when his labour was completed, and his work had been 

given to the world, he felt, as it were, that he had performed 
is part, and that he might now rest. He lived nine yean 
after the pubUcatbn of his work. 

£^. Hartley was twice married, and had children by both 
marriages. He practised medicine successively at Newark, 
Bury St. Xdmnnd8» in London* and atBath* where he died 



H A R 



$8 



H A R 



on tbe SStb of August. 1757, at tho age of tUty-two yean. 
Combining as he did with his profession the pursuit of 
learning, he eigoyed through life the friendship of many 
distinguished literary men of his time. Among those may 
be mentioned Bishops Law, Butler, Warburton, and Hoad- 
ley, Dr. Jortin, Young the poet, and Uooke the Roman 
historian. One of his children thus writes oonceming the 
qualities of mind and heart which endeared Dr. Hartley to 
his private friends: * His thoughts were not immersed ia 
>vorldly pursuits or contentions, and therefore his life was 
not eventful or turbulent, hut placid and undisturbed by 
passion or violent ambition. From his earliest youth his 
mental ambition was pre -occupied by pursuits of science. 
His hours of amusement were likewise bestowed upon 
objocU of taste and sentiment. Music, poetry, and history 
were his favourite recreations. His imagination was fertile 
and correct, his language and expression fluent and forci- 
ble. His natural temper was gay, cheerful, and sociable. 
He was addicted to no vice in any part of his life, neither 
to pride, nor to sensuality, nor inlemperauce, nor ostenta- 
tion, nor envy, nor to any sordid self-interest; but his heart 
was replete with every contrary virtue. The virtuous prin- 
ciples whioh are instilled in his works were the invariable 
and decided principles of his life and conduct.' 

In an article like the present nothing more than the most 
general notion can be furnished of the character and object 
of Hartley's great metaphysical work. Its chief end and 
its great achievement is the application of the principle of 
association to all our states of mind, or, as he himself calls 
them not perhaps very happily, ' our intellectual pleasures 
and pains.' But before proceeding to set forth and apply 
the principle of association, he attempts to explain physi- 
cally sensations and ideas, which he resolves into vibrations 
of the medullary substance. The first hints of this his doc- 
trine of vibrations were derived, he tells us, from Sir Isaac 
Newton ; but, while such speculations as these do not pro- 
perly belong to the province of the psychologist, it is obvious 
that they can never rest upon any better foundation than 
conjecture. The commencement therefore of Hartley's 
work detracts from rather than enhances its value. But 
the doottine of vibrations being dismissed, the principle of 
association, of which little more than hints had previously 
been given by Hobbes and Locke, is explained and applied 
by Hartley with a fulness and acuteness which will ever 
render the work valuable. The second part of the work is 
wholly occupieil with natural and revealed religion. 

HARTSHORN, the horn of the Cervus Elaphus, the 
common stag [Debr], which has a place in the pharmaco- 
poeia because it contains less earthy matter, and more 
gelatine, than other bones. It is kept in the form of 
shavings, of which a sufficient quantity boiled in water 
\icld.s a jelly suitable to convalebcents, which may be fla- 
voured with lemonjuice or wine, &c. ; but there is no proof 
that it is superior to jelly made from calves' feet. It is 
sometimes a useful addition to milk for young children, but 
it piist^esses no alkaline properties, and the further addition 
of a little lime-water is often necessary to fit it for irritable 
stomachs. 

HARTSHORN, SPIRIT OF. [Ammonia, Carbon- 
afejt.'] 

HARUN AL RA8HID. [Abassidbs.] 

HARUSPICES, a class of priests in antient Rome, 
whose principal duty was to inspect the entrails of the vic- 
tims which had been sacrificed, and thereby to foretel friture 
events. They also interpreted various phenomena, such 
as lis^htning, earthquakes, &c (Cicero, Cat., iii. 8. ; Div., 
i. 41.) This art, called Harugjnrina^ was derived from 
Etruria, where it is said to have been discovered by one 
Tages. (Cic, Ikv., iii. 23.) The Romans used frequently to 
send their children to Etruria in order to be instructed in 
this art (Cio^ Div., i. 41); and Etrurian hanispices often 
practised their pmfession in Rome. The duties of the 
HuruKpices in many respects resembled those of the 
Aiif?ur«4; but they were not reckoned so important, and they 
never acquired that political influence which the Augurs pos- 
sessed. (Augurs.) They were formed into a college or corpo- 
ration at Rome, of which the chief was called * SummusHa- 
ruspex,' or *M agister Publicus.' Their art fell into disrepute 
aroonifstthe well educated Romans in the later times of the 
republic. Cicero ridicules their pretensions of foretelling fu- 
ture events, and relates a talo of Cato, who used to say that 
lie wondered how one haruspex could meet another without 
laughing. (Cic.« Dtr., ii. 24.) The Bmperor Claudius wished 



to leviva the study ; and under hit directkms a deone of 
the senate was passed for that purpose (Tac^ Ann.t xi. 16); 
but it probably produced little effect 

HARVEST IS a most important poriod to the huaband* 
man. When by his skill and industry the ground has been 
well prepared to looeive the seed, and every circuiastauce 
has been favourable to the growth and ripening of hia cropn, 
he may be deprived of a great portion of his reward by an 
unseasonable timo of harvest. Although the state of the 
weather is beyond his control, he may, ny an attentive ob- 
servation of the usual changes at particular periods of thtr 
^ear, anticipate its influence in any partkulsr situation. 
The precautious which are necessary in a northern climate, 
where the fruits of the earth come late to maturity, would 
be superfluous in more southern latitudes. It is from 
the inhabitants of northern and mountainout oountncs 
that we are likely to learn the means of obviating the efl'cci^ 
of an unfavourable season and a lata harvest. 

In those southern climates where the heat and want of 
moisture are not too great for the growth of com, the onlv 
care of the farmer is to procure hands sufficient to reap iL 
The heat of the sun and air soon dry the straw, and bardeu 
the grain.^ A spot is levelled in the field, and the com i« 
threshed out immediately, either by the tread of cattle 
driven over it, or by the flails of numerous threshers. The 
corn is winnowed and stored in granaries ; and the straw tt 
reserved till winter, when it forms the chief fodder of horMr» 
and cattle. In these regions the harvest is a oontinot^ 
feast; no ungenial weather disappoints the hopes of the 
husbandman. But in northern climates, where tae harre^ki 
is later, and cold rains and storms are frequent in aulumiu 
the ingenuity is often taxed to save the oom ftnm beiii'^ 
entirely spoiled, after it has been severed from the ground ; 
roomv barns are erected to secure it in the straw, till it can b« 
threshed ; and the joy of harvest is frequently interrupted! 
by the anxiety which is the oonsequence of sudden chanso* 
of weather. 

To lessen the casualties of harvest in a moist climate, the 
experienced husbandman endeavours to arrange the time 
of sowing each kind of grain, so as to insttie its coming to 
maturity in a regular succession. Thus he has mora tiiui* 
to attend to the precautions of which experience has taught 
him the utility ; and if the duration of harvest ia longer, 
there is less danger of all his crops being spoiled by a wet 
season. 

It was long the custom through the whole of the north of 
Europe to store all the produce of the fkrm info barn a. 
especially the com ; and it was thought that as soon as th« 
sheaves were collected under a roof, all danger was {a»( 
The increase of the produce raised on most lands by an im- 
proved system of agriculture gave rise to the practice of 
stacking corn in the open air, and securing it by a ru\-enutf 
of thatch. It was soon found that the grain thus stortn) in 
the straw was better preserved than that which was in the 
barn ; and the invention of stone, or cast-iron pillars, aa »up- 
ports for the frames on which the grain was stacked, not oniv 
secured it from the depredations of vermin, but kept it in a 
much drier state than when athcks were made on the Kfound. 
This was a great improvement; and now, in the In^r 
managed farms, the only hams required are thoae in whu h 
the corn is threshed ; and if there is sufficient room to hohi 
the contents of one stack of the usual *iimanf^5^n% at is all 
that is absolutely required. 

The want of room in the bams yfin probably one of the 
reasons why the reapers were permitted to out tho atrau 
half-way between the ear and the root, leaving mora th:kti 
half the straw in the field. Another reason also was the 
profusion of weeds which grew amongat tho com, mxui 
which retarded ita drying, by retaining tl^ wet much longrr 
than the ripe straw. It was thought also that tho seeds td 
weeds were thus prevented from mixing with the grain ia ti'«* 
threshing, and giving more trouble in the winnowing. The 
usual prohibition against selling any straw also mado Uie far- 
mers less careful to secure the whole. The stubble was now n 
after harvest, and formed into broad walls, called in sumc 
phices haulm-tcalU, round the yards where tlie eatlle weiv 
fed in winter, for the double purpose of foddar and aboltcr. 
But it is evident that this practice is defective ; tber« can 
never be too much straw to be converted into OMUiniv b% 
the dung and urine of cattle, and what is left aa stubble x^ 
much wasted before it is mo¥m and carried into the yar«l. 
The seeds of noxwus plants remain on the land, whesra^ 
they would be much more tffiKtually dostioycd if tbey w lt^^ 



tt A ft 



&6 



tt A ft 



»Ueked With the cbrn. The subsequent separation of them 
is a very trifling additional labour, where a winnowing ma- 
chine is in use. It may therefore be admitted as a general 
rule in reapinj^, to cut the straw as near to the ground as 
possible: this is best done by an instrument called a cradle 
icyihe^ which mows the straw, and collects it so as to be 
readily eather^ into sheaves. 

The Hainault scathe has a very short handle, and is used 
with one hand, while the other collects the straw into a 
sheaf by means of a large hook at the end of a wooden 
rod. It b a moat usefhl instrument, and greatly preferable 
to the faggin^-hook in use in Middlesex and the neigh- 
bouring counties^ where straw is valuable and sells at a high 
price. It cuts mon strow at each stroke, and is less fa- 
tiguing to the reaper, because his position is nearly upright 
when he uses it In many places it is not usual to tie op any 
com into sheaves, except rye, wheat, and beans. Harley 
and oals are usually mown« raked into heaps, atod carried 
into the stack or ham when dry, like hay ; but this is a 
slovenly 4n«ctice, which should not be recommended. With 
good tillase and proper manuring the straw of barley and 
oats will DO strong, and of sufficient length to re<juire 
being tied up into sheaves ; and much less of the gram is 
shaken out and lost in this way than by the usual method. 

In rainy seasons it frequently happens that the sheaves 
remain a long time in the field before they are sufficiently 
dry to be carried and stacked. If the ears are not secured 
(tout the wet they become soaked, and the srain sprouts in 
the ear. This is a great loss ; for sprouted grain is very 
inferior, and can only be sold at a low price. A little at- 
tention will often nrevent the bad effect of rains. In some 
places six or eight sheaves are set up in a circle, with the 
Dult-eods diverging, so as to admit the air to circulate 
among them; a sheaf is opened by spreading out the ears, 
and is placed inverted over the ears which lean against each 
other, forming a truncated cone. Thus the butt-end of the 
top sheaf is the only part in which the rain can lodge ; 
and the fltat sunshine will soon dry this : the rain runs off 
ibo sides of the inverted sheaf, and the ears, pointing 
downwards, will not loUs retain the wet. 

When the stack is bunding, the butts of the sheaves are 
placed outwards, and project gradually over the sides of the 
frame, and over one another, so as to build the stack in the 
ibnn of a bowl, with a cone or pyramid over it, according as 
the frame is round or square; this is carefully thatched 
with straw, and the outer surface is cut smooth by means 
of shears. This not only saves all the ears which chance 
to lie outwards, and which would have become the prey of 
btrds, but it also prevents the rain from beating into the 
$tack and injuring the com. It may then be considered as 
safe. 

Where there are no raised frames, and the sUck is built 
on the ground, or on a bottom made of faggots to keep it 
liry, aMt of plastering or stucco is sometimes laid, a foot 
vide, round the stack, about 18 inches from the ground, 
after the surface has been cut quite smooth and even. This 
contrivance is intended to prevent the rats from lodging in 
the stacl^ and it is very effective. A frame made entirely 
of iron, and supported upon iron columns, has lately been 
inventeid. It may be readily taken to pieces and put to- 
gether again when it is wanted. The advantage of it is, 
that it is cheaper and more easily moved than any other ; 
and it is very convenient for a temporary purpose. 

Harvest is proverbiaDy a joyous time, and one when hos- 
pital! tj is practised with more good- will than at any other 
hezion. The custom of giving a supper to the harvest men 
and women, when the last com is carried, has been ob- 
served from time immemorial ; and it is much to be regretted 
that in many farms it is now omitted, or a mere gratuity is 
given instead. The community of good feelings which 
ought ever to exist between the master and his servants or 
bbourers, is most effectually kept up by occasional friendly 
iatercotirse ; and a harvest-home supper was formerly a kind 
of Saturnalia in which every exuberance of spirit was allowed 
without fear of offence. The anticipation of it was an in- 
citement to exertions in the field ; and the farmer was 
amply repaid the expense which the feast occasioned. The 
stimulus of strong beer is still applied at harvest, and fre- 
quently to sudi a degree as to defeat its own object. In 
M>me places the labourers have a certain sum in addition to 
food toJbiUh the harvest, whether it is a longer or shorter 
time. Id others they have the usual weekly wages, and a gra- 
Uiity at the ei^ with plenty of beer so long as it lasts : ac- 



cordingly as labouren ard abundant or not, the price is 
less or greater. Many thousands of Irishmen come over to 
England and Scotland in the time of harvest, and are of 
great use in finishing it in a short time. 

HARVEY, WILLIAM, was born at Folkstone on the 
1st of April, 1578, and after having been some years at the 
gmmmar-school of Canterbury, was admitted at Caius Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in the year 1593, being then in his six- 
teenth year. Having devoted himself to the study of logic 
and natural philosophy for six years in that university, he 
removed to radm, at that time a celebrated school of me- 
dicine, where he attended the lectures of Fabricius ab 
Aquapetldente on anatomy, of Minadous on pharmacy, and 
of Casserius on surgery. He was admitted doctor of medi- 
cine there, and returned home at the age of twenty-four. 
At thirty he was elected fbllow of the College of Physicians, 
and shortly after appointed physician to St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital. On the 4th of August, 1615, he was chosen by 
the College to deliver the Lumleian lectures on anatomy 
and surgery, and upon this occasion he is supposed to have 
first brought forward his views upon the circulation of the 
blood, which he afterwards more fully established, and pub- 
lished in 1628. 

The importance of this great discovery was such, that it 
will be necessarv to investigate from the writings of the 
author the steps by which it was attained. We are informed 
by Boyle in his ' Treatise on Final Causes,' that in the only 
conversation which he ever had with Har\'ey, he was told 
by him that the idea of the circulation was suggested to 
him by the consideration of the obvious use of the valves 
of the veins, which are so constructed as to impede the 
course of the blood firom the heart through those vessels, 
while they permit it to pass through them to the heart. 
Before the time of Harvey the opinions on the circulation 
were numerous and inconsistent. The blood was supposed 
to be distributed to the various parts of the body by means 
of the veins, and that intended for the nutrition of the 
lungs by the action of the right side of the heart Accord" 
ing to the same doctrines the arteries were destined for the 
conveyance of the vital spirits, which were formed in the 
left side of the heart from the air and blood derived firom 
the lungs. These vital spirits were supposed to be taken 
in by the arteries durin? their diastole, and distributed by 
them during their systole, whilst the vapours or fuligines, 
as they are called by Harvey, were returned to the lungs by 
the action of the left ventricle. Opinions did not agree ujion 
the mode in which the blood found its way to the left side 
of the heart, for whilst some supposed that it was conveyed 
with the air fVom the lungs, others maintained that it 
transuded by certain imaginary pores in the septum be- 
tween the ventricles. These opinions, it is evident, rested 
more tipon imagination than any careful observation of 
facts. Those of Harvey, on the contrary, were drawn from 
the most accurate dissections of dead and living animals, 
and supported by arguments depending entirely upon the 
anatomical structure and obvious uses of the paris. Tho 
result of these observations is thus stated by him. The 
heart has periods of action and of rest, but in warm-blooded 
animals its motions are so rapid, that the different steps of 
them cannot be distinguished. In cold-blooded animals 
they are more slow, and in warm-blooded also after the ex- 
amination of its action, by opening the chest in a living 
animal, has been continued some time. During its action 
the heart is raised, and its point tilted forward so as to strike 
against the parietes of the chest. It contracts in every di- 
rection, but more especiallv on its sides; it also becomes 
harder, as other muscles ao during their contraction. In 
fishes and cold-blooded animals the heart may be obser\'ed 
to become paler during its systole, and assume a darker 
colour during its diastole. If a wound be made in the ven- 
tricle, the blood is ejected from it during its contraction 
From these fbcts Harvey concluded that the essential action 
of the heart is its systole, and not its diastole, as was sup- 
posed by physicians before his time, and that the result of this 
contraction is the expulsion of the blood into the pulmonary 
artery and aorta. The diastole of the arteries or pulse is 
synchronous with and caused by the propulsion of the blood 
during the systole of the ventricle, and is a passive, and 
not, as was previously supposed, an active operation of the 
vessels. If the motions or the heart be carefully observed 
for some minutes, it will be seen first that the two auricles 
contract simultaneously, and force the blood contained in 
them into the ventricles; and secondly, that the ventri^let 

12 



H A R 



eo 



H A R 



in their turn Mtmna the tame action, and piopel most of tlio 
Uood into the pulmontty arterv and aorta, from which it ii 
prevented from returning hy tne Talvei ntnated at the en- 
trance of thoee TeneU. The author next proceeds to de- 
serihe the manner in which the hlood pasies fh>m the right 
to the left tide of the heart 

During fotal life, lays he, this is sufficiently evident. 
Part of the hlood passes directly fh>m the right to the left 
auricle through the forsmen ome, whilst the rest is con* 
veyed into the right Tentricle, and by its contraction forced 
into the pulmonary artery, and so through the ductus arte- 
riosus into the descending aorta; for> as he observed, the 
lungs do not admit of its passage through them in the 
foetus. In the adult a new condition is introduced, namelv 
the function of the lungs, bv which, as Harvey observea, 
the ciuestion was so much obscured that nhysicians were 
unable to give a correct explanation of tne phenomena. 
However the consideration or the obvious use of the valves 
of the pulmonary artery had led Galen to maintain that a 
portion of the blood contained in that vessel passed through 
the lunes into the pulmonary veirny but this passage he 
supposed to depend more upon the action of the lungs them- 
selves than of the heart Harvey carried out this argument 
still farther, and maintained from it that the whole of the 
blood which is propelled from the right side passes throueh 
the lungs to the left aide of the heart In like manner he 
showed that the blood is propelled Arom the left ventricle 
into the arteries and so distributed to all parts of the body. 
He next proceeded to give approximate calculations of the 
quantity of blood which passes from the veins through the 
heart in a given time. This he showed to be so much more 
than is required for the nutrition, or can be supplied to the 
veins by the absorption of alimentary substances, that the 
surplus must of necessity return through the various tissues 
of tne body to the veins again. He then argued from the 
construction of the valves of the veins that the course of the 
blood in them must be fh>m the smaller to the larger divi- 
sions, and thus to the heart again. These views he still fur- 
ther confirmed by refbrence to the now well-known effects of 
ligatures placed on a limb with different degrees of tight- 
ness. If the ligature be lo placed as to compress the veins 
alone, they become swelled and tumid beyond the ligature, 
and quite empty between it and the heart, whilst the pulsa- 
tions of the artery remain unaltered. If it be drawn a 
little tighter the pulsations of the artery cease beyond* but 
are felt more violent than usual just within the ligature. 

Such is a brief abstract of the principal steps in this 
the greatest and most original discovei^ in physiology, 
which was so directly opposed to all the previous notions of 
physicians, that its author might well observe, ' Adeo nova 
sunt et inaudita ut non solum ex invidift ((uorundam metuam 
malum mihi, sed verear ne habeam inimicos omnes homines : 
tantum consuetude aut semel imbibita doctrina altisque de- 
flxa ndioibus quasi alten nature, apud omnes valet, et 
antiquitatis venemnda suspicio oogit.' This anticipation 
proved correct; for Harvey afterwards complained to one of 
his friends, that his practice fell off consiaerebly after the 
publication of his treatise ' On the Cireulation of the Blood/ 
and it is welt known that the doctrine was not received by 
any physician who was more than 40 years old. His opi- 
nions were violentlv opposed by Primirosius, Parisanus, 
Riolanus (1645), and otners. Parisanus was ably refuted 
hj his fHend Dr. George Ent Fellow of the College of Phy- 
sicians, and other advocates of Harvey's views appeared on 
the Continent The only man who was honoured by a 
reply from Harvey himself was Ridanus. professor of ana- 
tomy in Paris, in answer to whom he published two letters. 
In 1652 Harvey had the satisfkction of seeing one of his 
early opponents, Plempius, professor at Louvain, declare 
himself a convert to his opinions, and by his example many 
more were induced to withdrew their opposition. In the 
whole of this controversy, says Sprengel (Hut, qf Afed., 
sect xii., c IX the discretion and rare modesty of Harvey 
afford the best model for naturalists and scientific writers, 
Harvev had been so much disgusted by the disputes in 
which ne was involved on the publication of his views on the 
cireulation of the blood, that he had determined to publish 
nothing more, and it was only at the earnest request of his 
fkriend Ur. Ent that he was induced to allow his ' Exereita- 
tionesdeGenentione* to be printed. Thiswork consists partly 
of a oommeniaiy upon the writings of Aristotle and Fabn- 
eus ah Afjuapendente on the same subject and partly of de- 
tails of bit own observations and experiments. The earlier 



' Exereitationes* contain a description of the means of gene- 
ration in the common fowl, of the formation of the egg anil 
its extrusion from the body, and of the use and nature of 
its various parts, as well as the changes which it undergoes 
during the process of incubation. He then proceeds to 
enter upon some discussions on the nature of the act of ge- 
neretion, and of the degree in which the msle and female 
respectively contribute to its performance, in the course of 
which he examines the opinions of Aristotle upon this ab- 
struse subject and advances some of his own. The con- 
cluding treatises contain a description of the analogous pro- 
cesses m the deer. 

Without venturing upon an abstrect of the whole con- 
tents of these papers, we shall endeavour to give some idea 
of the knowledge possessed bjr Harvey, ana especially of 
his own discoveries and additions to this most mteresting 
branch of physiology. He described the organs of genere- 
tion in the fowl : he observed that the vitellus or yolk tM at 
first in vascular connection with the parent; that this con- 
nection is afterwards broken off, and that in its passage 
through the oviduct the layen of albumen are added, and 
that Iwfore its final extrusion ftom the body of the mother 
the hard shell was formed: he asserted that all these parts, 
even the shell itself^ are formed from the same substance 
under the influence of the assimilative power of the egg 
itself and are not mere secretions from the organs of the 
parent, as was previously supposed : he was the fint to de- 
scribe accuretely the two layers of albumen, and to show 
that each is contained in its own proper membrene: he was 
aware that the shell is porous, ana admits of the respiretion 
of the chick through it : he described the chalaxn at each 
end of the egg, and showed that they exist in the unim- 
pregnated as well as the impregnated egg ; whereas it had 
been previously supposed, and especidiy by his master. 
Fabricius, that these parts represent the germ firom which 
the future chick was to be formed. The greatest discovery 
however made by Harvey in this brench of phvsioloffy was 
the use and importance of the ' cicatricula,' wnicn he snowed 
to be the true ft&na in which all the future changes take 
place, and fbr tne increase and nutrition of which all the 
other parts of the egg are destined. He showed ^t it is 
present before the ^olk has left the ovary, and pointed out 
the error of Fabricius, who considered it the remains of 
the pedicle by which the vitellus was attached to the ovary : 
he was sware that eggs occasionally contain a double yofk, 
and asserted that twins are produced from such eggs, but 
that they do not survive. Tne fifteenth and seven follow 
ing ' Exercitationes ' contain a description of the changes 
which the eggundersoes from the fint to the fourteenth 
day of incubation. He described minutelv the changes 
which take place in the cicatricula at the end of the second 
dav. These observations appear to have been quite origi- 
nal. ' At this time it attains the site of the finger-nail 
nearly ; two and sometimes three concentric layen may be 
observed in it The central one is the more trensparent of 
the two. In the middle of it is a white speck, which from 
its appearance may be compared to a cataract in the centre 
of the pupil of the eye. During this day the central layer 
especially enlarges and entrenches upon the external one.* 
This description appears to accord with that of the * area 
pellucida,' to which so much importance is attached by later 
writen on this subject 'At the end of the third day a pul- 
sating spot may be observed in the centre of the ** cicatri- 
cula,* which forms the rudiment of the future heart* He 
observed that the pulsations mav be called forth afresh, 
when languid or intermitted, by tne employment of various 
stimuli : he showed that the liver is formed round the um 
bilical vein, but he does not seem to have been aware that 
the liver, as well as all the other glands whose ducts com- 
municate with the intestinal canal, is a prolongation or 
growth from the intestinal sac : he described five umbilical 
vessels, of which three are veins and two arteries, one of the 
veins being distributed to the albumen, the other four 
vessels to the vitellus. The flret-mentioned vein goes to 
the vena cava, the other two to the vena porta, just before 
it enten the liver. The arteries are branches of the 
common iliacs. On this point though his observations are 
correct as far as they go, his knowledge fell short of that of 
later inquiren; for he does not appear to have had any 
very accurate acquaintance with the uses of the allantois. 
He was aware that the vitellus is drawn into the intestine 
of the chick shortly before hatching, and serves lor iu 
early nutriment; and in this relation he well ooroparcd it 



H A R 



61 



HAS 



toTthe milk. Thb ftet was known to Ariitotle. H« oor* 
reeled the error of Fabrieins, who sniypoied that the egg is 
chipped by the heUi and showed on the contrary that this 
process is perfbrmed by the chick itself. 

His obaerrations on the process of generation in mam- 
malia were confined chiefly to the deer species, of which be 
was enabled to obtain numerous specimens by the liberality 
of Charles L, who allowed him to take them from the royal 
parks. He supposed conception to take place either in the 
utems or its hom« This view, as is now well known, is in- 
eorrect. His deseription of the vessels and of the placenta 
is of considerable value. * The smaller divisions of the 
umbilical veins coalesce into two trunks, which go to the 
vena eava and porta. The two arteries arise firom the 
branches of the descending aorta. These vessels arise from 
snd pan to the cotyledons of the placenta. In like manner 
the maternal vessels are distributed to the same cotyledons. 
A layer of honey-like matter is interposed between the 
maternal and tetal portion of the placenta ; and it is by 
abeorptkm from this substance that the nutrition of the 
fcBtua is eairied on, for there is no vascular connection be- 
tween the mother and the fmtus.* 

He noticed the late union of the lateral parts of the upper 
Up and assigned it as a cause of the frequency of hare-lip. 
He dairas to have been the first to discover the connection 
between the bronchi and the abdominal cells in birds, and 
to show that in all birds, serpents, oviparous reptiles, qua- 
drupeds, and fishes, kidneys and ureters exist, a fact un- 
noticed by Aristotle and all succeeding writers. This 
sceount is» we apprehend, sufficient to show the extent and 
importance of toe discoveries of Harvey in this branch of 
physioloBr, and to make us withhold our assent to theasaer- 
tion of Sprengel (sect 12, ch. 6X that the Treatise De 
Qeneraium$ is unworthy of the discoverer of the circulation. 
In 1623 Harvey was appointed physician extraordinary 
to James I.« with a promise of succeeding on the first va- 
eaney to the phyricianship in ordinary, the duties of which 
he actually performed. He was afterwards physician to 
Charles I., and was in the habit of exhibiting to him and to 
the most enlightened persons of his oourt the motion of 
the heart and the other phenomena upon which his doc- 
trines were fi>unded. During the civil war he travelled 
with the king;, and while staving for a short time in Oxford 
was made by him master of Merton College, and received 
the degree of Doctor of Medicine. He held the master- 
ship however for only ^^ few months, when Brent, who had 
been expelled by the king for favouring; the parliamentary 
causes was repueed by that party, which had now gained 
the ascendency. Soon after nis nouse was plundered and 
burned by the same party, and unfortunately several un- 
published works, of which we have only notices in his other 
writings, were destroyed. The latter years of his life were 
chiefly spent at his country-house at Lambeth, or at his bro- 
ther's near Richmond In 1654 he was elected president of 
theCoU^e of Physicians, but in consequence of his age and 
infirmities he was induced to decline that honourable 
office. But he testified his regard for the society by pre- 
senting them with bis library, and conveying over to them, 
during his lifetime, a fkrm which had been left him by his 
&ther. He died on the 3rd of June. 1657, in the 80th 
year of his age, and was buried at Hempstead in Essex, 
where a monument was erected to his memory. The best 
edition of his works, which were written in correct and 
elegant Latin, is that published by the College of Phvsicians 
in 1 vol. 4to., in 1766, with an engraving by Hall nom the 
portrait bv CSomelius Jansen, in the college library. They 
eonsiat of the ' Exereitatio de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis ;' 
*Bxereitotiones duos Anatomicae de Circulatione Sanguinis, 
ad J. Riolanum, Fil. ;* ' Sxercitationes de Generatione Ani- 
malium ;* ' Anatomia Thomm Parri ;* and nine Letters to 
cdebnted contemporaries on diflerent anatomical subjects. 
Among the works destroyed were, ' Observationes de usu 
licsiis;* * De Motu Loeali ;' 'ObsorvationesMedicinales* — 
* De Amore Libidine et Coitu Animalium ;' ' De Insecto- 
rum Generatione ;' ' De Quantitate Sanguinis Singulis 
Cordis Pnlsationibus Protrusft ;' and ' Tractatum Physio- 
lagicnm.* Two other MS. works by him are preserved in 
the Library of the British Museum ; one, * De Musculis et 
Motu Animalium Locali ;' the other, * De Anatome Uni- 
Tenali;* in the latter of which, bearing date April, 1616, the 
prine^wl propositions of the doctrine of the circulation are 
contained. 

(Zt^, prefixed to his Works; Sprengel's £ft<fory (/^ftf- 
Heine.) 



HARWICH, n partiamentary and municipal borough 
and seaport town in the hundred of Tendring, and county 
of Essex, 71 miles north-east from London. On the east it 
is bounded by the sea, and on the north by the ssstuaries 
of the Stour and OrweU. The town is of Saxon origin, and 
ite name is derived from two Saxon words. Here, an army, 
and Wic, a fortification (Morant*s Estext vol. I, p. 499), firom 
which circumstance it is supposed that a Saxon army was 
always stationed here to oppose the descents of the piratical 
Danes. It was not a place of any importance till after the 
Norman conquest. In 1318 Edward il. made it a borough 
corporate, and several chartera and letters-patent were 
granted by succeeding kings, but none of these, prior to 
lliat of James L, are now extant Under the Municipal 
Corporation Act the council of the borough consists of a 
mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors. The reven ue 
of the corporation, in 1831, arising fh)m lands, port dues, and 
other property, amounted to 671/., and its expenditure for 
the same year was 585/. The borough returns two mem- 
bers to parliament, a privilege which it nad enjoyed previous 
to Uie time of Edwud III., in whose reign it was discon- 
tinued, and was not restored till the commencement of that 
of James I. The town consiste of three principal streets, 
is well paved, and lighted with gas. The church, dedicated 
to St. Nicholas, is a spacious structure of brick, with stone 
buttresses and steeple, and occupies the site of an antient 
chapel, founded, about the commencement of the 13lh cen- 
tury, by Roger Bigod, earl of Norfolk. The living is a 
vicarage in the patronage of the crown, with an average net 
income of 221/. The inhabitonts are chiefly employed in 
ship-building and other maritime occunations, but the trade 
of the town is in a declining state, which Jis partly attri- 
buted to the removal of the government packets. Within 
the last twenty yean the number of vessels belonging to 
the port, and the custom-house receipts, have fkllen off 
considerably. The harbour is deep and spacious, the anchor- 
age good, and there is a lighthouse, erected upon a hill be« 
low the town for the safe guidance of vessels into port. The 
population in 1831 was 4297. There is a tree grammar- 
school for the education of 32 bo;^s, the children of residents. 
The master, who is always the vicar of the parish, receives a 
salary of 40/. per annum, besides being provided with a 
house rent-Aree. Immediately opposite to Harwich, and at 
the south-east extremity of the county of Suffolk, is situ- 
ated Languard Fort, a fortification of considerable strength, 
erected in the reign of James I. for the defence of the 
harbour, the entrance to which it completely commands. 
(Morant's Euex; Beauties qf England and fFaiee ; Por- 
Hameniary Papere^ &c.) 

At Walton, near Harwich, the crag yielding many fossils 
may be seen resting on the London clay, a rare and import- 
ant occurrence. 

HARWOOD, EDWARD, a biblical and classical scho- 
lar of the last century, was bom in Lancashire, in 1729 
and educated as a dissenting minister. In that capacity, 
after going through various other emi>loyments, he accepted 
the charge of a congregation at Bristol, in 1765, whick 
however, at the end of five vears, he was obliged to quit, in 
consequence of reporto (unfounded it is said) touching his 
religious opinions, which gave offence to his congregation, 
ana also of a slur cast on his moral character. Ho then 
removed to London, devoted the rest of his life to private 
tuition and literary labour, and died in distress, Jan. 14« 
1 794. He used to say that he had written more books than 
any living author, except Dr. Priestley. (For the list, see 
Watt, BtbL Briiann,) His rejratation as a schohr resto 
chiefly on his * View of the various editions of the Greek 
and Roman Classics,' 1775, fourth and best edition 1790» 
* a valuable little book, no doubt fiir from being perfect, 
but that can hardly be expected in a work of the kind.' 
(Watt) It has been traudated into German and Italian. 
His ' Biographia Glassica, the Lives and Characters of the 
Greek and Roman Qassics,* 1778. a new edition of un old 
book, with additionid matter, is another useful work. Dr. 
Harwood also published an ' Introduction to the Study of 
the New Testament,' 1767; a New Translation of the New 
Testement, 1768; a new edition of the Greek Testament* 
with English Notes, 1776, && &c. 

HASDRUBAL. the name of several Carthaginians. 

1. Hasdrubal, the son-in-law of Hamilcar. [Hamilcar.] 

2. Hasdrubal, the son of Hamilcar and brother of Han- , 
nibal. [Hannihal.] 

3. Hasdrubal, who commanded the Carthaginians in their 
last war against the Romans, b.c. 146. 



Has 



«& 



HAS 



H ASLIN6DEN. [Laic c ashirs.] 
HASBB, ADOLPH, a composer of great celebrity dur- 
inffthe early part and middle of the last century, was bom 
•t Ber^edorf, near Hamburg, in 1705. When very young, 
be distinguishedhimself as a superior tenor singer, but soon 
left Germany fbr Italy, and became first the disciple of Por- 
pora, then of Alessandro Scarlatti. In 1726 he produced 
an opera, SesofttxUe, at Naples, which was followed by 
others in different parts of Italy. In 1 733 Hasse, being 
then in I^ndon, was engaged by the noblemen hostile to 
Handel to compose for tne opposition Italian theatre, at 
which he brougnt out with success his Artaserfe, He could 
however be persuaded to remain in London, the head-quar* 
tent of a cabal he did not approve, but went tb Dresden, 
where ho remained several 3 ears. It wss there, in 1745, 
that Frederick of Prussia heard his Arm^nio, which so 
pleased that warlike, musical, and commonly parsimonious 
pHnce, that he sent the composer 1000 dollars and a dia- 
mond ring. 

In 1760, at the bombardment of Dresden, Hasse lost all 
his property, including his valuable manuscripts, by fire. 
Thift was his first alHiction. In 1763 he experienced a 
second, haTing been obliged, by changes made in the court 
of Dresden, to leave that city, and proceed to Vienna. In 
tliat capital he wrote several operas. He finally retired to 
Venice, where he produced a grand Te Deum, which was per- 
formed before the pope in the church of Santo Giovanni. He 
died in 1 763. Some years previous to his decease he composed 
a Requiem for his own funeral, which was duly applied to 
the intended purpose, and is a work affording evidence of 
his Dowers in an advanced period of life. Hasse is cer- 
tainly entitled to be considered as one of the best composers 
of his day. Some of his productions, and among these his 
Pellegrini and two Litanies, are much admired by real un- 
prejudiced judges, and are occasionally heard at that asylum 
for what is classical and rejected of fkshion — ^the Antient 
Concerts. But it must be acknowledged that many of his 
operas have sunk into an oblivion by no means unmerited. 
HASSELQUI6T, FRBDERIQ a Swedish naturalist, 
and pupil of Linnnus, was born at TSmvalla, in East 
Gothland, on the Srd January, 1722, old style. His fiither, 
Andrew Hasselquist, a poor curate, having died young, 
without having made any provision for his family, his wifsis 
brother, a clergyman of the name of Pontin, took charge of 
young Hasselquist's education, and placed him with his 
own children in the school of Linkoping. After the death 
of his benefkctor, Hasselouist was transferred to the uni- 
versity of Upsal, where ne entered in 1741. He there 
acquired a taste for natural history, became a pupil of the 
great Linnnus, and was led very particularly to apply him- 
self to the study of the properties of plants. An inaugural 
thesis, called 'Vires Plantarum,' which appeared in 1747, 
evinced him to be a voung man of a strong original turn of 
mind, and worthy of his master. He showed how puerile 
were the notions at that time entertained regarding 
the medical properties of many plants, bow much the 
whole of vegetable materia medica stood in need of re- 
formation; and he pointed out a philosophical mode of 
iiivestiffating the fkcts connected witn it, by insisting upon 
the old doctrine of Mike fbrms, like virtues.' This truth, 
which is one of the most important among those connectecl 
with the practical application of botany tb useful purposes, 
had been so obscured by want of science in the age im- 
mediately preceding Linnnus, that it had ceased to be a 
jioint of belief, and was rather set down as a fancifUl specu- 
lation of forgotten theorists. Hasselquist however main- 
tained its accuracv, and with so much skill that he may be 
said to have esUblished it upon a solid fbundation, from 
which it could never afterwards be shaken. This, and his 
ccneral proficiency in other branches of science, procured 
Hasselquist some of the royal stipends provided for tru- 
velhng students, and he was thus eventually enabled to 
carry into execution a fiivourite project of visiting the Holy 
Land fbr the laudable purpose of investigating its natural 
history. Having sailed from Stockholm in August, 1 747, he 
proceeded to Smyrna, thence to Eg) pt, and afterwards to the 
Holy Land. His constitution sunk however under the exer- 
tions of his enterprising spirit, and he died at Smyrna, on his 
return homewards, on the 9th February, 1 752, in the 3 1 st year 
of his age. The result of his investigations of these, at that 
time little known, oountries, was given to the world by lin- 
n»us in the year 1 757, under the name of ' Iter P^sstinum.' 
Lik« moat timr^m* books of that age, this work showed 



that the author had oombinad with energy and indu%*rr 
great attainments in the sciences of his day. It is rich lii 
observations upon the quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, flfthr«» 
insects, mullusca, plants, minerals, and materia medira "f 
the countries he visited, and is to this day a standard uork 
of reference. His science was not the flimsy, superfici:i), 
and unintelligible gossip of most modern travellers, but thf 
sound matter-of-fkct, precise, and definite information nf 
which use maybe maae solon^ as science endures, what- 
ever changes It may undergo in its forms. His name it 
perpetuat^ in botany by having been given to a cun**ti% 
genus of Eg)'pttan Apiocecs. 
HASSELT. [LiMBtTRo] 

HASTINGS, a parliamentary borough and the chief 
town of the rape to which it gives name, is situated m 
the hundred of Guestling and county of Sussex, 64 mil<*% 
south-east from London. Hastings is a town of consicicr- 
able antiquity, but nothing is known with certainty respect • 
ing its origin, or whence it derived its present name. Dnl- 
laway, in his • History of Western Sussex,' says, • In h*j3 
the Danes, in 250 ships, commanded by the pirate Hnsttngc«, 
landed at the mouth of the river Kother, near Rcmnry 
Marsh, and immediately possessed themselves of Apuldorc. 
where and at Hastings (so called from their leader) thrv 
constructed forts and ravaged all the coast to the westward 
of the country.' but it is probable that the town had an 
earlier origin, as in the reign of Athelstane, a.d. 924, it «n« 
a place of sufficient importance to have a mint, Edwai-il 
the Confessor granted it a charter, and seveial other kw^^ 
did the same down to James II., but the governing charter 
is that of Queen Elizabeth, dated 1588, and subsequently 
confirmed and enlarged by Charles II. The boron i;!i 
council consists of a mayor, six aldermen, and eii(hte*Mi 
councillors, and the style of the corporation is the *Mav>r, 
Jurats, and Commonalty of the town and port of Hastin<r< 
in the county of Sussex.* (5 and 6 Will. IV., cap. 7»*.> 
Hastings has returned two members to narliament since 
the reign of Edward III. It is one of tne Cinque ])ort^, 
and is next in importance to Dover, tlie chief of thit^t- 
antient communities. [Cinque- Ports.] The town is plea- 
santly situated on the sea-coast, in a hollow, shelten^d 
on every side, except the south, by lofty hills, and ban 
of late years been much resort od to during the bathni<r 
season. It consists principally of two streets, runnitif 
nearly north and south, ann separated by a small stre^iu 
callea the Bourne, which runs into the sea. To the wx^t* 
ward of the town, upon a lofty cliff, are the ruins of an 
antient fortress, supposed to have been erected prior to the 
Norman conquest. The town-hall, recently tebailt, is a 
handsome structure, supported on arches, with a market* 
place beneath it; but the gaol is small and inconvenient. 
There are five principal hotels, which are said to be gone- 
rally well conducted. The places of amusement and puhlK* 
resort are numerous, and comprise the theatre, marine 
parade. Royal Pelham Arcade, &e., besides subscription 
libraries. The inhabitants are chiefly empk)yed in the 
coasting trade and fisheries, but a consideiabie numbef are 
engaged in boat-building and in the making of lime. The 
kilns are situated to the west of the town, and produce on a ti 
average 120,000 bushels a year. Hastines is in the diocc^* 
of Chichester. There are two churches, l)oth very antient 
edifices, dedicated to All Saints and St. Clement, llie 
living is a ractory, with an average net income of 300/. Tlic 
port is divided into eight parishes, the aggregate populatinri 
of which, in 1831, was 10,097. There is a school fbr the 
education of boys, founded and endowed by the Rev. WiN 
liam Parker in 1619, and another founded and endowed t*y 
James Saunders, Esq., in 1 708. The average yearly ineotno 
of Parker's charity is about 210/., that of 8aiiiideri*s is 
about 240/. 

About a mile to the west of Hastings is situated tho 
new and well built town of St. LeonardV The principil 
range of buildings extends along the coast, about thrt^c- 
fourths of a mile in length, and is fh)nted by a very U'aii- 
tifUl esplanade. As the town was only commenced in 1 8 j ^, 
the public buildings are not yet very numerous. Tliere isi 
however abundant accommodation fbr visitors, and tho 
three principal hotels are erected upon a very splendid sc*ale. 
(Allen's History of Suftser, 8vo., 1830; Dallawnt^s 
Hittory qf frettem Suuex, 4to., J 830; Parliamentart, 
Paper i, &c.) 

HASTINGS SANDS. The middle group of the Weal- 
den fbrmatlont which constitutes the uppermost part of ibm 



HAS 



68 



|I A S 



oolitic system in Bngland, is thus named from its ebaiao- 
teristic development around Hastings iii Sussex. In the 
Hastinp sands we may distinguish four divisions, which lie 
in the Allowing order : — 



•mg 
Tb^ Horsham beds. 



The Tilgate beds. . 



. Fawn-coloured sand and fidable 
sandstone: good flagstone oc- 
curs here. 
Sandstones often calcareous, ^rith 
various grits and conglomerates^ 
resting on blue clay. These 
have yielded a considerable 
number of organic remains, 
plants, mollusca, fishes, and 
reptiles of gigantic dimensions. 
[Iguanodon and HYLisosAU- 

BU9.] 

•• White sand and friable sandstone^ 

alternatii^g with clay. 
The Ashburnham beds. Nodules and beds of limestone, 

alternating with clays and sand- 
stones. 
The axis of elevation or forest ridge of the Weald of Kent 
and Sussex is chiefly formed of Hastings sands, which rise 
in Crowborough Beacon to 804 feet above the sea. [Geo- 
logy.] (Mantell^s TUgcUe Forest; Fitton's Geology cf 
HiUtingM^ &c) 

HASTINGS, WARREN, a mepaorable name in the 
history of British India, was bom in the rank of middle life 
in 1 733, and after receiving the usual education at West- 
minster School, went out in 1750 as a writer in the service 
of the East India Company. His first advancement was 
doe to his own industry and discernment, which led him to 
master the Persian and Hindustanee languages, a study at 
that time almost universally peglected ; and he was there- 
fore chosen for more than one useful and honourable em- 
pb>'inent, commercial and diplomatic, in the interior. After 
i«9iding about fourteen years in India, he returned home 
vith a moderate fortune, intending apparently to pass the 
remainder of his life in tranquillity. In 1769 however he 
uoexpectedly received the appointment of second in council 
al Madras and in 1772 was appointed to the highest office 
ui the Company's service, that of President of the Supreme 
C^juricil of aengai. His powers were enlarged by the al- 
teration of the Indian constitution by act of parliament, in 
\a\\x^ of which he became, January 1, 1 774, governor-general 
and supreoae head of all our Indian dependencies. Affairs 
vm at this time in great disorder, ttne territories of the 
Company had been greatly extended by the conquests of 
Utve and his successors ; but their dominion, authoritv, and 
influence were still unconsolidated, and were exposed during 
ibe govenment of Mr. Hastings to great danger firom the 
inveterate enmity of Hyder Ali, rajah of Mysore, sup- 
xjTied by the Manrattas, and others of the native powers. 
Thai he did many things under the pressure of circum- 
stance^ vhich nothing but expedience could iustify, is 
bardlT denied by his defenders or himself: indeea it seems 
to have hoen part of his defence, that Indian statesmen 
i^ere not to be bound or judged by European rules of justice 
Aid moraUty. Right or wrong, he weathered the dangers 
\ 1 ^hJch the Britisn Empire in India was exposed ; and if 
1 1 led the prorinoes under his charge wasted and depopu- 
ix.ed, the increased revenue more than counterbalanced by 
ihf increased debt, he also left the power of our enemies 
broken, our own consolidated, and an easier task to his sue- 
c9SM>n than fell to his own share. Notwithstanding his 
Mniccs^ he gave satisfaction neither to the home adminis- 
tration nor to the Court of Directors. The public ear was 
fSoided bj rumours of crueltv, corruption, and ui\}ust ag- 
?r<»>ioa ; the directors censurea the lavish and corrupt expen- 
•l lire, and the presumptuous independence of his conduct. 
•t'.^<«aited attempts were made to obtain his dismissal, but 
»r£a« were uniformly defeated by the Court of Proprietors. 
1 L4x^ supported, he carried matters with a high hand ; neg- 
• -r'f^d ixt poaitivelv refused to obey the orders sent by the 
Uinctors ; overruled the opposition of the Council, of which 
tjznjohtj was, in .the first instance, opposed to his views 
' r lA^cis, SiA Philip] ; and practically exercised an abso- 
Icte sad irxespoasible power until February, 1786, when he 
J^^^ifued his oiflice an^ set sail for England, well aware that 
t itcrrm awaited his arrival. 

A'^ soon as Mr. Hastings had arrived, Mr. Burke in- 
umated his resolution of instituting an inquirv into the late 
Oovemor-G«aBral*8 conduct. Proceedings nowe^'er were 



not oommenoed unti^ the lesBion of 1786, in the ceuiae of 
which articles of impeachment were brought forward by 
Mr. Burke, charging him with numerous acts of injustice and 
oppression committed against native princes and people de- 
pendents or allies of the Company ; with the impoverishment 
and desolation of the Britisn dominions ; with the corrupt 
and illegal reception of presents himself; with the corrupt 
exertion of his ^reat influence by conniving at unfair con- 
tracts, and granting inordinate salaries, and with enormous 
extravagance and bribery, intended to enrich his dependents 
and favourite9. The several accusations were finally con- 
fined to four heads : — the oppression and final expulsion of 
the riyah of Benares ; the maltreatment and robbery of the 
Begums (or princesses) of the house of Oude ; and the 
charges of receiving presents and conniving at unfair con- 
tracts and extravagant expenditure. The sessions of 1 786-7 
having been consumed in preliminary proceedings, the 
House of Lords assembled in Westminster HaJl, February 
13th, 1788, to try the impeachment, and on the 15th, tho 
preliminary forms having been gone through, Mr. Burke, 
in the name of the Commons of England, opened the 
charges against the prisoner in a comprehensive, elaborate, 
and most eloquent speech [Burke], which lasted upwards 
of three days. He was assisted in the management of this 
most arduous cause by Fox, Sheridan, Grey, and others. 
The sessions of 1788, 1789, and 1 790 were consumed in going 
through the case for the pros^ution. In 1791 the Com- 
mons expressed their willingness to abandon some part of 
the charges, with the view of bringing this extraordinary 
trial sooner to an end; and on the 2nd oi June, the seventy-, 
third day, Mr. Hastings began his defence. This was pro- 
tracted until April 17, 1795. on which (the I48th) day he 
was acouitted by a large mi^^^^y ^^ every separate article 
chargea against him. 

There seems no doubt but that public opinion changed 
peatly during the trial ; and that Mr. Hastings came to 
he regarded as an oppressed, instead of ah offending man. 
This &eling was probably caused in a ^eat measure by the 
suspicious appearance of so great % delay of justice, and the 
skilful manner in which Mr. Hastings and his counsel 
threw all the blame on the managers of the prosecution, 
when in truth the smallest share of it seems to have be- 
longed to them The extreme violence of their invective 
was perhaps calculated to hurt their cause, and the upper 
ranks, more especially the powerful interest connected with 
India, were disposed to look jealously at so close a scrutiny 
into the conduct and gains of an official man. 

Mr. Hastings attempted to refute the charges of extortion 
by publicly asserting in the most solemn manner, that never 
at any time of his life was he worth 100,000/. The law- 
charges of his defence amounted to 76,080/. In March, 1 796, 
the Compauy granted him an annuity of 4000/. for twenty- 
eight years and a half, and lent him 50,000/. for eighteen 
years, free of interest. He retired completely from public 
life, to an estate which he purchased at Daylesford, in Wor- 
cestershire, formerly in the possession of his family. He 
died August 22nd, 1818, havmg been raised to the dignity 
of nrivy-cQunsellor not long before. 

On his real character as a man and a statesman it is 
somewhat hard to decide. That his talents and his ser- 
vices were alike eminent, is admitted; that the means 
which he used were often most culpable, appears to be 
equally certain. His apology is to be found in the neces- 
sities of his situation, in the general neglect of justice in 
our dealings with the Asiatic princes, and in the notorious 
laxity of Anglo-Indian moralitv, where making a fortune was 
concerned, in those days. Mr. Mill, after exhibiting with- 
out reserve or favour the errors and vices of Mr. Hastings* 
administration, thinks it necessary to recommend him to 
the favourable construction of the reader, on the ground 
that he 'was placed in difficulties and acted on by tempta- 
tions, such as few public men have been called on to over- 
come:' and adds, 'It is my firm conviction that if we had 
the advantage of viewing the conduct of other men, who have 
been as much engaged in the conduct of public affairs, as 
completely naked and stripped of all its disguises as his, 
few of them would be found whose character would present 
a higher claim to indulgence ; in some respects, I think, 
even to applause. In point of ability he is beyond all 
question the most eminent of the chief rulers whom the 
Company have ever employed; nor is there any one of them 
who would not have succumbed under the difficulties 
which, if he did not overcome^ he at any rate &ustaine<L 



HAT 



HAT 



Ha hid no seniQS, any more than Clivo, ibr aehemei of 
policy, incluoing largo viewi of the past and large antici- 
pations of the fStore ; hut he was hardly ever exoelled in 
the skill of applying temporary expedients to temporary 
difficulties ; in putting off the evil day, and in givinc a Aiir 
oomplexion to the present one. He had not the forward 
and imposing audacity of Clive ; hut he had a calm firm- 
ness, which usually by its constancy wore out all resistance. 
He was the first, or among the first, of the servants of the 
Company who attempted to acquire any lanj^uage of the 
natives, and who set on foot those liberal inquiries into the 
literature and institutions of the Hindoos, which have led 
to the satisfactory knowledge of the present day. He had 
that great art of a ruler, which consists in attaching to the 
governor those who are governed ; and moat assuredly his 
administration was popular, both with his countrymen and 
the natives in Bengal* (Book v^ ch. 8.) 

We have thought it fiur to give at length the testimony 
of Mr. Mill, who has dissected the events of Hastings' 
government with an unsparing hand. At the same time, 
assuming Mr. Mill's representations of particular events 
and his strictures on them to be just, we feel bound to 
dissent from the meed of comparative praise conveyed in 
thisnassage, and believe that most persons, on perusmg 
the fifth book of the * History of British India,' will do the 
same. (Mill's Britiih India; Obituary, for 1819.) 

HAT. In every civilized community it has been the 
custom for men to wear a covering on their heads in the 
open air ; and in Western Europe, and those countries which 
have been peopled firom it, the form of ooverins employed 
since the fourteenth century has been that which we call a 
hat. The difference between a hat and a turban, the cover- 
ing generally used throughout Asia and a part of Eastern 
Europe, is sufficiently marked. The distmction between a 
hat and a cap consists in the shape, as both may be made of 
the same materials. The hat has usually a cylindrical 
crown, or receptacle fbr the head, and a nm or orim en- 
circling the baMe, and perpendicular to it, which brim does 
not form part of a cap ; but this distinction is not sufficient, 
as hats such as those worn by naval and military officers, 
and those which until late years were employed in polished 
societv, on occasions of ceremony, and known as cocked- 
hats, nave not any brim, properljr so called, but a part, of 
ample dimensions, answenng to it, and turned up so as to 
be parallel with the crown. 

Hats are made of straw, of silk, or of wool. Straw-hats 
are little used bv men in this country. The material 
chiefly used in makinp^ them is wheat-straw plaited in strips 
and sewed together in the reouired form. Silk-hats are 
composed of a form made of cnip or of felt, and covered 
with woven silk plush, or shag, fashioned to the required 
shape and drawn over the fbrm. A considerable number 
of (nese hats are made fbr exportation to different places in 
the Mediterranean and to our Colonies. The greater part 
of the hats used in England are made of wool by felting, a 
process peculiar to tnat substance. There are three de- 
scriptions or qualities of hats made of wool, vis. beaver- 
hats, plate-hats, and fblt-hats. Each of these has the body 
composed of felt : the first has a covering or nap of beaver ; 
the second, a nap of the f^ of the musk-rat, or the nutria, 
or some other fur of small value; and the third kind is 
witliout a nap. It will be sufficient to describe the mode of 
making beaver-hata. 

According to the general belief the art of fblting was 
brought to Western Europe by the Crusaders, who found 
the tents of their enemies covered with that substance. 
Wool in the yolk, that is, with the natural grease, will not 
felt, and it is necessary to the process that it should be well 
scoured, when the fibres being brought togetbor have a ten- 
dency to mat together. This tendency is so strong that it 
is not possible to spin woollen yam without previously oil- 
ing the wooL Hats of the very finest quality are made 
with lamb's-wool imported tnm Spain or Saxony, and the 
ftir of English rabbits. The nap u composed of the f^ of 
the beaver and nutria and the aown flfom the back of the 
English hare mixed together. To fbrm the bod^ of the hat 
tlie wool and rabbitVnir are separately boteed in the man- 
ner employed for freeing cotton fh>m its seeds. [OmoN.] 
The two substances are next bowed together until they are 
intimately mixed, after which the masa is spread evenly, 
covered with an oil-cloth and pressed, first gently and 
afterwards more strqngly, bv which means the fibres will 
teeonie tangled or interlacao. A vtry looie and imperfect 



felt is thus produced. Hie next pr o c eas is to cover the felt 
with a triangular piece of damp brown paper, and then to 
fbld it in a damp cloth and work it well with the hand, 
pressing and bending, rolling and unrolling it, onlil the 
mterlaong or fistting u much more perfect, and the mass is 
compact The t9n thus prepared if next taken to the 
wide brim <tf a boiler charged with water and beer-grounds 
and a small quantity of smjihuric acid. In wine countries 
the lees of wine are substituted for beer-grounda. This 
mixture is kept near to the boiling point The workmen 
having the palms of their hands protected by a covering of 
thick leather, lay the felt on the margin of the boiler, and 
then proceed to sprinkle it with the hot liquor and to work 
it about with the palms of their hands ; bv this means it 
shrinks and becomes more compact ; it is then dipped into 
the boiler and worked, first with the hands, and next by the 
help of a rolling-i>in, which admits of more Ibrce being used, 
ana this process is continued until the fhlt no longer cun- 
tracts. 

Tlie next process is that of stiffening. The substance 
employed for this purpose is shell-lac, a solution of which it 
applied by means of a brush to one side, and sometimes to 
both sides of the fblt, after which it is stoved, and b v this 
means the whole substance becomes duly impre^natea with 
the resin. ShelMac being insoluble in water, spirit of wine 
is usually employed as the solvent, but rectified naphtha 
made from coal-tar is sometimes substituted fbr it The 
use of this resin is the greatest modern improvement in 
hat-making ; the substance is thus rendered perfSeetly water- 
proof, and hats are not now, as formerlv, spoiled by exposure 
to rain. The stiffening of hats was formerly compoeod uf 
gum-arabic, or of glue, which are both soluble in water. To 
form the nap of a hat one half or three-fburths of an ounce of 
beaver, and some other less eostly fur, are bowed together 
and imperfectly felted in the manner already described, and 
shaped the same as the bodv to which it is to be applied ; 
that body is then softened by immersing it in the boiler, 
when the nap is applied and worked as in felting, until the 
reouired union is effected between the two bodies. 

The felt thus covered is in the fbrm of a cone, and must 
be brought to the cylindrical shape in which it is worn by 
means of a wooden block of the requisite form. This ope- 
ration, which is called blocking, is perfbrmed by working it 
with the hand on the block to which it is tied. It is then 
dyed in a bath composed of water, logwood, sulphate of 
iron, verdigris, and ^11* nuts, in which the hat la boiled 
during some hours ; it is then drained and dried. After 
this it is softened by steam, the crown is strengthened b> 
placed it in a disc of scale-board, and linen ia pasted over 
this. The nap is raised and a uniform direction given (o 
its fibres by means of warm irons and hair brushes. The 
last processes ara binding and lining, when the hat is ready 
to be worn. 

It is not possible to form any correct estimate of the ex- 
tent of the hat manufacturo in this country. The quantity 
and value of felt hats exported in the ten yean, 1827 to 
1836, were as follows :^- 

Yeu*. 

1832 
1833 
1834 
1836 
1836 



Yi 

1827 
1828 
1629 
1830 



Value 
76,497 £175,462 
83,114 197,681 
81,182 189,469 
77,061 209,849 



1831 . 62,864 170,188 



66,468 £144,696 
43,138 130,232 
40,166 126,970 
46,849 136,800 
63,894 148,282 



The great bulk of these shipments an made to our own 
colonies and dependencies. The exports so made in 1836 
amounted to 46,019 doiens, valued at 112,226/. 

A duty of 10«. 6(1 each is imposed on the importation of 
hats of foreign make, which operates aa a prohibition. 

HATCHSTINB. Mimeral Adipodn. This aubatance 
occurs in thin flakes in the cavities of the ironstone of South 
Wales. It is very soft, somewhat granular in appearance ; 
translucent ; odour yellowish-white or greenish ; not elastic ; 
inodorous; combustible. It melts at 170", and is soluble 
in ssther. 

Acoocding to Professor Johnston it eonsists of*^ 
One atom of carbon « 86*910 
One atom of hydrogen • 14 * 624 

100*694 
HATnSLD. LKssix.] 
HATHERLEIGH. [l>ivoiftBXBB.j 
HATTKRAS^ CAPS. [Gauouiu, NmaJ 



H A U 



65 



H A U 



UAXTKAU ABUL KASEM MOHAMMED IBN, a 

celebrated Arabic traveller and geographer. The few par- 
ticulars we posaesB concerning his life are derived from his 
own work. From this we learn that he paid great atten- 
tion to the study of geography Arom his earliest years^ and 
collected all the books he could obtain which treated of 
foreign nations ; that partly with a view to obtain farther 
information, and partly to avoid the t}'ranny of the reining 
sultan, and to improve his own fortune by trade, he set out 
from Bagdad, a.h. 331 (ajx 942-3), in order to visit foreign 
countries. He does not tell us into what countries he tra- 
velled ; but we learn from his own account that he was in 
Mesopotamia a.h. 358 (a.d. 968-9); in Africa a.h. 360 
(a.d. 970-1) ; in Sicily a.h. 362 (a.d. 972-3) ; and in Mecca 
A H. 364 or 5 (ajd. 974-5 or 975-6). 

Hankal^s work on eeography is entitled ' A book of 
Roads and Kingdoms. He states in the preface that he 
composed the work to give a description of all the countries 
in which the Mohammedan religion prevailed, together with 
the revenues, natural productions, and commerce of each. 
AAer giving a general view of the earth, and a brief de- 
scription of the nations which do not profess the Moham- 
meaan religion, he first describes Arabia, since it contains 
Mecca and the Caaba, and afterwards the seas and other 
countries subject to Mohammedans. The description of 
each country is accompanied by a map ; but Abulfeda, who 
fiequently quotes Haukal in his treatise on Greography, 
complains that the names are inaccurately spelled, and that 
the latitudes and longitudes are not put down in these 
map«. Haukal mentions the names of other writers on 
Geography, from whom he derived great assistance ; namely, 
Ibn Kboraadbeb, AlJihani, and Abul Faraj Kodama Ibn Ja- 
far, whose works he always carried with him in his travels. 

Manuscripts of Haukal 's work on geography are rarely 
met with even in the East ; there is a copy in the Bodleian 
Library at Oxford, and another at Leyden. From the lat- 
ter Ms. Uylenbroeck has given an interesting account of 
the work in his ' Irac» Persicsa Descriptio ; prsmissa est 
Dissertatio de Ibn Haukalt Geographi codice Lugduno- 
Bauvo,' 4to., Lug. Bat. 1822 ; to which we are indebted for 
the greater part of the preceding remarks. 

Ouseley published, from what he conceived to be a Per- 
sian translation of the Arabic of Haukal, a work entitled 
* The Oriental Geography of Ebn Haukal, a traveller of the 
lOih century,' L^nd. 1800; and De Sacy gave a further ac- 
count of this work in the ' Magasin Encyclopddique,' vol. 
VI , pp. 32-76, 151-186, 307-333. But Uylenbroeck has shown, 
m the work already referred to, that the Persian treatise 
translated by Ouseley cannot be regarded as either a trans- 
lation or an abridjB^ent of the Arabic of Haukal, since, in* 
dependently of other differences, it appears to have been 
written in the beginning of the 4th century of the Hegira, 
while Haukars work was not composed till a.h. 366 
or 367. But he considers it probable from many circum- 
stances that the Persian work was one of those which 
Haukal made use of in compiling his Geography, and that 
it was written by Ibn Khordadbeh. 

HAUKSBEE or HAWKSBEE, FRANCIS, was bom 
m the latter part of the seventeenth century. The exact 
year of his birth is unknown, and also that of his death ; 
but it appears from the minutes of the Royal Society that 
he was admitted a Fellow of that body in 1 705, at which 
period it is probable he was appointed to the office of cu- 
rator of experiments to the Society. Previous to the time 
of Hauksbee, electricity could not be said to exist as a sci- 
ence. Dr. Gilbert of Colchester had published a book on 
magnetism about the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
wherein he gave a list of certain substances which, when 
rubbed, acquire the property of attracting light bodies; 
and similar phenomena had likewise been observed by 
Buyle, but with the exception of these insulated facts no- 
thing was known concerning electricity. Even the elec- 
tncal discoveries of Mr. Hauksbee were not of any great 
importance in themselves, but, as Dr. Thomson observes in 
his ' History of the Royal Society,' *they constituted the 
be^ontng of the science, and, by drawing the attention of 
philosophers to that particular subject, were doubtless of 
considerable service in promoting electrical investigations.* 
Between 1705-1 1, there appear several papers in the * Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society,' giving a detailed account of 
his experiments. In 1 706 he had recognised the electricity 
of glass by friction, and was thence led to the first rudi- 
meaU of the electrical machine. In 1 709 he published his 
P. C No. 732. 



' Phvsico-Mechanieal Experiments on various subjects ; 
touching light and electricity producible on the attrition of 
bodies,' London, 4to., which was shortly after translated 
into Italian by Thomas Dereham. The work was also trans- 
lated into French by M. Breroond, but the latter having 
died before completing the translation, the publication was 
delayed till 1754, when it was revised ana edited by M. 
Desmarest, who added the more recent discoveries of 
Hauksbee, and the yet more important ones of Mr. Greur. 
In addition to the works already mentioned, Hauksbee Ins 
left * Proposals for a Course of Chemical Experiments,' 
London, 1731, 4to. ; 'An Essay for introducing a Portable 
Laboratory,' London, 1731, 8vo.; besides numerous papers 
on various philosophical subjects in the Society's Transac- 
tions. 

HAUTBOIS. [Oboe] 

HAUTES PYRENE'ES. [Pyrenees, Hatjtes.] 

HAUY, RENE' -JUST, ABBE^ a distinguished 
French mineralogist, was born February 28, 1743, at St. 
Just, in the present department of Oise. He commenced 
his studies at the college of Navarre, to which college he 
was appointed professor in 1 764, and subsequently also to 
that of the Cardinal Le Moine. His attention was first 
drawn to the subject of mineralogy by attending the lectures 
of M. Daubenton, but the accidental fracture of a beautiful 
specimen belonging to his friend M. France deCroisset is said 
to have led him to the discovery of the geometrical law of 
cnstaliization. Haiiy was anxiously employed in collecting 
the scattered fragments of the crystal which he had broken, 
when M. Croisset, whom the accident had rendered almost ^ 
inconsolable, desired he would not give himself that trouble, 
and directed a domestic to remove the pieces, which, in his 
own opinion, were no longer of any value. But Haiiy, who 
regarded them with extreme attention, requested permission 
to remove them himself, remarking that the conformity of 
the superposed plates of crystalline matter with the planes 
of the central prism or nucleus had revealed to nim a 
secret which he wished more fully to explore. From this 
moment he applied himself sedulously to the development 
of the truth which his genius had detected, and his efforts 
were rewarded with the success they merited. He was the 
first to show that the structure of crystalline substances was 
regulated by laws as invariable as those to which organized 
bodies are subjected, and thus crystallography for the first 
time assumed the character of a regular science. His 
theory rests upon the supposition that all the crystalline 
forms belonging to any single species of mineral are de- 
rivable from some one simple form which may be regarded 
as the type of the species ; it likewise supposes that the 
angles at which the planes of crystals can be inclined to 
each other are confined within certain limits, an erroneous 
supposition which may probably be attributed to the imper- 
fection of the instruments employed to measure them. 
(See the article ' Crystallography in the Encyclopaedia 
Metropolitana.) In compliance with the renuest of MM. 
Daubenton and Laplace, Haiiy communicated the result of 
his researches to the Royal Academy, and was elected a 
member of that society in 1783. During the Revolution he 
was thrown into prison for refusing to take the oath of 
obedience required of the priest, but the exertions of 
Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire, one of his pupils, and the remark of 
a citizen, that ' it were better to spare a recusant priest, 
than to put to death a quiet man of letters/ obtained his 
release, and probably saved his life. In 1794 he was ap- 
pointed conserver of the mineralogical collections of the 
School of Mines, and the following year he received the ap- 
pointment of secretary to the commission of weights and 
measures. Under the consulship of Napoleon he became 
professor of mineralogy at the Museum of Natural History, 
and professor of the Faculty of Sciences at the Academy of 
Paris. 

Haiiy died at Paris, June 3, 1822. Besides numerous 
memoirs upon mineralogy and electricity, inserted in the 
* Journal des Mines ' and the ' Annals of the Museum of 
Natural History,' he has left the following works:—* An 
Essay on the Structure of Crystals,' 1 vol., 1784; 'Expo- 
sition of the Theory of Electricity and Magnetism,' 1 vol. ; 
•Treatise on Mineralogy,' 4 vols., 1822; 'Treatise on 
Physics,' 2 vols., 1 821 ; 'Treatise on Crystallography, 2 vols., 
1822 ; .and some others. 

HATJYNE. LaiialUe. This mineral occurs in attached 
rhombic dodecahedral cr^'stals, also granular and massive. 
The primary form is the cube. Cleavage parallel to the 
^ Vol. XII. -K 



/ 



H A V 



66 



H A V 



diagonal planet of tbe cube, indistinct ; fracture uneven ; 
britUe. hardneta6*5 to 6*0; sp. gr. 2'68« 3; colour when 
opaque, indigo blue, when tranilucent, blue or bluiah-green ; 
streak white; lustre vitreous. The massive varieties are 
amorphous ; structure granular, compact When heated in 
an acid it becomes gelatinous and transparent. Before tlie 
blowpipe it fuses with borax into a clear glass, which be- 
comes yellow on cooling. This mineral is round in the ca- 
vities of lavas and in the fragmenU of rocks ejected from 
Vesuvius, and also embedded in pumice and lava near An- 
demach on the Rhine, &c. According to Gmelin, the mi- 
n«ral from Marino yielded— 

Silica • .35*48 

Alumina • • 18*87 

Potash « « 15*45 

Lime • • .12* 

Sulphuric acid • 12*39 

Oxide of iron . • 1*16 

Water • • P20 

96*65 

HAVANA, the capital of the island of Cubs, is situated 
in 23^ 9' N. lat and 82** 2' W. long., on the northern shore 
of the island. Its harbour, which is one of the most secure 
and commodious in the world, communicates with the sea 
by a channel little more than half a mile in length, and 
^m 300 to 350 yards wide; its depth varies from 8 to 10 
fathoms. The harbour itself is a basin, of an oblong form, 
measuring in length from south-south-east to north-north- 
west nearly two mdes and a half, but its greatest width does 
not exceed one and a half. Its depth varies from five to six 
fathoms, except on the small shoal De la Lus, where it is 
len. This basin is surrounded by heights which shelter it 
from every wind. The town is built on the western side of 
the basin, near the channel, on a kind of promontory. The 
channel is protected by two strong fortresses. El Morro and 
La Punta, and a continuous scries of batteries along both 
shores. The town is equally strong towards the land. A 
well-built wall runs across the isthmus of the promontory 
on which it stands, and at a distanco of respectively 1240 
and 660 fathoms from it are two fortrosves erected, Del 
Principe and De Aturcs, both well fortified. The space 
between the wnlU of tho town and these fortresses is occu- 
pied by the suburbs, six in number. Hereon, Jesus Maria, 
Regla, Cern\ S. I^Azaro, and I^ Salud. The population of 
the town was estimated in 1827 at 39,980, and that of the 
suburbs at 54,04 i; the whole therefore was 94,023, of 
which number tlie whites amounted to 46,600, the free 
people of colour to 23.600, and the slaves to 23,800. In the 
same year there were also 1H,000 foreigners in Havana, and 
tlie garrison consisted of 6000 men ; the whole population 
consequently amounted to 118,000 souls. In 1828 it was 
estimated at 125,000 individuals. 

The streets are narrow, crooked, and {Generally unpaved : 
in tlie rainy season they are full of mud. A few of them 
contain well-built houses, especially the Calle de los Mer- 
caderes. There are seveml gotKl buildings among the 
ehundies, one of which now contains the remains of Chris- 
topher Columbus, which were formerly at S. Domingo, but 
were removed to this place when that town was ceded to the 
French (1795). The other large buildings, as the paiaoe 
of the government (easa del gobierno), that of the com- 
mandant of the marine, the arsenal, the post-oificc (correo), 
flmd the buildings used for the manufacture of tobacco, are 
less remarkable for their architecture than for their solidity. 
The town has a theatre, a circus for bull-fights, and two 
fine promenades, one called L'Alarneda, within tho town, 
and the other Passeo Extra Muros, without the town. There 
is a university, a seminary for Catliolic priests, a patriotic 
society, and a botanic ganlen. Havana is the seat of the 
eapitano-general, and of a bishop. The manufactures are 
not important, except those of cigars and chocolate. The 
commerce is very great and still on the increase, though 
several other ports of Cuba have been opened to foreign 
vessels. More than half of the produce of the island de- 
stined for foreign markets is shipped at Havana. [Cuba.] 
To what is said of the climate of the town under Cuba, we 
need only add, that it is very unhealthy, and that more than 
one-half of the Europeans who arrive there are carried off 
in the course of one year, mostly by the yellow fever, (Hum- 
boldt ; The Present State of Columbia, by an Officer,) 

HAVANT. [Hamwhirb.] 
t HAVRRCAMP. SIGEBERT, was bom at Utrecht, kd, 
1683. He studied philok)gy at Leyden under Gionovius^ 



whom he succeeded as' professor of Greek. He was a^-n 

appointed afterwards professor of history and elo()Uen' i-. 
He died on the 25th or April, 1742, in the 60th year of ht« 
age. 

' He edited many of the classical writers with numcri' : . 
notes, which were principally selected from fonuer c(< i- 
mentators, of these the most important are 'TertuUiJiu 
Apologeticus,' 8vo., Leyd., 1718; * Lucretius,* 2 vols. 4i».. 
Leyd., 1725*; ' Josephus,' 2 vols, fol., Amst., 1726; * Euti. - 

fnus/ 8vo., Leyd., 1729 ; 'Orosius,' 4to., Leyd., 1 731 ; * S i). 
ust,* 2 vols. 4to., Amst, 1742 ; * (}ensorinus,* 8vo., 1 7 i :. 
He was also tlio author of many original works, of «hi< U 
the most important are, 'A Universal Histoxr/ful. K3<'>. hi 
Dutch; *Introductio inHistoriam Patrin a primifi ILiI. 
landisB comitibus,* 8vo., Leyd., 1739; 'Sylloge scnptun:.a 
qui de linguae Grscso vera et recta pronunciatione r<> : 
mentaria reUquerunt,* 2 vols., Leyd., 1736-40; * DiSM^na- 
tiones de Alexandri Magni Numismate,* 4to. Leyd., 1 r.': : 
'Thesaurus Morellianus,' 2 vols. foU 1734; ' Introdtir. . 
in Antiquitates Romanas,' 8vo., Leyd., 1740. Tbe list of 
Havercamp*s writings shows that he was a laborious srh i- 
lar ; but many of his works bear traces of having been w nt- 
ten in a hasty and careless manner. 
HAVERFORDWEST. [PsMBRonsHiM.] 

HAVRE, LE, or LE HAVRE DE GRACE ni. 
Haven of Grace), on the right bank of the Seine, at ::* 
mouth, which is several miles wide, in the department ••/ 
Seine Infdrieure; 108 miles from Paris in a straight li>.i' 
north-west, or 127 miles by the road through Rouen, i.i 
49** 29' N. lat, 0' 6' E. long. 

Up to the time of Louis XH. Le Hiivre was a mere fi.Hli i ■ . ; 
town, having a small chapel, covered with straw an<l do 
cated to Notre Dame de Grace. Louis XII. laid the fnui- 
dation of the importance of the place: Francis I. > r 
rounded it with walls ; and Cardinal Richelieu in a.d. 1*.. • 
added to its fortifications a strong citadel, which has mm< . 
been dismantled and converted into quarters for tho ^ i 
risen. In the reign of Louis XVI. and in that of Nap o '.«.»; , 
Le Hiivre received considerable improvement and auguioii' i- 
tion. The site of the town and the neighbourhood are t' t 
the most part low and flat, traversed bv several wator-coui - •. 
one of which formed the origin of the port, which i» c ci- 
prchended within the circuit of the town, and has comniu:. • 
eating with it three basins culpable together of receiving up- 
wards of 500 vessels. At tlie entrance of tlie port i« rt-i 
old tower built by Francois I., from which signals arc ma<I.* 
to vessels out at sea. Connected with one of the ba^.n^ 
is a canal from Le HSvre to Harfleur. There are also xw • 
roadsteads. The rise of the tide at Le Hiivre is from j j ' • 
27 feet, and by taking advantage of it the largest merch.ui'- 
men can enter the port 

The town is divided into the Old Quarter, of whivh t^ - 
streets are tolerably regular but the houses ill built, u: \ 
the New Quarter, skirting the basin of Ingouvilli*, i 
buildings of which are regular and handsome; the %\vv .« 
are neat, well watered, and well hghte<l. There is ..• 
arsenal and a custom-house, which is a large building : r • 
town-hall, the office of the sub-prefect, the exchangt*. a .-i 
the two churches are insignificant. There is a haml^' r i 
square planted with trees and forming a public «ai^: 
there is also a handsome modern theatre. The popul •. » 
suburb of Ingouville contains many pleasant countr\*»ca > 
At Cape La Heve, a headland about 130 yards higlij at tti- 
mouth of the Seine, 2| miles west of the town, arv ^^^ « 
handsome lighthouses about 50 feet high. There i> nU. 
a brilliant harbour-light on the extremity of the wcsii i w 
jetty, at the entrance of the port 

The population of Le H£vre in 1836 was 25,G18 ; but in- 
cluding the suburb of Ingouville, it may be estimai«sl m 
upwards of 30,000. Several manufactures are carried on \n 
the town— tobacco, soap, earthenware, starch, vitriuU piii >.. 
cordage, paper, and cards. There are several brewenc-> ai 1 
sugar-refining houses, and building-yards for vessels. The 
wives of the sailors and artisans are much engaged in mak- 
ing lace. The whale and herring fishery, the curing : 
herrings, and the Newfoundland cod fishery are also earn.- 1 
on. fiut the importance of the place depends upon \U cvm- 
merce. It is the principal port of Paris, most of tho forcvn 
and colonial produce designed for the consumption of th^t 
city being imported into it. Beside colonial pnidoccv at 
sugar, cofiee, indigo, dyewooda^ and apices, the inip(t:% 
chiefly coniist of oottoa (for the manun6lon» of ih* «U^ 



HAW 



«7 



HAW 



trict of wbioh Rouen is die capital), tobaooo, hid6% iion, 
tin, dried fish, &c. The exports are silk and irooUen stuflfs, 
lace, gloves, trinkets, perfumery, wines, brandy, &c. Grain 
and flour are sometimes imported, sometimes exported. The 
value of the imports in the year 1829 was 250,000,000 Arancs, 
or above 10,000,000/.: of which the value of the cotton 
imported was estimated at 26,000,000 francs or nearly 
1,100,000/.; that of the French colonial sugars 44,000,000 
francs, or above 1,800,000/, Le H&vre has regular commu- 
nication by packets with Southampton (some of the packets 
on this station are steam-boatsX New York, Vera Cruz, fiahia, 
Lisbon, and Hamburg. Steam and other boats ply between 
Le Hivre, Rouen, and Paris, and between Le Hfivre and 
Honflenr, on the opposite bank of the Seine. 

This town has a subordinate court of justice and a court 
fur commercial disputes, a Calvinist church, a nunnery, a 
poorhouse, a foundling hospital, and three prisons. There 
are also a public library of 15,000 volumes, and other literary 
establishments; a museum of natural history, a hi^h school, 
a school of navigation, and one of geometry applied to the 
arts. There is a military hospital ; and a yearly fair, that of 
St. Michael, is held in a field belonging to this institution 
outside the town. Le H&vre was the birth-place of St. 
Pierre. 

Le Hfivre is the capital of an arrondissement which 
comprehends an area of 344 square miles, has 9 cantons 
and 121 communes, and had in 1836 a population of 142,292. 
It was near the site of this town that Henry V. of Eng- 
land landed previous to the siege of Harfleur and the battle 
of Agincourt In the year 1 759 preparations were made at 
Le Hflvre for an invasion of England, which drew upon the 
town a severe bombiirdment from an English squadron 
under Admiral Rodney. 
HAWARDEN. [Flintsrirs.] 
HA WES, STEPHEN, author of 'The Pastime of Plea- 
sure/ lived at the beginning of the sixteenth century, but 
the date of his birth and death are alike uncertain. He 
calls himself ' gentleman and grome of the chamber to the 
famous Prynoe^nd seconde Salomon, Kynge Henrye the 
Seueuth.' He was a native of SufTolk, and refers in his 
poems to Lydgate as his master. His accomplishments 
made him a favourite with Henry VII., who had some taste 
in literature, particularly French, in which Hawes's travels 
had given him uncommon skill, and poetry such as that of 
Lydgate and Chaucer, in the repetition of which Hawes 
wosc a great proftcient. 

His * Pastime of Pleasure ' is an allegorical poem, * con- 
taining the knowledge of the seven seienoes and the course 
uf Man*s life in this world.' Graund Amour goes through 
the town of Doctrine, where he meets the Sciences, becomes 
enamoured of La bell Pucel, whom he marries, and with 
whom he spends his life. 

It is by courtesy to metre, and scarcely for any other 
cause, that we call ' The Pastime of Pleasure * a poem. We 
have already endeavoured [Epic] to point out what appears 
to us the natural order of poetical creation ; and this work 
s«;cms to belong to that period when the epic element (the 
poetry of action) had been worn out, but having long held 
undisputed sway in the lomanoes, as action itself had in 
iKraX life, compelled those who lived in a more thoughtful 
and therefore lyrical age to clothe their reflective poetry in 
an epical dress. 

Another poem, ' The Temple of Glas,* is ascribed to 
Hawes, but there are almost equally strong reasons fy[ 
believing it to be Lydgate's, ss Hawes himself tells us that 
Ljd^te ooraposed a work under that name, and there ia 
Kimething about the run of the verses which reminds us 
rather of Lydgate than of Hawes. (Warton, Hut, qf Eng, 
Poet., iL 210; S&aihefn Brit PoeU; Wood's Ath. Oxon.) 
HAWFINCH. Haw Grosbeak, Groibeak, of the modem 
British; Qylftnbraff of the Antient Biitish; Le Groibek 
sad Piiuon SoycU of the French ; Progione, Frocdnnet 
Frowntt Friifme^ FrigeUme* of the Italians ; Kembeissert 
Kir9eh Kembeimer^ Kerad^fink, Nusbei$ser of the Ger- 
pians; Appel'tinh of the Netberlanders ; Loxia Cooco- 
tkrauttet of LinnsDus; Fringilia Coecothraustes of Tem- 
fflinck; Cceeotkrauitea vulgciHs of Brhuon. 

Deteription. — Eump, head, and ckeekt red-brown ; edg- 
mz round the billt space between that and the eye, a line 
Ivfyond the eye and throat, deep black ; a large asli-ooloured 
eriHar just below the nape; back and greater oar t of the 
trtn,^^ deep brown, but there is an oblique white stripe 
upon the wing and beyond it a oensideraUe space of a 



light whitish oolour going off into chestnut; seoondary 
quills as if cut off square at the ends, or, as Edwards says, 
with justice, like the figures of some of the antient battle- 
axes, glossed with rich blue, less conspicuous in the female ; 
Tail fbathers white within, of a blackish brown on the ex- 
ternal barbs ; lower parts of the bird vinous red ; iris pale 
red (according to Temminok), feet and bill greyish brown. 
Length seven inches. 

Female, Generally like the male, but with the coloura 
much less brilliant. 

Young of the year before the moult^-^Yory different from 
the adults and old birds. Throat yellow ; fiice, cheeks, and 
summit of the head dirty yellowish ; lower parts white, or 
whitish; sides marked with small brown streaks, with 
which all the feathers are terminated. A9 the young bird 
advances in age some red vinous feathers appear disposed 
irregularly upon the belly ; the upper parts are of a tar- 
nished brown, spotted with dirty yellowish ; bill whitish 
brown, exeept at tne point, where it is deep brown. (Tem- 
minok.) 

Mr. Gould (Birds of Europe) says that in the male the 
beak and feet in winter are of a deUcate flesh-brown, tho 
former becoming in summer of a olear leaden hue, the ends 
straw-colour, and in some instances white ; the top of the 
head, the cheeks, and rump, of a chestnut-brown. The 
rest of the desoription does not differ much f^om M. Tem- 
minck*s. 

Varietiee.^^yfhiio, yelbwish, or greyish. Wings and 
tail often white. Plumage oflLen variegated with white 
feathers. 

Food, Habits, Reproduction. ^.— Hard seeds and ker- 
nels form the principal food of the Grosbeak, but we have 
seen it feeding on the berries of the hawthorn (whence 
its name), and shot it when so employed ; so that it is pro- 
bable that the soft part of fruits ia not disagreeable to it, 
although the bill is evidently formed for cracking the stony 
kerneL Willughby states that it breaks the stones of 
cherries, and even of olives, with expedition. The stomach 
of one which he dissected in the month of Deeember was 
full of the stones of holly-berries. The majority of orni- 
thologists give the Hawfinch credit for forming a nest 
beautifully constructed of lichens and vegetable fibres with 
a lining of feathers and other soft materials. But, accord- 
ing to Mr. Doubleday, who has thrown much light on the 
history of this bird, and discovered it breeding in Epping 
Forest in May and June, the nest, which is made in some 
instances in bushy trees at the height of five or six feet, and 
in others near the top of firs at an elevation of twenty or 
thirty feet, is remarkably shallow and carelessly put toge- 
ther, being scarcely deeper than that of the dove. In mate- 
rials it resembles tlmt of the bullfiocbt but is not to be 
compared with it in neatness and compactness of construc- 
tion. Eggs, from fi>ur to six in number, of a pals greenish 
white, varying in inteiuity, spotted and streaked with 
greenish grey and brown. Mr. Gould states that he has 
known the bird to breed near Windsor, and a few other 
places; but certainly nowhere so abundantly as on the 
estate of W. Wells, Esq., at Redleaf, near Penshurst, Kent. 
This gentleman informed Mr. Gould that he had, with the 
aid of a small teleseepe, counted at one time eighteen on 
his lawn. 

Mr. Selby remarks that in the pairing season it probably 
utters a superior song, as Montagu sa;r« that even in winter, 
during mild weather, he has heard it sing sweetly in low 
and plaintive notes. 

Geographical 2>»ff^fito/tbn.^Plentiful in some districts 
of France ; permanent and not uncommon in Italy ; com- 
mon in Germany, Sweden, and part of Russia* In Mr. 
Selby's 'Illustrations,' and indeed in most other English 
wcMrks, the Hawfinch is noticed as an occasional visitant. 
Dr. Latham says that ' the Hawfinch visits us chiefly in 
winter, but one was shot in the summer months near Dart- 
ford, in Kent' He goes on to remark that White records 
another instance at &» same season, and says that it had 
the kernels of damsons in its stomaeh. ' These,' continues 
Dr. Latham, ' might possibly have bred here, though we 
ha\e no authority for its ever being the case.' This au- 
thority now exists in the observations of Mr. Doubleday. 
' The Hawfinch,* says Mr. Doubleday, ' is not migratory, 
but remains with us during the whole of the year. This 
observer sufficiently accounts for the rarit3r of its appear- 
ance, — ' its shy and retiring habits leading it to choose the 
most secluded plaees ia the thftskest sad jBOfs remote parte 

K2 



of woods and forests, and wh»n diilurbed it invariably 
perchts on the tallest tree in the neighbourhood.' 




i^ 



HA.WICK. [RoxBCRaHaHiKB.] 

HAWKEBWORTH, JOHN. LLJ>, w«a a successful 
writer of Iho last century. The date of hb birth (17l5or 
1719] and the occupations of his ear]; life are variously 
stated: ia go shorta notice, all that is essential to record is 
tliat he was bred to some mechanical occupation, and there- 
fare deserves the more credit for his talent and industry in 
supplying the defects of a rude and illiterate education. 
His Drst appearance was as a contributor to the ' Genlle- 
man's Magazine,' in which he succeeded Dr. Johnson as 
compiler of the parliamentary debates in 17.14. In 17&2, 
encouraged by the success of the ' Rambler,' he undertook, 
assisted by Johnson, Warton, and one or two others, a 
series of essays, called the ' Adventurer.' They extended 
to the number of 14D (70 of which are ascribed to Hawkes- 
worth himself), were received with ^reat approbation, and 
contributed much to the increase of his ropulalion and 
IHends. Herring, archbishop of Canterbury, was so much 

t leased with the work, that he procured a degree in civil 
iw for the conductor. This compliment however produced 
a perroanent alienation on the part of Johnson, who had not 
yet received the same distinction. He probably regarded 
Ihe man so patroDisud as a mere imitator of himself; an<l 
in fact Hawkosworth's style appears to have been modelled 
upon Johnson's, though less remarkable for pomp and in- 
flation of diction. In 17G1 hepnblishod anedllionof Swift, 
with a life prefixed, to the merits of which Dr. Johnson ha* 
borne handsome testimony in his ' Lives of the Poet*.' On 
the return of Capt. Cook A'om his first voyage of discovery 
in the South Seaa, it being thought desirable to entrust the 
task of compiling an account of the voyage to a lileraiy 
man rather than to one of the travellers. Dr. Hawkesworth s 
reputation ag an able writer obtained for him the commis- 
eion. He completed the task in three vols. 4to., 1773 
[Cook], illuitrated with maps and plates at the expense of 
government, including the prior voyages of discovery of 
Byran, and of Wallis and Carteret, and received for recom- 
pence the liberal sum of GDOO/. The work however did not 
give entire satisfaction : the warmth of his deicriptiona of 
manners, in some respects, was thought to verge upon im- 
morality; and exceptions were taken to some religious 
■ueculaiions, which, right or wrong, were certainly out of 
place. The rhagria occasioned by these censures ii said to 
have shortened the author's life, but as he died in Novem- 
ber of the same year, the statement is probably incorrect; 
the effect of criticbm on a practised author is seldom so 
rapid and deadly. The accounts of Cook's subsequent 
voyages were written by Cook himself, end gained more in 
■implirily and correctness than they lost in literary elegance. 
Dr. Hawkesworth translated ' Telcmochus,' and wrote 

* Almoran and Hamet,' on eastern romance, which was 
much admired. He was a regular conlrihutor to the 

* Gentleman's Magazine.' 

HAWKING. [KALCONav.] 

HAWKINS. SIR JOHN, a disEmguishcd seaman of 
Ihe reign of Elizabeth, was bom at Plymouth, about liSO. 
His youth was spent in trading to Spain, Portugal, and the 
Canaries ; and the infjrmation and expetioni'e which he 
thus obtained mode him well aware of the gain to be derived 
' ies with slaves from 
« tnerchuti^ he fittod 



\ HAW 

out a imall squadron in 1&62, and ohloined, partlr by 

Eurchase, partly by force, a cargo of 30U negroes, whom 
carried to Hispaniola, and there sold. This, we believe, 
was the flrat adventure of Bnglislimen in that iuhumiui 
traffic. He made a second voyure in 1164, and a thinl m 
1S67: the Utter turned out unfortunately. All trade b* 
tWHcn the Spanish settlements and IbieigQen being pro- 
hibited by the mother-country, though ofUn, from inte- 
rested motives, connived at by those in power, he uz* 
at last attacked by the Spanish authorities in the port uf 
S. Juan de Ulloo, and savad but two ships of his iquadrou. 
with which, afier suflering great hardihipi, he returned to 
England in January, 15Gtl. This seems to have been hii 
lost commercial enterprise. The queen's approbation uf 
his Burvices, and sanction of that abomination, which, aflvr 
the lapse of more than two centuries, the tardy voice uf 
Europe has branded as piracy, was conveyed in lh« i-v- 
pressive grant to wear as his crest * a demy-mow in hts 
proper colour, bound with a cord.' In iS73 Hawkins sas 
appointed treasurer of the navy. Id 1388 he aen'od as 
rear.admiral against the Spanish armada [Auiada] ; oul 
his btavery on this occasion was rewarded by EUiabulh 
with tho honour of knighthood. Being sent with Fio- 
bisher in 1 j'JO to intercept the plate fleet and haraa* the 
trade of Spain, he failed in the first object, hut succuedtd 
in the second. In 1393 he was appointed, jointly wiih 
Drake, to command a more important eipeditioa against 
the Spanish selilcments in the West Indiea, This enter- 
prise proved fatal to both these hitherto successful com- 
mandeiB. They di^iagrucd upon the conduct of operations, 
and soon separated. [Drask.] Hawkins died November Jl, 
IS95, chieflv, it was supposed, through annoyance and agita- 
tion ; and Drake expired in [h« fallowing month. Sir Juhn 
Hawkins sat in poiliarount for Plymouth, and founded an 
hospital st Chatham for poor and sick seamen. 

HAWKINS, SIR JOHN, the senior of the two chief 
historians of music, the friend and executor of Dr. Jotm- 
son, and a descendant of the Sir Juhn Hawkins who com- 
manded Ihe Victory, as rear-admiral, at the doatiucuoa of 
tho Spanish armada, wa* bom in 1719. Hi* fitther, • sur- 
veyor and builder, at Brst brought his son up to hia own 
Crofession, but eventually bound him to an attorney, * a 
ard taskmaster and a penurious housekeeper.' At the 
expiration of the caual term, the clerk became a solicitor, 
and by unremitting assiduity, united to the most inflexible 

Erobity, ho, unfriended, established himself in a respectable 
usiness, while by his character and acquirements he 
Siinod admission into the Company of men eminent fi« 
leir accomplishments and intellectual attainment*. He 
was an original member of Ihe Madrigal Society, and at the 
age of thirty was selected by Mr. (afterward* Dr.) JubnMiti 
as one of the nine who formed his Thursday-even in g Qiib 
in Ivy-lane; a most flattering distinction, which cn- 
flrmod his literary habits, and powerfully intluenrpd In. 
future pursuits when, not many years after, he relinquisiiiil 
his profession. About this time he contributed much u> 
the Genlleman's Mtgaxine, and other periodicals uf tb* 
day. He also wrote the poetry of the cantata* *et by the 
blind composer, Stanley, fh>m which he derived consider- 
able proBL 

In 1753 Mr. Hawkins married Sidney, the second daugh- 
ter of Peter Storey, Esq., with whom he rooeivrf an inde- 
pendent fortune, which was greatly augmented in 1 759 I., 
the death of his wife's brother. He tfien retired from all 

Erofessional avocations, givinf; up his business to hi* clctk. 
Ir. Clark, who subsequently became chamberlain of tlie 
city of Lonilon. With this increase of wealth i* connerlvd 
an anecdote of for too honourable a nature to be omitted 
licre. The brolberof Mrs. Hawkins made a will, giving her 
the whole of his fortune, except a legacy of 100^ to ■ *i»tef 
t^om whom he had become alienated, and eommunicated 
the fact to Mr. and Mrs. Hawkins, who, by repreoeuiing 
the injustice of this act, andbyaddingentreetytoarf^tnent, 

Erevailed on him to make a more equitable distributiDn of 
is property, and an equal division wai the eoDMOucnce. 
' We loet by thia (*ayi Mias Hawkin*, her (kther'i bic^ra- 
pher) more than lOOO/. a-y*ar; but our gain is ineatimabk-. 
and we can ride through a manor gone foim b* «>[b 
exultation.' 

Upon retiring from the law Mr. Hawkins iturcbased a 
house at Twickenham, intending to dedicate hit future life 
tu literary labour and the etfjoyment of select lociaty. But 
in 1771 he was inMHed ia the eonunistioa of tfae peu* Air 



HAY 



70 



HAY 



a hexastjle Corinthian, is Tery little mfenor to it in exe- 
cution, and displays itself still more advantageously, being 
considerably raised above the street by a flight of step8, 
enclosed by pedestal walls, which gives it an air of dignity 
beyond that of any other building of the kind in the metro- 
polis. Besides which it possesses the further ailvantage of 
tts roof not being interrupted by a steeple immediately be- 
hind thu portico, the campanile spoken of being attacKed to 
the body of the church at the south-west angle. In short, 
if St. Martin's justly entitles Gibbs to the reputation he has 
hitherto maintained, St. George*s, Bloomsbury, oui^ht to 
acquire for Hawksmoor a much greater share of cominenda- 
tion than he has hitherto received. St. Annc*s, Limehouse, 
is another church by him, which deser%'es more praise than 
has fUllen to its share. With murh tliat is incorrect, and 
M'ith very little that is positively beautiful, its cn&emblA has 
an air of grandeur very frequently missed where it seems 
to have been more stuuiously aimed at. 

Among his other works were Easton Neston, in Northamp- 
tonshire, and a mausoleum at Castle Howard. He was also 
employed to lepair the west front of Westminster Abbey. 
The south quadrangle and street front of Queen's College, 
Oxford, have by some been attributed to him, though they are 
ccnemlly supposed to have been the work of Wren. That 
he did much at All Souls College, in the same university, 
is unquestionable, and Dallaway informs us that he had 
seen a very grand design by him for rebuilding Brazenosc 
College, somewhat in the style of Greenwich Hospital, where 
ho had at one time the appointment of clerk of the works. 
Besides this ho gave a design for the Radrliffc Library, but 
that of Gibbs obtained the preference. He died in March, 
1736, at the age of 70. 

. HAWKWOOD. SIR J. [Condottibri.] 
- HAWTHORN. [Crat.kgus] 

• HAYDN, JOSEPH, the father of modem orchestral 
music, the most original and imaginative of composers, was 
bom at Rohrau« {U)out fifteen leagues from V ienna, on 
the 31st of March, 1732. His parents were humble; his 
father was a small wheelwright, and his mother, previous to 
her marriage, was cook to the lord of the village ; but both, 
true Austrians, were musical : the former had a fine tenor 
voice, and could play on the harp ; the latter sang, and with 
the aid of a relation they got up little concerts on Sunday 
afternoons, in which the young Haydn, when five years of 
ago, pretended to join them with two pieces of wood cut in 
imitation of a violin and bow. The accuracy with which 
his motions kept time with the domestic music attracted the 
notice of a cousin, a schoolmaster at Haimbure, and a good 
musician, who made an offer, which was readily accepted, 
to take the child into his house as a scholar. Under the 
IHendly roof of that kinsman he learned music as an art, 
aoon l)ccame capable of using a real violin, and acquired 
some knowledge of Latin. Ho was also taught to sing in 
the parish church, where ho was heard by Hcrr Reuter, — 
Kapellmeister of the cathedral of St. Stephen at Vienna, 
who was travelling in search of boys for the use of his 
choir, — and immediately engaged as a chorister in the me- 
tropolitan church of the empire. 

under Reuter, Haydn continued till he arrived at the a^ 
of thirteen, practising almost incessantly, but receiving only 
such instructions from his master as qualified him for the 
duties of the choir. At that period failing, for want of suf- 
ficient knowledge, in an attempt nt composition, and being 
utterly destitute of the means of obtaining the assistance of 
a master, he contrived to procure the well-known treatise on 
counterpoint by Fuchs, with one or two other works on the 
theory of music, by means of whirh, and his own indefati- 
gable industry, he speedily surmounted the first difilculties 
encountered by a youthful composer. He now made him- 
self known to tho famous Porpora, who was living in the 
hotel of the ambassador from Venice, and by ^'cry assiduous 
attentions to the old musician gained much knowledge 
from him, particularly in singing, in which he made such 
progress that the ambassador, having heanl him, took him 
into his ser^'ice, and bestowed on him a trifling salary. But 
at the age of seventeen his soprano voice left him, and with 
it fled the present means of living. His father could render 
him no assistance, and, sorely distressed, he was offered an 
asyliim in the hou^e of Keller, a wig-maker, who had often 
btvn cluirtncd by his vocal powers. The hospitality was 
accepted, and Haydn was, in obscurity, enabled to pursue 
hu» studies. But nis residence with the friendly traaesman 
powerfully iuliuenoed hia Aiture domestic life* Keller had 



a daughter, who was offered to tho young masiciao in roar* 
riage. He gave his promise to her, which aAor a time lie 
honourably fulfilled; the union however did not contribute 
to the happiness of either party, and ended in a sepataf t*iu 
not very long after it had taken place. 

By giving a few lessons in music, and occasionally per- 
forming in the orchestra for what he could get, Haydn hup- 
plied himself with absolute necessaries; and fmgality 
being one of the German virtues, he managed to prencrNe 
a tolerably decent appearance; till fortune first begun to 
smile on nim, by leading him into the house of the Abate 
Metastasio, where he gave instructions to the poet's nicre, 
and gained not only a thorough acquaintance with the Italuu 
language, but a general knowledge of literature, and the 
most us^eful advice on the subject of setting words to mu>ic, 
from the imperial laureate. This connection also introduce 
him to the Count Martzin, a noble patron of music, into 
whose service he entered in 1759: and hence, in 17C1, be 
passed into that of the rich Prince Esterhazy, to whom \w 
remained attached, as Maestro di Capelia, to the end of hu 
Ufe. 

Comfortably settled in the palace of Eisenstadt, in Hun- 
gary, enjoying in moderation his fiivouhte diversions of 
hunting and fishing, and relieved from care for the fu- 
ture, Haydn there composed all the great works which he 
produced prior to tho year 1791, and under advanta|:«'5 
which few, if any, have possessed: — he had a full, choi «• 
band, living under the same roof with him, at his commanl 
every hour in tho day ; he had only to order, and they iicic 
ready to try the effect of any piece, or even of any pass.i r, 
that, quietly seated in his stuay, he might commit to papt- 1 
Thus at leisure he heard, corrected, and refined whatever bo 
conceived, and never sent forth his compositions till thcv 
were in a state to fearlessly challenge criticism. 

Wc now arrive at that period in the life of Haydn \n 
which were produced most of those works that have raUcd 
his fame to the high point it has attained. In 1790 Sal »■ 
mon, the celebrated violinist, having determined to give a 
series of subscription concerts in London, went to Vienna t^ 
engage either Haydn or Mozart, not only to produce cer- 
tain compositions in aid of his design, but to superintend in 
person the performance of them. It was mutually agrecl 
hy the three parties that Haydn should bo the first to Ms.t 
London, and that Mozart should follow the year after; bit 
it was destined that the latter should not live to fiilfil \n% 
part in the agreement. In 1791 Haydn arrived, anl 
produced during that and the folbwing year, at * Sal'v- 
men's Concerts, in the Hanover-square Rooms, six of hu 
Twelve Grand Symphonies, which immediately made an 
extraordinary sensation in the musical world, and bai e 
ever since ratber increased than diminished in public esti- 
mation. Here also he composed, by agreement with Corn 
and Dussck, music publishers, his two sets of English cnn- 
zoiicts, which for originality, for musical expression of c\crv 
kind, and for richness and propriety of accoropanimt j t, 
have no rivals. Besides these his prolific imagination ^s,\m 
birth to manv quartets, sonatas, &c. 

In 1794 haydn accepted a second engagement fr m 
Salomon for the same purpose. He reached London v\ 
January, and in the course of that and the succeed] r^^* 
season brought forth the remaining sLx of his grand <%-..- 
phonics, with the same brilliant result. For these Iwcle 
symphonies, and for superintending their performan'^c. Vc 
received a sum — including two benefit concerts, the pr«»: s 
gunranteed by Salomon— amounting to 1550/. To th:» .% 
to be added, as tho fruits of his visits to England, m hat bv 
gained by his canzonets and other compositions: it t ..- 
tbercforo with reason he declared that in London he d.- » 
vero'l the real value of the reputation he enjmid 
Germany. His reception here was of the most naue:; 
kind: the university of Oxford conferred on him thed^j 
of Doctor In Mufic : at the tables of the prince of W .. 
and the duke of York he was a frequent guest ; and v.c 
all classes vied in showing him attention. The satishrT 
which he felt he gratefully acknowledged and evinced lu i 
diary he kept while in England, a translation of a par; f 
which (a curious document), with notes, appears In the fil»'i 
volume of the Harmonicon. 

In 1798 Haydn gave to the world his oratorio The Cre.i- 
tinn^ the greatest of his works, though compo«ed in 1; ^ 
sixty-fiflh year. It is enough to say of this fine prod urii -i 
of his advanced years, that it is the only oratorio, of wa^ t 
that have been produced, that can bear compexisoa viih 



" I 



»i \ 



» \ 



H AZ 



71 



H AZ 



{ 



those of Handel. The design was raggested, his biographer, 
M. Beyle, tells us, by an English gentleman named Lidley 
(Liddell, we suspect, is the true name). The German text 
hovever, and the barbarous English translation (which to 
our shame is still in use), were furnished by the Baron Von 
Swietca. Two years after this he composed T%e Seasons, 
a work of as much origdnality as the Creation, but not 
exhibiting, nor intendea to exhibit, the same depth of 
thought. The subject is not of so grave a nature, and is 
treated with more freedom. The last offsprings of his genius 
were two sets of quartets^ ' which betray no abatement of 
his Ti^our ; on the contrary, the second of his Op. 80 is per- 
haps tue moBt original and exquisitely-finished of all the 
wurks of the kind that ever proceeded firom his pen.* 

*When Haydn*s Creation reached Paris the Institut 
Xational elected him a member, an honour contested with 
him by some of the greatest men of the time in Europe : 
but the decision was just ; for who among the candidates 
had contributed so much to the happiness of civilized na- 
tions? His few remaining years were spent in the enjoy- 
ment of a great and well-earned reputation, and a small 
independence created by his talents ; and the last hours of 
his mortal life were crowned with honours.' {Supplement 
t> Musicai Library, i. 27.) His death is supposed to have 
been accelerated by the bombardment of Vienna, which 
t iwerfuUy agitated his weakened frame. Though it must 
»u roentioneo, to the honour of Napoleon, that he issued 
!»inct orders that the abode of Haydn should be respected ; 
4. id when the troops entered the city a French guard was 
placed at his door to protect him from every kind of injury. 
Ho died on the 29th of May, 1809, and was privately 
buried at Gumpendorff, his country then suffering all the 
hi>rrors of war. and the capital of the empire being in pos- 
^ession of the enemy. He left no children. His property, 
except about 500/. bequeathed to two faithful servants, 
came into the hands of a blacksmith, his distant relation. 
His works are astonishingly numerous, embracing every 
class. Among them are 1 16 symphonies, 83 violin ouartets, 
60 pianoforte sonatas, 15 masses, 4 oratorios, incluaing the 
Sev^n Last Words, a grand Te Deum, a Stabat Mater, 14 
Italian and German operas, 42 duets and canzonets, up* 
vardsof 200 concertos and divertissements for particular 
midruments, &c., &c. Many of these, but not the most 
valuable, were irretrievably lost in the fire which consumed 
the palace of his patron at Eisenstiidt: the best are out of 
the reach of danger ; they have been printed and reprinted 
ju half the capitals of Europe. 

H AYLEY, WILLIAM, best remembered as the friend 
and biographer of Cowper, during the end of the past and 
the beg[inning of the present century enjoyed a considerable 
repularion, less perhaps from his sterling merit as a poet, 
(iun Ixom his combining a very respectable share of taste, 
It lent, and devotion to art and literature, with an easy 
firiuae, and a certain position in society. Of epitaphs and 
I a her occasional verses he was a frequent, wilUng, and 
LtciTint author; but the credit acquired by this ephemeral 
bniirh of composition is as fleeting as it is commonly ex- 
r/>^sive. Mr. Uayle^ was born at Chichester, in 1745, and 
•au'lied in Trinity Hall, Cambridge, intending to practise as 
s barrister. Finding the law not to his taste, he settled on 
li» patrimonial estate of Eartham, in Sussex, in 1774, a 
name memorable by its frequent occurrence in the history 
iif Covper, with whom the proprietor became acquainted in 
17'j2. Hayley died Novemoer 20, 1820. Of his numerous 
poetic works, the * Triumph of Temper,' 1781» has been the 
loost popular, probably in consequence of the domestic 
interest of the sulject The ' Essay on Painting,' 1 778, 
and ' Essay on History,' 1781, addressed respectively to his 
friends, Romney the painter, and Gibbon, rank among his 
best productions. We may add, as the most important of 
his other numerous works, the * Essay on Epic Poetry,' 
1 782 ; ' Life and Poetical Works of Milton,' 1 794-9 ; ' Essay 
on Sculpture^' 1800, addressed to his friend Flaxman; 
'Life of Cowper,' 1802. {Life qf Hayley, by himself, 
l&iX) 

HAYTL [HisPANiOLA.] 

HAZEBROUCK, a town in France in the department 
nf Nord, on the road from Paris to Dunkerque : distant 
from Paris 126 miles in a straight line almost due north, 
or J 40 miles by tlie road: in 50** 43' N. lat., 2° 32' E long. 

This town is situated in one of the richest and most 
delightful plains in France, devoted chiefly to pasturage, 
«ff ki liie nifliDg of tohaooos hops, pulse, rape and cobsa 



for oO, and fruit The streets of the town are well laid out, 
the houses handsome, and the place has the air of being in- 
habited by a wealthy and thriving population. There is a 
large and handsome market-place, in which is the town- 
hall, with a Doric eolonnade, built of fi-eestone. There are 
a subordinate court of justice, an agricultural society, a 
high school, and two theatres. The population in 1836 
was 7074. 

Hazcbrouck is the capital of an arrondissement having an 
area of 267 square miles, and comprehending 7 cantons and 
53 communes: the arrondissement had in 1836 a popula- 
tion of 105,879. 

HAZEL-NUT, the fruit of the wild bush of Cor)'lus 
Avellana, unchanged and unimproved by cultivation. It 
differs from the domesticated varieties only in being smaller 
and rather more hardy. [Filbbrt.] 

HAZLITT, WILLIAM, the son of a Unitarian minister 
of the same name, was bom at Maidstone on the luth of 
April, 1778. When he was five years old his father trans- 
ferred the scene of his ministerial exertions to America, 
and remained with his family in the United States for two 
years. On his return to England the father becnmc pastor 
of the Presbyterian congregation at Wem in Shropshire ; 
aud it is here that the work of Hazlitt's education was com- 
menced. At the age of nine he was put to a day-school at 
Wem. Some letters written by him, between the ages of 
nine and twelve, which have been preserved, indicate a very 
forward mental development ; and in addition to these spe- 
cimens of private correspondence, there is a letter, which he 
published at the age of thirteen, in a newspaper, in defence 
of Dr. Priestley, which displays very considerable knowledge 
as well as literary skill. In 1793 HazUtt was entered as a 
student of the Unitarian college at Hackney, in order to 
be educated for his father's profession. But for this pro- 
fession he had no liking; and having devoted himself, 
while at the college, principally to moral and political phi> 
losophy, and having comparatively neglected theological 
pursuits, he returned home in 1795, having determined, 
much against his father's wishes, to change his profession. 

Hazlitt had from a very early age shown a love of pic- 
tures and a taste for drawing, and it was now determined 
that he should follow the profession of a painter. He com- 
menced with great ardour and assiduity, continuing to cul- 
tivate metaphysics in his internals of leisure. We arc told 
by his son that the first rough sketch of the essay on tlie 
' Principles of Human Action' was thus begun at the age 
of eighteen. In 1802 he visited Paris for the purpose of 
studying the paintings in the Louvre ; and on his return to 
England in the next year he made a professional tour 
through some of the midland counties and the manufac- 
turing towns, and painted a considerable number of portraits; 
but he did not persevere. His notion of success was so ex- 
alted, and his fastidiousness so great, that he could never 
satisfy himself, and he determined on again changing his 
plans. 

He now proceeded, in the autumn of 1803, to the metro- 
polis to start as a literary adventurer. He commenced his 
almost endless series of publications with the essay on the 
' Principles of Human Action,* and on which, we are told 
by his son, he always prided himself as much as on any 
other of his njimerous works. As a metaphysical essay it 
is however of little value, though to a certain extent inge- 
nious and acute ; while, so far as the merits of composition 
are concerned, it is inferior to his writings on miscellaneous 
literary subjects. This essay was published anonymously 
in 1805, and was followed up quickly by other works. In 
1808 he married a Miss Stoddart, the sister of Dr. (after- 
wards Sir John) Stoddart; and after his marriage retired 
into Wiltshire, where he continued without intermission his 
literary pursuits. In 1811 he returned to London, and we 
find his residence in a house in York-street, Westminster, 
which had been once inhabited by Milton, and which then 
belonged to Bentham. His admiration for genius led him 
to erect, in the garden of this house, a tablet ' inscribed to 
the Prince of Poets ;' and he was afterwards much scanda- 
lized by a plan of Mr. Bentham*s to cut down two beautiful 
cotton-trees which inarched this tablet, and to expose the 
garden and the tablet to the continual inroad of the mem- 
bers of a Chrestomathic schooL The passage however in the 
* Spirit of the Age,* in which Hazlitt speaks of tliis con- 
templated profanation, as he deems it, is perhaps not alto- 
gether free from an affected sentimentality, of which»it must 
be allowed, he is not often guilty. 



H E A 



72 



H E A 



In 1813 Hailitt delivered a course of lectures at the Rus- 
sell Institution, on the histoid of En(^lish philosophy ; and 
subsequently he lectured on the English poets generally, the 
romic poets, and the poets of the age of Elizabeth, in sepa- 
rate courses, at the Surrey Institution. The three last 
series of lectures have been published, but not those on the 
history of philosophy. He acted for a short time also as 
reporter to the * Morning Chronicle,' and after giving it up 
he still wrote occasionally in that paper, and also in the 
' Examiner.* He was also, in the latter part of his life, 
a contributor to the ' Edinburgh Review,' and to some 
smaller magasines. His life was indeed one unintermit- 
ting course of literary exertion ; and his labours brought 
him in a considerable income, which however his impru- 
dence always quickly dissipated. 

In 1S22 he was divorced from his wife, and two years 
afterwards he married a second time. He died on the 1 8th 
of September, 1830, of cholera, and was buried in the 
churchyard of St. Anne's, Soho, where a friend has raised a 
monument to his memory. A long and eloquent inscrip- 
tion concludes thus : ' This stone is raised by one whose 
heart is with him in his grave.' 

Hazlitt's principal works, besides those which have been 
already mentionea, are the * Round Table,* in which he was 
assisted by Mr. Leigh Hunt, the ' Table-talk,' the * Plain 
Speaker,' which three are collections of essays in two vo- 
lumes each ; the ' Characters of Shakspcore's Plays ;* the 
' Spirit of the Age,' which is a series of interesting sketches 
of his most distinguished contemporaries; his 'Political 
Essays,' which are collected from different newspapers and 
magazines, and published in one volume, with a preface, by 
Hone ; and the * Life of Napoleon,' which Hazlitt himself 
looked upon as his great work, and which was his lasL The 
article ' Fine Arts,* in the * Encyclopsodia Britannica,' was 
also written by Hazlitt 

The principal merits of Hazlitt as a writer are force and 
ingenuity of illustration, strength, terseness, and vivacity. 
Another characteristic, which, by excess, oAen becomes a 
fault, is abundance of quotation. And while, as has been 
said, one good quality frequently exhibited in his writings 
is terseness, it often happens that he is chargeable with the 
opposite faults of verbiage and diffuseness. Tliere is also 
a want of repose in his style, which prevents its pleasing for 
a long time, and which, despite the splendour of particular 
passages, tends to leave an unsatisfactory general impression. 
But in a number of fine passages which one would read, not 
only once, but again and a third time, or short, stinging, 
nervous sentences, which, without an effort, would impress 
themselves on the memory, there are few writers who can 
match Hazlitt. We hardly know, in the whole circle of 
English literature, not even Jeremy Taylor's writings being 
excepted, a finer specimen of accumulative eloquence than 
the account of the intellectual life of Coleridge in the 
'SuiritoftheAge.' 

Hazlitt's chief title to fame is derived from his Essays 
on subjects of taste and literature, which are deservedly 
popular. For an historian he was too prejudiced, to say 
nothing of the unfitting luxuriance of his style ; and he was 
not clear-headed enough for a metaphysician. 

His personal qualities were doubtless not of that kind 
whi<:h gains the good-will or affection of men. Yet there 
was something in his moral conformation, and that not 
little, to be admired. If amiability was wanting, strength 
was there; and the regret with which one contemplates 
his irritable temper and its constantly distressing conse- 
quences is in some degree at least compensated byadmi- 
ratiou for the moral courage with which be was ever ready 
to withstand the conventions of the world and despise the 
frowns of the great. 

Since HazUtt*s death, two volumes of his ' Literary 
Remains * have been published by his son, with a short life, 
ahich shows much taste and goo<l feeUug, and to which we 
ve principally indebted for the above account, 

HEAD. FBraix; Skull.] 

HEAD. INJURIES OF THE. From the many pe- 
culiar and important features which they present, injuries 
of the head have properly received a separate consider- 
ation in all systems of surgery. For not only is the brain 
■o essential to life that even its least injury must he re- 
garded as serious, but the parta around and guarding it 
have many peculiarities. The skull, composed of two to in 
layers of t>one, much exposed to external violence, and pro- 
«cled from it by only slight coverings, is extremely liable 



to fracture, and it is covered by a very dense and tightly ap- 
plied membrane, the pericranium, of which the injuries and 
diseases exhibit all the peculiaritiesof those of other fibrous 
membranes. By the free communications of its vessels « irh 
those of the similar membrane (the dura mater) lininflr the 
interior of the skull, and less directlv with those of tho 
brain, disease is very liable to spread nrom the pericranium 
to these more important parts ; and it is itself covered b) 
firm unyielding museles, and tendons, under which disci'^ 
is always prone to extend widely. The injuries of the liead 
are best considered as they affect the parts enclosing the 
brain or the brain itself. 

In mere bruises of the scalp two circumstances are worth v 
of notice. A vessel of some size may be burst without Xhc 
skin over it being wounded, in which case a moat cupioii^ 
effusion of blood takes place, raising up the scalp from tiu* 
skull, and producing rapid swelling of the whole of the upper 
part of the head. It needs however no particular treatment ; 
no incision should be made into it, for if cold wet cloths be 
diligently applied, the blood will be again rapidly absorbed. 
If 5xe effusion of blood from the bruise take place between 
the pericranium and the skull, the former is raised intu a 
tumour, with sharp defined edges, and yielding to pre^su^; 
in a manner so similar to that of fracture wiu depressi m 
of the skulU that the most experienced surgeon might b<« 
deceived and induced to apply the trephine, but for the rule 
that it should never be employed except in cases in which 
the brain itself is implicated. 

A common superficial wound of the scalp needa no par- 
ticular treatment. It should be closed with sticking- pias- 
ter after the hair around it has been shaved off, and it 
should be kept cool ; but to guard against mischief Ut tiic 
adjacent parts, the patient should avoid all stimuli, and all 
exertion of either body or mind, till it is completely well. 
Not unfrequently a violent oblique blow will strip off a 
large flap of the scalp so as even to denude the bone. In 
cases of this kind, the part, after being carefully cleaned, 
should be accurately replaced: if absolutely neoeaaary, a 
suture may be inserted to ensure more exact adaptation, 
and the rest should be closed by adhesive-plaster; tlie 
head around, being shaved, must be kept perfectly cool ; iii<* 
patient must be placed on a low diet, take aperient medicine 
and remain quiet ; on the first appearance of general 
excitement blood must be taken from the arm» and by 
leeches applied round the wound; under this treatment 
many cases get well with almost singular rapidity ; but if 
irregularities be permitted, serious consequences may enauc 
even from the slighter injuries. 

One of the most common of these sequels of injuries of 
the scalp is erysipelas of the head and face. It general'i) 
occurs in persons of an unhealthy habit, in hard drinker^, 
and in the full and plethoric. It commences about the third 
or fourth dav after the injury ; the patient begins to com- 
plain of headache and a feeling of general illnesa ; he Um 
a shivering fit, followed by nausea, wirst, and restlessne^jt; 
a quick and hard pulse, and a thickly-coated tongue ; I e 
cannot sleep, and is perhaps slightly delirious. Soon after 
these symptoms have commenced the head and face feci very 
hot, and beeome red and swollen, appearances which in- 
crease, and after a day or two are accompanied with an 
eruption of small blisters, full of yellow fiuid. There i& no 
pain on touching the parts; but by the great svelhu«; 
the eyes are often closed, and the featurea almost oblite- 
rated. Active reducinff measures should, as a general rule, 
be early employed, ana continued, if the disease does not 
yield, as far as the patient's strength will permit ; and }K'f- 

Satives, with smaU doses of mercury, should be given, tor 
le liver is very generally affected. AAer a period of fivni 
five to eight days the infiammation in most cases subM>U'^« 
the cuticle scales off, and the wound, which had assiumiti 
an indolent unhealthy appearance, acquires a vig<iruii» 
aspect, and rapidly heals. But in some cases the ci*llulnr 
tissue thus affected suppurates and sloughs, the scalp i« 
separated, and there is profuse discharge horn the voum'. 
One or two incisions t>hould in such case be made into tin* 
sloughing part, to admit of the free s^eparation of the sIough» : 
but even with this the disease will sometimes spread and 
prove fatal. 

Another affection which sometimes follows ii^uries (and 
especially punctured wounds) of the external coverings of 
the skull is inflammation and consequent extensive suppu- 
ration in the loose tissue connecting the tendoo of the 
muscle covering the top of the head with the pehomiium. 



R E A 



73 



HU Pt 



The general symptomft of fever are in these cases less severe 
than in erysipekui; the scalp is less hot and swollen, but 
more painful and very tenner ; the face is never affected. 
After a few days of general illness, a feeling; indicating a 
collection of fluid may be perceived over some part of the 
head ; and on making an opening into the swelling which has 
formed there, a quantity of matter may be pressed out of it 
from beneath a large portion of the scalp. When this 
affection is suspected to be coming on, leeches should 
be pnt on the head in large numbers about the wound, and 
cold diligently applied ; but if matter should form, one or 
more free incisions should be made through the scalp to 
let it out, and the part afterwards treated like a common 
abscess* 

In cases in which the bone has heen exposed, the same 
general and local treatment should be employed. The 
jralp when replaced may at once unite to the bone ; or if it 
do not, granulations may spring up from the surface of the 
hone and close the wound : in worse cases, the outermost 
layer of the skull may die, and require a tedious process for 
Its exfoliation and healing ; in the worst, the whole thick- 
ness of the skull may perish, and the dura mater be ex- 
posed. In all these cases the mildest treatment is requisite, 
but as the disease is extremely liable ti^ spread to the inte- 
rior of the skull, the general health should be carefully 
watched, and if any indicationsof mischief arise, general or 
local bleeding should be at once employed. 

When the bone itself is injurec^ no active treatment 
should ever be adopted, unless there are evident signs that 
the brain is suffering from compression or other palliable 
mjoiy. These fractures of the skull get well even more 
rapidlj than those of other bones ; and in some cases, es- 
pecially in children, the skull may be forced in to some ex- 
tent, but when it does not produce any derangement of the 
functions of the brain the injury will lie repaired, and health 



for some extent from the skull, which when exposed t§ 
seen to be dead, of a dull yellow colour, and covered 
by purulent fluid. In this case it may be expected that 
the dura mater is separated from the interior of the 
skull to the same extent that the pericranium is from its 
exterior, and the only hope of relieving the patient is to 
perforate the dead portion of bone with the trephine* and 
let out the matter collected between it and the dura mater^ 
and which compressed the brain. 

The brain itself may suffer injury either from blood effused 
in it by rupture of its vessels, from compression by frac- 
tured portions of bone being forced down upon it, from 
wounds, from concussion, or from inflammation, and its 
various effects following any of these injuries. The first 
need not here be particularly treated of; it does not differ 
in its symptoms from the cases of common apoplexy with 
effusion of blood [Apoplexy], and admits of no mechani- 
cal treatment The second class comprehends the most 
important injuries of the head; those of 'fracture with de- 

Eression,* as they are called, and those which occasionally 
appen in children, in which the skull is indented without 
being broken. The sjrmptoms of such an injury are insen- 
sibility, generally in direct proportion to the degree of pres- 
sure; the breathing is slow, laboured, and snoring, and at 
every expiration the cheeks are puffed out and elevated ; 
the pulse is slow and irregular ; the pupil widely dilated 
and insensible to light ; the patient neitner feels nor moves, 
and lies as if in a fatal state of apoplexy. The part struck 
may of course present most varied characters : it mav be 
starred from the centre of the blow, so as to have a shallow 
conical depression ; it may be fissured, and one edge have 
passed under the other ; or it and the scalp may be broken 
up confusedly, and the brain be protruding through the 
openings in tnem. It is worth remembering that the inner 
part of the skull may, in consequence of its brittleness, be 



perfectly restored. Cases of fracture of the skull in which much more widely fractured than the external, so that the 
the brain is not at first iujured may be amongst either the ' .legree of pressure on the brain is not always indicated b; 



most simple or the most dangerous in siurgical practice — for 
the least intemperance or irregularity committed within some 
time after their reception may produce irreparable inflamma- 
tion of the brain or its membranes. 

Injuries of the dura mater (the membrane lining the in- 
terior of the skull) are of yet more importance, because 
they more immediately affect the brain. The dura mater is 
cunnected with the skull by a tissue in which numerous ves- 
sels ramify, and these may be ruptured bv the jar from a blow 
which does not even break the skin. The blood that flows 
from them, accumulating between the dura mater and the 
«kull, produces compression of the brain. The chief indi- 
raitoh of this very dangerous accident havinz occurred is 
that the patient, who for some time after tne blow had 
seemed only stunned, or had been even quite sensible, 
^raduallv becomes dull, sleepy, comatose, and at last totally 
insensible, just like one suffering from apoplexy. These 
xymptoma supervene with a rapidity corresponding to the 
sixe and number of the vessels ruptured ; the most rapid 
are those in which, by a blow on the side of the head, the 
main artery, supplying the dura mater and upper part of the 
skull, and which ascends just before the ear, is wounded. 
The only hope in these cases is to bleed the patient largely, 
to check the flow of blood in the head, and if that be not 
evidently beneficial, to apply the trephine wherever it is 
most probable that the blood may be found and removed. 
It mast be confessed however that there is little prospect of 
doing good by trephining in these cases; it is seldom possi- 
ble to decide at what part of the skull the blood is emised, 
or whether it may not be between the dura mater and 
the brain, or even in that organ itsel£ The symptoms in 
each case are the same, but the mechanical removal of the 
blood is possible only when the blood is immediately beneath 
the upper parts of the skull. 

Instead of blood, purulent matter may collect between 
the dura mater and skull, and produce equally fatal results. 
This is indicated by the patient (usually some considerable 
time after the accident) complaining of headache, restless- 
ness and extreme languor ; he has fremient irregular shi- 
vertngs, his pulse is quick and hard, and he cannot sleep : 
if unrelieved by treatment, all these symptoms increase, 
•nd are shortly followed by delirium, convulsions, insensi- 
Sility. or paralysis, which are no distant precursors of death. 
Ehi^x after their first appearance, a puffy, soft, but not 
very hot nor namful tumour, forms over the part struck. 
If this be opened, tihe pericranium will be found detached 
P, (X. No. 733 



the depth of the indentation felt in the scalp. If unreUeved 
by treatment, the patient from the time of the accident 
grows more and more insensible ; his pulse becomes more 
irregular, and he rapidly dies. The evident and indeed 
the only mode of affording relief is to remove the pros* 
sure fh>m the brain, by exposing the fractured part of the 
skull by enlarging the wound in the scalp, or making afresh 
one, and taking away or elevating all the portions of bone 
that are depressed. The mode of doing this will be deter- 
mined in each case by the form of the fracture and other 
circumstances ; in some it may be sufficient to remove the 
loose pieces with forceps ; in others, to saw off" portions with 
a Hey*s saw, or to apply the trephine and raise the other 
depressed parts to their proper level with an elevator. These 
proceedings however must of course be limited to the cases 
in which the fracture is in a part within view ; when it ex- 
tends across the base of the skull no mechanical means 
are applicable, and recovery is therefore extremely rare. 
Such cases, and all others in which compression cannot be 
mechanically relieved, can only be treated like common apo- 
plexy, by bleeding the patient, by cold sedulously applied, 
and by rigorous reducing measures. The after-treatment 
of cases in which the trephine or analogous means have 
been used is nearly the same as in wounds of the skull and 
soft parts ; the edges should be brought gentlv together, 
and slight pressure employed to support the dura mater 
where it is exposed by the aperture in the skull ; and the 
other usual precautionary ana curative measures, as cold, 
local bleeding, &c., resorted to. 

The immediate consequences of wounds of the brain vary 
greatly, and indeed unacoountably : in some cases a very 
slight injury is rapidly fatal, as in those (of which* many 
are now recorded) in which a pointed instrument has passed 
in through the orbit, and produced almost instant aeath ; 
whilst in others severe and extensive injuries, as from 
gun-shots, have been followed by serious symptoms at only 
a late period from their reception. In most of the cases 
where the dura mater is perrorated, whether by wound or 
by ulceration, the wounded or exposed brain protrudes 
through the aperture in the form of a darkish dirty-looking 
fungous mass, called ' Hernia Cerebri.' Its surface discharges 
purulent matter abundantly, and often bleeds slightly : pres- 
sure on it, as on the brain itself, produces immediate insen- 
sibility ; but the whole mass may be cut off without pro* 
dncing any pain or ill consequence. This is indeed the 
best treatment of it. If after having protruded to tome 

Vol. XIL— L 



H BA 



74 



H E A 



dbtaoce it shows no disposition to decrease or to slough, it 
should bd cut dovn to the level of the skull, and gentle 
pressure by compresses covered with the mildest ointment 
applied, so as to compensate, if possible, for the deficiency 
in the dura mater. Should the mass B|;ain sprout forth, 
the same treatment may be repeated. Jji a few cases the 
growth is checked, and the brain produces healthy granu- 
lations, which unite to the surrounding parts and skin over ; 
in others the fungous mass sloughs and the remaining parts 
heal; but in the large majority the exposure of the brain and 
its irritation by surroundiug i)arts produce such continued 
inflammation of it as proves fatal. 

Tlio last injury of toe brain that needs particular notice 
is that called concussion or commotion. The exact nature 
of it is totally unknown * the name indicates only that 
which has been supposeo, viz. a shaking or general dis- 
turbance of the minute parts of the brain. In its slightest 
degree it is merely a stunning, from which perfect recovery 
takes place in a few minutes; in its most severe, it is 
rapidly fatal ; but even in these, a post-mortem examination 
discovers no alteration whatever in the structure of the 
brain. One of the most interesting points in surgery is 
the diagnosis of concussion from compression of the brain. 
As the lutter seldom occurs without the former (for of 
course a blow which would fracture or indent the skull 
would violently shake the brain), compression has the 
symptoms of concussion, with the addition of some of the 
most severe which we have already mentioned. In con- 
cussion the patient is in^cnsible only to slight impressions, 
for if he be loudly culled to, he will wake up, answer a word 
or two, perhaps even rationally, and then relapse into the 
samo state. If he be severely pinched or otherwiso irri- 
tated he will withdraw the part so injured: he occasionally 
moves his limbs; he appears, in short, as if in a sound 
heavy sleep like tliat of a drunken man. The breathing is 
not stertorous, but generally quite natural; the pupil is 
contracted and irritable; the pulse is sometimes unaffected, 
but in severe cases small and weak; there is nausea or 
vomiting, and the extremities feel cold. If the case is 
about to terminate fatally, the whole body grows rapidly 
cold, the pulse becomes irregular and weaker, the breath- 
ing short and interrupted, and the insensibility increases. 
In treating cases of concussion much caution is needed : it 
has not appeared that bleeding, which is the remedy popu- 
larly expected for all such accidents, has at all diminished 
its primary symptoms, nor has the contrary treatment by 
stimulants been more successful. The patient, while suf- 
fering from the immediate stunning conseouences of the 
blow) should merely be kept quite warm in bed, and care- 
f\illy watched ; if the pulse grow weaker, the extremities 
colder, and the other symptoms of sinking seem increasing, 
stimulants arc first called for, and should be given till 
he is completely roused to his former state ; but if, instead 
of bcint? depressed, he remain stationary, no active means 
of any kind should be employed. Cases are not rare in 
which, after remaining in a nearly insensible state, as if in 
a sound sleep, for lour, six, or eight weeks, with only very 
slic^ht temporary alterations, the patient wakes, complaining 
of but little inconvenience, and rapidly recovers. It insteau 
of waking nearly well, he is observed to grow restless, to 
scorn suffering from headache, or should he be delirious or 
convulsed — if his pulse becomes ouick and hard, and his 
eyes are hurt by strong light — he nas in all probability in- 
tl&mmation of tho brain, which is a most frequent conse- 
quence of concussion, and must be at once mot by the 
active depleting and reducing measures necessary for its 
cure, from whatever cause it may arise. In some cases the 
symptoms of concussion gradually change into those of 
Ci>mpression, which may then bo suspected to arise from 
pfi'usion of blood into or on tho brain, fits in the cases 
already mentioned. 

Tiio account here given is only a sketch of the most 
prominent and constant symptoms, progress, and treat- 
ment of the effects of injuries of the head. There are 
other symptoms that occur occasionally, and as it were 
arcidentally, which it is necessary brietly to advert to. 
Furious delirium, lasting for some days and requiring 
active depletion, sometimes immediately follows concu.-^sion ; 
violent convulsions also ensue, either on slight compression 
or on roncupsion; paralysis or hemiplegia is not unfre- 
quently proclured directly by compression, and they still 
moi-o commonly occur as its sequels. Loss of memory, 
Bometimus most singularly limited to particular classes of 



events or things ; impairment of individoal senialioii^ tad 
various forms of insanity, are all the occasional conse- 
quences of these injuries, or of the inflammation and dis* 
organization of tho brain which follow ^em, and to thm 
prevention or cure of which the chief attention i^ in Ibe 
majority of cases, to be directed. 

HEARING. [Ear.] 

HEARNE. THOMAS, an eminent English antionary 
and editor of books and manuscripts^ was born at white 
Waltham, in Berkshire, in 1678, where his father was the 
parish clerk. In 1G92, under the patronage of Francis 
Cherry, Esq , of that place, with whom he had till then li> cd 
as a menial servant, he was placed at the finee-school of 
Bray; and subsequently, in 1695, At that gentleman^s ex- 
pense, was entered of Edmund Hall, Oxford, where Dr. 
White Kennet, afterwards bishop of Peterborough, was 
his tutor. Dr. John Mill, who was principal of the hall, 
and Dr. Grabe, gave Hearne much employ in his voungcr 
days in the collation of MSS. He became B.A. in \b*J% 
In 1701 he received his first employ in the Bodleian Library, 
of which Dr. Hudson had just been chosen keeper. lio 
was afterwards made janitor of the library, and in 1712 
succeeded to the place of second librarian* In January. 
1715, he was elected architj-pographus and esquire beadle 
of civil law in the university, which post he held with his 
under-librariauship till the month of November following, 
when, finding the two places untenable together, he re- 
signed tlie b^adle\s place, and soon afterwards his post in 
the Bodleian Library, on account of the oaths to the govern- 
ment, with which he could not conscientiously comply. He 
continued a non-juror to the last, much at the expense of 
his worldly interest. In the latter part of his life he resided 
principally at Edmund Hall, preparing and publishing his 
various works; but his constant Recurrence to Jaoubite 
sentiments, even in the prefaces to publications which could 
have no connection with them, kept him as constantly at 
variance with his neighbours in the university; and he 
underwent more than one prosecution. Heame's temper 
was naturally irritable, and he was far from being cither an 
amiable or a happy man. His life however was one of un* 
wearied literary industry, and English antiquaries and 
historians will be for ever indebted to him. He died 
June 10th, 1735, in consequence of a cold, succeeded by a 
fever which was improperly treated. 

Hcame*s publications, almost exclusively printed by sub- 
scription at Oxford, were very numerous. Among the most 
valuable were an edition of Livy, 6 vols. 8vo., 1 708 : the ' Lite 
of Alfred the Great,* from Sir John Spelman's MS. in the 
Bodleian Library, 8vo., 1710; Lelands 'Itinerary,' 9 voU. 
8vo., 1710; Leland's ' Collectanea,' 6 vols, avp., 1715; the 
' Acts of the Apostles,' in Greek uncials, l^om a very antient 
MS. in Archbishop Laud's Collection, 8vo.t 1716; Linus 
Foro-Julienais's * Life of Henry V.,' Svo., 1716; Alurtd 
of Beverley's 'Annals.' 8vo., 1716; Eoper's *Iife of St 
Thomas More,' 8vo., 1716; Camden's 'Annals,' in Latin, 
3 vols.8vo., 1717; * William of Neubridffe,' 8vo., 1719; the 
'TextuB Roficnsis,' 8vo., 1720; fordun s * Scotichronicon,* 
8vo., 1722; * History and Antiquities of Glastonbury,' b\ii., 
1622; Heming^s * Chartujary,' 8V0., 1 723 ; 'Robert of Gl-u- 
cestcr's Chronicle,* 2 vols. 8vo., 1724; 'Peter LBngt..ti'$ 
Chronicle,' 2 vols. 8vo., 1 725 ; ' Adam of Domerham,' 1: \ oU. 
8V0., 1727; the *}^iber Niger Scaccarii,' 2 vols. Svo^ 17-.'^; 
' Hemingford's History,' 2 vols. 8va, 1731; Otterbouir.f 
and Whethamstede s * Chroniclesi' 2 vols. 8vo., 1 733 ; tl.c 
' Annals of Dunstaple,' 8vo., 1 733 ; and ' Benedict, Abl>( 
of Peterborough,' 2 vols. 8vo., 1735. 

Hearne left his poanuscript collections, by will, to Dr. 
William Bedford, of whom they Vfere purchased by Dr. 
Richard Rawlinson for a hundred guineas, and by him b**- 
queathed, together with £is own manuscfipts, to the Bod- 
leian Library. Ilearne's MS. Diary, in a hundred and liii> 
small paper books, is amongst them. 

Several of Hearne*s pieces were reprinted at different 
times, and in 1810 the project was entertained of reprintin:; 
the whole series in a unifoim manner; but after the publi- 
cation of four volumes, containing Robert of Gloucester and 
Peter Langtofl*s Chronicle, the scheme was abandoned. 

(Livfs of teiand^ Hearne, and Wood, B\o^ Oxford, 17;i: 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd, of the Eighteenik Century; Chai- 
mers's Biog, Diet , vol. xvii., 275-284.) 

HEART is the .entral organ of the circulation, and b) 
its alternate conti i>ctions aud dilatations exercises the prm- 
cipal power by which the blood is moved tlnough tiie bodies 



kkk 

of the higher uumala. Its auBtiimy and phyaialogjr will be 
aado mnt euily iotelli^ble by considering &nt the priacipol 
Tuieiies at the eirculation oi other motion of nutritive fluid 
which occur in the aniiOBl kinadom ; bearing in mind that 
the DUin objects far which such a motioQ is required 
■ eomtant Bupply of fluid adapted for their nutrition t 
puta of the hoay, awl its regular exposure to the inliu 
of unoapheric air. that by the proross of respiration it may 
be AUed for maintaining the life of the animal. 

The simplest mode by which a distribution of nuir 
fluid i» eneeted is by means of ramificalioiij proceeding 
lh>m Iha tlomach or intestinal canai to various parls of the 
body, which occurs in the polyps, infusoria, iutesfioal worms, 
echini, medosn^ and other zoophytes, la all these the di- 
gestive caiwl and the circulating system form but oue ap- 
paratus: the fbod, which in the higher animals requires a 
eomphe*l»d process of a^imilatioa before it is fitted to 
more with the blood, is In them already adapted for nutri- 
tioa. In most of them currents can be seen passing in op- 
posite direcUoUB along the canals opening into the d^estive 
avity, exactly like thoee well known to exist in the stems 
of chuB, and probably pruduced bj the motion of citim 
whidi line the tubes, but are too minute to be discerned 
erea with the mkioseope. 

Id the planaria ana some of the trcmatoda a separate 
vmteular system hu been discuTered in odditbn to the ra- 
miSaddigeativB tubes. In tlie former the main trunk bos the 
shape of an oval loop {a, b, c, dt, from nhirh capillary net- 
works arise and communicate frculy lofrcther, and with a 
dooa] median vesiel («>. 




Tfaaw VMsds have been seen conlracting and dilating, 
but ih> reguUr course of fluid has yet been discerned. 

A more perfect tbrm of circulation of this kind is found 
in Ibe aniwlida, and it b ~ 
■B the leech, as shown ii 



5 H E A 

two main lateral vessels (8, b, e, e), com muni noting at their 
extremities and by transverse branches with each other, 
and with a third central vessel (a, a, a), which contains 
within it, bathed in its blood, the ner\-ous cord, and pre- 
sents knot-like swellings at the same situations as that cord 
does. Alternate motions of the blood may be seen in these 
vessels : at one moment the lateral vessel (6, 6), and the cen- 
tral (a, a, a), with the communicating branches between 
them, are seen filled with blood ; while the other lateral vessel 
(c, e) and its branches are empty. In the ne^t moment c, e 
and its branches arc filled, while a and b are empty ; so tliat 
one lateral vessel, end the central one, ore always opposud 
in action to the other lateral one. The central contmues 
acting with one of the lateral for twenty or twentj-Gve pul- 
sations, and then its relation changes alid it acts in unison 
with the other. During tlie contraction of a lateral vessel 
the blood evidently flows from it through the middle trans- 
verse vessels over to the other side, and in the next moment 
returns. The contraction proceeds gradually from behind 
forwards, so that a wave (as it were) of blood is seen passing 
from one end of the lateral and of the central vessel to Ibc 
other, and then returning in the contrary direction Ibrungh 
the other lateral vessel. In this manner it is probable that 
a constant circulation is maintained along the sides of the 
animal, and its direction seems to be changed after every 
eight or thirteen pulsations. The same general type of cir- 
culating system is found in earthworms and all iho other 
annelicU. 

Hitherto nothing has been seen which could fairly bo 
called a heart, nor Have the vessels presented any characters 
by which they could be separated into systems of arteries 
and veins, for all alike seem to perform at different times 
the functions of both. A more distinct division of the parts 
of the circulating system ts found in insects. They have a 




large vessel (a, a) runn^ia; along the back, divided by nu 
merous constrictions into a series of communicating cavities, 
between which there are lateral openings through which the 
blood is received, arid which are guarded by valves to pre- 
vent the blood fropi flawing out, ThrDu$ch this, which is 
commonly called the dorsal art«ry, but which may rather be 
regarded as a series of veQtnclea, the blood passes from he- 
hind forwards, diverging Into small streams, one of which 
fliows lo each of the antetin^ feet, &c. No distinct vessels 
can be detected in which these minor currents may run ; 
they seem simply to pass through the various tissues, and 
having; arrived at their destinations, to form there into 
arches, and return and empty themselves into abdominal ves- 
sels, &<£, which may be regarded as veins, and through wbidi 
the blood flowing from bcfoie backwards is returned into 
the dorsal artery tlirough the communiistions which exist 
beivoeaUieiuiU Uut eoat^tu i>ut. Ibu is also the ^lau 



or the circulating nalem which with vuiou* roodiOefttioiu 
praraili in tho aruchnida and ihe lower Crustacea. 

In the orders nlroady mentioned no special aciangement 
or vewels hw been found for the purpoao of eKpcwLng the 
blood to thu influence of the air. Either the whole or part 
of Ibe blood uadergue* respiration on the whole lurface of 
the body, oi at the liacheu, or the vesicles a(tan|{ed in eipucial 
■filoma foe that purpow. In those which follow however, 
we shall oImkvo a teparale and complicated re«piratory 
apparatus; and that the form of [ho heart and iu large 
vessels are adapted in accurate correapondenco with that 
of the gills or lungs, and according as the whole ot part 
of the blood is required to be expo^ at each round of the 
circulation to the influence of the air. 

The simplest kind of n heart, forming a deBned cavity, 
II found in the larger decapoda, and some other ctusta- 
cea. The auuexed sketch repreaenU the heart and targe 




arteries of the lobster. There is aaingle cavity or ventricle (a), 
into which the arterial blood flows from the gilU by vessels 
which unite into two trunks, whose orifices (A, b) are pro- 
tected by vaUes. Six main arteries proeoed tttmi the heart ; 
the three anterior (e. c, c) go to the head ; two from its ' 
ferior part to the liver; and the larf^eit of all (d) from 
posterior part This last gives off a superficial and a deep 
artery to the tail, and then curving forwards under the 
sternum, gives branches to the feet and deep arteries *~ 
the head. From these the blood returns by veins into 
number of venous sinuses which lie at the sides by the i 
ticulationa of the legs with the chest, and all cotnmunica 
together. From them branchial arteries proceed, which 
run on the outer edge of the gills, and pass through capil- 
lary vessels in them, terminating in branchial veins which 
umie into the two trunks that open into the heart. 

In most of the mollusca the blood flawing through the 
branchial veini, instead of being poured directly into the 
ventricle, is received first into an auricle, pretenting the 
first instanceof a heart with more than one cavity. In ' 



the blood, collected from the systemic veins into 
retervoir, before going to the gills passes by 
branches into a spongy tiasue which Bojanus calls a lung, 
and others a kidney, but wboee real nature is as yet un- 
known. From this a few branches pass at once into the 
auricles, but the greater number go as branchial arteries to 
the gills. Id the brachiopods the systemic ventricle is 
also double, each oavity giring rise lo an aorta. But Ihe 
moat singular form of heart in this class, and one of much 
interest as presenting ell the cavities separated, which in 
higher dasaea are united in one body, is that of the cut- 
tle-fish. The blood passes in it fivm a systemic or cen- 
tral ventricle (a), through the aorta superior (b), and inferior 
<c). and is thence distributed throughout the body, whence it 
is collected into six venn cav» [d, d, d, d. d, d), which open 
into two bronchiot auricles (e, e), conducting into two 
branchial ventricles (/ /), by which it is forced through 
branchial arteries (g, g, g). From the extremities of tbesa 
it is rcceiv«d into branchial veins, of which that of the left 
aide (A) is hen abowD, wbicli open into the two systemic 




auricles (.i, i), conducting again into the systeaie »entr tin 
(a). Here then we have the first appearance of a M-piit-jtc 
heart for the respiratory circulation, and lheelemonIsi.rall 
the compound forms which we have now to nolice. 

Among vertebrate animals the simplest form of heart i< 
found in fish. They have a single auricle (a, a:, which it- 




ceives the blood fhim the trunks of the veins of the whole 
body (£, b), and communicates with a single ventricle (<->, 
which forces the blood into an arterial trunk with a conlmi-- 
tile bulb (rfj. FromUiistrunk all the branchial arteries (c,^) 
arise, and passing on each side io arches tu Ihe gilK di- 
■ide there into capillwy branches. The blood thus semi*-.! 
pa^es on, and Ibe arches again unite into a common trunk 
(/), the true aorta, which runs along the under afirfaceof ilic 
spine, and sends the blood to all parts of the body. From ll<> -^ 
it collects again into the systemic veins (i,A),W which ■> a 
carried bock to the auricle. The same type of formation i* 
found in the reptiles which have gills, as in the protvidre 
in their adult stale, and in the larvse of many which al that 
period also breathe by gills. 

In fish all the blood is subjected to the respiratory prv- 
cess before it passes to the body: in the reptilea, whu-h 
breathe in air, and have therefore a much more oomplrie 
exposure of the blood toitthanflsh, who breathe only the air 
thatisdissolvedin the water, only a part is exposed before en- 
tering the general circulation, but the modes iu which this •« 
efiected vary greatly. The annexed sketch repmeots Mm 
ciccalatory s)-(tera of the ftog in it> psdeot ttue. It bu 




• ungtemitrirle (a), fVoni vbieh wtitet a single aortiatnink 
\b), froBi vhioh proceed the two pnlnonary arterie« (c, e), 
roavtifing that part of tbe blood which U to undergo re- 
ipiralion to the lungs Id, tti, whence it is returned by pul- 
muaary veini («, a). From the same aortic trunk four 
olher arteries arise, two of which, forming ucheft, unite to 
furm the dorsal aorta, while Ibe two uppermost are distri- 
buted lo tbe bead and upper extremities. From the ler- 
micutioni of these arteries in all parts of the body the blood 
U collected into large venous trunks, which open into the 
double kuricle (/,/), frora which the aerated blood ftom 
(he lungs and tbe impure blood from the system pass se~ 
puratelj into the common Tentricle, in which they are inti- 
mately mixed. In other reptiles Ihc ventricle is more or 
less completely divided by a septum, which in the crocodilus 
lucius separates it into two distinct cavities, one connected 
with a pulmonary, the other with a systemic aorta ; in some 
others the septum is nearly complete, and the mixture of the 
two kinds of blood is supposed to be prevented by a valve, 
but in the rest of the order the septum is so small that the 
blood mast uecessuity be mixed. Inalt of thi^ order however 
tlu abdominal aorta, which runs along Ihe spine, ia formed, 
as in the fro^, of two arches, and in those which have se- 
parate ventrictes a branch proceeds from each to form it, 
s^ that while the bead and uppw extremities are supplied 
with pure arterial blood from the left aide of the henrC tbe 
lower portion of the body receives a mixed blood from the 
left side and the right. 

Lastly, we arrive at the complete double circulatbn of 
man, mammalia, and birds, to which sMne of the forms 
just deaoibed make very close approximations. In all 
of them the blood arrives at the heart fi«m the veins of all 
parts of the body by two large trunks, the venmcavs, supe- 
tiat et inferior, from which it is received into tbe right au- 
ricle, and tbencc passes into the right ventricle. Tbe right 
veutricle, by contracting, forces it into the pulmonary artery, 
m whose branches it is exposed to tbe air, and passes from 
tfaem to tbe pulmonsry veins, which open into tbe left auri- 
ck. from which it proceeds to the left ventricle, thence 




r H E A 

through the single aorta into all parts of the system, attd 
again into the veins and right auricle. 

We may now consider the anatomy of the heart, and the 
chief phenomena of the circolation, in mao.* Tbe heart is 
of a somewhat conical form, having its base directed back- 
wards towards the spine, and its point forwards, downwards, 
and to the left side, so that at each contractiou it may be 
felt striking between the Sth and 6th ribs, about four ioi:faes 
from the middle line. It rests upon the diaphragm (a, «,) die 
muscular partition between tbe chest and abdomen, and 
the surface unon which it lies is much ttatteped. It is 
firmly attachea to the diaphragm at its right side, and be- 
hind by the inferior cava, which passes through that 
muscle at Ihe aperture b, and above and behind it is fixed, 
though more loosely, to the upper and back part of the 
chest by the rest of its great vessels, wliicb there pass out of 
tbe pericardium, and aro united to the surrounding cellular 
tissue and organs. Everywhere eUe it is quite free and 
moveable, though the range of its motions is limited by the 
pericardium, or membranous bag in which it is contained, 
and which closely surrounds it at all times. When tbe heart 
isexposed by cutting open the front of the pericardium, it is 
seen to be divided along its front and most convex surface by a 
line running from the middle of its base downwards to tbe 
right side of its apex. This lineand a similar one on the under 
and Hatter surfiice, both of which ore traced out by two vessels, 
the principal trunks of the coronary arteries and veins by 
which the walls of the heart itself are supplied with blood, 
indicate the position of tbe septum, or partition by which 
thevenlriclesaredivided from each other. At the base, above 
and on each side two other divisions will be seen, each having 
a litlle fleshy pendulous appendage at its corner ; these are 
the auricles. Thus may beseen atoncearightauricle((J)Bud 
ventricle (e) on the right side and front of tbe heart, and « 
left auricle (/) and ventricle (g) on its left side and behind. 
From the greater thickness of the walls of the latter, they 
form the larger portion of the whole heart, but the cavities 
will be found to be nearly of tbe same size. The right 
anterior or pulmonary side of this double heart is exclu- 
sively for the circulation through the lungs (A, A) ; the left 
posterior, or systemic, for that through the body. 

To examine the interior of the heart it should be removed 
from the pericardium, and an incision should be made 




intotbefront of the rigbtorlrontauncle, so that ^ angular 
flap may be cut out oi its walls, and the whole view of the 
baokpart and sides of its interior muybeexposed. There will 
then be seen, behind and to the right side, two large aper- 
tures; the upper Icadin^lo the vena cava superior (a), ihroiigU 
which all the blood is returned from the head and uppt;; 
amities, and the lower loading to the vena cava inferior 
(£, b), by which all ihe blood is conveyed from the abdomen, 
and lower extremitiee. These apertures will be seen tu bo 
surrounded by a few muscukr fibres continuous with those' 
of the auricle itself, and that of the inferior cava is par' 
tiatly guarded by a thin semilunar membranous fold, callitd: 
the Eustacnian valve, varying much in size, and often mucb 
torn. The left side of the cavity, on the parlition whiotk 
Tlx hsan ud liigc nmtt of oirj of Cm Urger of oiir dama'Uc quMdn. 
ibat loiiiid iu oui, liiMi iIm piMsDi daicri|«iiiu will iIdumI eueUy iqipl; la 



H E A 

Kpinln it from that of the ri^ht larkle, presents an oral 
(kpTL-Miun (thu fusKi ovalisj turraunded bjan elevated butder, 
indicating the lituatiooof the foramen ovale, thniagbwbirh, 
during the fwUl ilate, the blood, which was prevented bj 
the Eiuiachian vnive Trom pauini; into the ventricle, win 
eonve^Ml direcll* from the right into the left auricle, and 
thenco inro the left venthcte. Laillj, at ilie nnteriDr and 
left angle of the cavitj another and the largest aperture c 
is seen, which leads inio the right ventriclo, and hat at- 
tached to its Bides a Kembranoni curtain d, by which it 
is occMionally clowd. and which il eallcd the tricuspid 
ralvc. The geacral form of the cavitv of the right anncle 
a that of a quadrangular sac, from the right and anterior 



dug. the cavity has received its nnme. In intorkiT is lolcra- 
v\f nnoalh behind, by the orifloo of the superior cava, on 
the parlilion, and about llio opening into the ventricle; but 
to the rifiht and front aide, about tlie auricular appendage 
and the inferior cava, it is rendered uneven hj promini^nt 
bands of muscular filires (the tnuteuii ptehnati) which 
■cero to radiate from the auricles. 

Pronieeding in the course of the circaktion, a cut should 
be made firom the right auricle through the aperture lead- 
ing from it inlo tlie rittht Tcntricle, snd along the front of 
the heart nearly to its apex, and Ihen another Ironi the end 
of the BrsI Upwards into the pulmonaiv artery, u it arises 
from the front and opper part of the ventricle. By rais- 
ing the portion thus cut out, a complete view of the cavity 
of the nqht or pulmonary ventricle, and of its oommvini- 
eation with the auricle, will b« seen. The cavity of the 
right ventricle has a ^mawhat conical form, with its base 
uppermost ; that part of its walls which is formed by the 
■eptom projecting somewhat into iL Its walla are rendered 
extremely irregular by prominent bands of miutcular fibres 
crossing each other in every direction, and enclosing spacvs 
of various tun and form, which after death aro generally 
found filled with coB);uIaIe<l blood entangled in and adher- 
in)[ to them. Here and there stand out short columns of 
muscle projecting into the interior, and pointing towards 
the right auricle; these are coUod column le airi»m, and 
they hare atlachi^ to their summits fine tendinous cordit 
ielu/rda Undineer), which pass thence to be attached lo Iho 
edi^os of the curtain-like membrane (the tricuspid valve), 
nliich guards the oriDcG between the auricle and ventricle. 
This oriBco is of a broadly oval form, surrounded by a rmjr of 
firm dense tissue, to tlie ivhole interior circumference ofwliich 
is attached the fold of membrane, s[ren);theued by tendinous 
fibres, forming the valve. The edges of this valve are very 
im'i;ular, but it may be roughly divided into three principal 
poriioiis (wlwiice its name), the largest of which lies so as 
tu BL'pamlo this orifice from that leadini/ into the pulmonary 
aricvy. If this valve be pushed inwaitU towards the cavity 





of iho venliirle, a* in the larRor of these figures of the rai- 
tml valve, of which the constriirtion though similar is more 
simiili.-, it will lie nearly Hut against the \ral1s, and would 
in tins position present no obslurle to the passage of a fluid 
fn>m the auricle into the ventricle; but if. on the con- 
trary, it be pushed from the veniricle towards the auricle, 
i'B cilzes will ho found to meet bo as to close the orifice as 
in Iho smnlliT fisure: a,a, a, a, the columnoo cariit-ffi : 
b, (i, h. A. rhonln< Icndineto; f.e.e.e, valves. This wesliall 
i«e if the mudo In wliirli it acts during life. 

From the front and upjicr part of the ventricle a smooth 
ihrirt passaj^ leads lo Ihe origin of the pulmonary artery «, 
•hich is attache*] firmly tu the dense nng to which many 
ftltenuKuluftbieaMUHiveoUKlAtn affixed. AtUieit 



union, and at the very orifice of tlie pulmonary ortcri'. I'.ii ' 
little valves, a, a, a,'fis- I (the si'Ruluuar, sigmoid <<r ; ^ 
monary valves) are seen, of a semilunar furiu, allnch.- 1 i 
the whole leu(;lfa of their convex edges to the wuili "I : 
artery, and hangin;; loosely in it wiili their free fl■^Tll. ■ 
cd;;cs directed upuards, enclosing behind them thro*- -i -. . 
spocL-s, where the artery bulges somewhat outwards, li 
looks from the cavity of the ventricle along tlio inirri'.r ' 
the artery, and blotcs gcitlly inlo it, the valves will t>.< >• -. 
lo lie nearly tiat ai^ainsl its walls, as mfig. 1, and wiil • ,-. . 
no obstacle whatever lo the passage of any fluid In ilmi ■':. 
reclion ; but if one looks and blows in Ihe opposite iIl-i . 
tion, from the artery down inlo the vcnlticlc, the \..\\ 
will fall inwards, so that their e<la;cs will meet, and i:.. . 
will completely close the tube of the arlcrv. as ai /,. 
% so that untcis driven with force sufficient to rii^' ..■■ 
them, no Huid could pass into tbo ventricle. It is kw^:- •: 
that if the artery be circular, the edgei uf ihete >•..:.: 
lunar membranes could not exactly meet to close it. I. .. 
would leave a Utile space, of a triangular farm, brtu. ■ ,i 
them. This is filled by three lilile bodies, 6, fi, 6, Coq-.r i 
Aranlii, ono of which is attached to the middle of the t-'Li- 
of each valve, and wbiih, at the same time that tliey ■.:! . 
this, afford a strong point of attachment fur the tcniliu-.>, . 
fibres by which the vulvc is strengthened. The pulm<-ii i > 
artery proceeds upwarda, and to the loft, in front «f ii 
other vesse1i>, and, allcr a course of about an inch, dm-:.-- 
into two branches, one of which turns sharply round to l' 
to the right lung, n hile the other goes straight ouwarcU i 
the left, tu theac organs each artery divides into num 
reus branches, wbich become smaller as they become ni • 
numerous, and terminate in a most delicate network of ' 
sels, ramifying on the walls of the air-ceils, f^m vb.< . 
aher the blood n hicli they contain has bceu exposed lo t 
air, it is received inlo ei|iiBlly delicate pulmonary veins w 1 
through them conveyed in gradually increaimg braiiiUiL- - i . 
the four main trunlu of tlie pulmonary veins, which »)"' 
inlo the left auricle. 

Il would bo useless repetition lo desctibu in detail i. ■ 
left posterior or aortic ventricle and auricle, which diffi't ■ 
no important particular from the right The walU wt i " < ': 
cavities on the left side and all the parts conlained in llu i;. 
are tliicker and stronger than those on the right; the o ,- 
fiee between them is guarded by a mlvo which has .■■ >- 
two principal divisions, and is therefore call the mitral \.\\' . ; 
and the aortic semilunar valves have larger and mon- y.. ■ 
minenlbadies(CorporaArButii)on their edges. Tlieai>ri . '. 
proceeds upwards, and to the righl side, tliun archci b ,. . 
wardaand to the left, and, turning over the mainair-lul't 
the left lung, passes down along ihe spine, at the lower p- : 
of which it divides into Iwo largo arteries (the cum.,, 
iliacs) which supply the pelvis and lower cxtremiiies. Fi 
the upper part of its arch it gives off the maiu Irutik^ . ' 
the head and upper extrcmilics in three large trunks -i'. 
most lo the right, called orteria innominata, e, is the r. 
mon trunk which divides into the right carotid f,T i .■ 
right tide of the bead, and Ihe right subcliMan fur : , 
right arm and side of the neck and chest. Next lo •: 
the left carotid. A, and next the lefl subclavian, i, of w !. .. . 
Uie dislribulion is similar to that of those on the ri^ht ^i . 

During life the bluod, relurnini; from the whole bo-U : 
the veins which unite to form the Iwo vena caif. t:.: 
the tight auricle and gradually distends it, at Ihe tame \ ■ 
that the blood returning fVom the lungs by the puhui >.., . 
veins enters the left auricle and distends it; when compl.-. 
filled a kind of vermicular motion is seen comroeiicir j 
the point of each auricle, which is rapidly propagAled .i. . 
Iheir walls, and siraullaneously empties the ounionts of : 
ono into the right, and of the other into the left \cult:, % 
Tho ventricles arc no sooner completely filled than ili. , 
cgntiovt luddeplj uid with mvidi grestei fitno Uuu tua 



H E A 



80 



H E A 



lowed after a scarcely appreciable period by the pulte at the 
wriflt and other parts distant from the heart. Lastly, the 
second sound in heard coincidently with the relaxation of the 
ventricles, the falling down of the valves to permit the blocd 
to pass from the auricles into the ventricles, and to prevent 
its passing from the arteries back into the ventricles ; and 
the rush of blood from the auricles into the ventricles, 
which continues through the whole time of the second 
sound and the pause. 

At each contraction of the ventricles a very large propor- 
tion of the blood which they contained is expelled into the 
arteries, and a very little may flow back into the auricles, 
especially the right, before the valves are completely closed, 
producing the slight dilatation of the ven« cavs which 
may often be seen at each contraction of the ventricles. 
At each contraction of the auricles also it is probable that 
some blood flows back into the cavn and pulmonary veins, 
for they are seen distended rather more suddenly at this 
time than can be explained by the mere arrest and conse- 
quent accumulation of blood hi them. However, so large a 
portion of the heart's power is exerted in propdling the 
blood into the arteries, that these slight influences in the 
contrary direction need scarcely be taken into account in 
calculating its amount At each contraction of the ven- 
tricles about an ounce and a half of blood is fonxd into 
each artery, with such force, that Hales found that the 
blood as it rushed from the open main artery in the thigh 
of a horse would rise 8 or 9 feet in a glass tube of the same 
size as the vessel, while in the temporal artery of a sheep it 
rose 6i feet, and in those of dogs from 4 to 6 feet Poi- 
seuille (Magendie'sybumci/ de Phpsiologie) also calculated, 
by deductions from accurate experiments on animals. \h • 
the force of the blood as it streams in the human aorta wu» 
sufficient to support a weight of 4 lb. 3 dr. and 43 grains. 
Now if the quantity of blood in the whole body be assumed 
to be 30 (tr. wt.) pounds, which is probably about an accurate 
average, and if I^oz. be forced from the ventricle at each 
pulsation, of which, on an average, there are 70 per minute, 
a portion of blood will go the complete round of the circu- 
lation in about 3( minutes, which is however a somewhat 
slower rate than we might deduce fh)m the experiments of 
Hering (Tiedemann's Zeit9cknft, t 3), who found that 
substances injected into the veins of horses oould be detected 
in distant arteries in half a minute. 

Harvey considered the heart to be the sole agent by 
which the cironlation is effected, but it is certain that 
several other agents exeroise auxiliary powers. That the 
heart has however an influence on all parts of the circula- 
tion is quite evident In the larger arteries its effect is 
seen in the increase of the current which it had set in 
motion, in exact coincidence with the contraction of the 
ventricles; in the smaller ones, by the same increase at a 
scarcely apnreciable interval ; in the capUlaries. by the oc- 
casional pulsatile motion which may be seen in them, when, 
after an animal has been largely bled, its transparent parts 
are examined with the microscope, and this though the 
heart is acting very weakly. Lastly, in the veins we find 
its influence still exerted ; for if the main artery and vein in 
a limb be exposed and isolated, and the latter be wounded, 
the flow of blood from the orifice may be exactly regulated 
by compressing the artery, that is, by preventing, to a greater 
or less extent the blood from flowing to the vein wiih the 
impulse given to it by the heart There are cases again 
in which the veins have distinctly pulsated, and the pulsa- 
tions have been clearly proved to have been communicated 
from the heart through the capillaries. To these we may add 
that the rapidity of the current in the arteries, veins, and 
capillaries, is always in direct proportion to the strength and 
frequency of the ventricular contraction, and always more 
rapid in the parU near them than in those remote fSrom the 
heart ; that it ceases in all the instant the heart is removed, 
or ite influence on a part cut off by dividing the main artery ; 
that in old persons, in whom the whole arterial system of 
the lower extremities is sometimes ossified and rendered 
incapable of contraction, the heart alone is sufficient to 
maintain the circulation through the affbcted parts ; while 
on the contrary, when the heart's power is by any cause 
weakened or interfered with, partial sUgnation and an 
extremely languid motion of the blood is found in all 
the organs. In cases of suspended animation no motion 
of the blood can be produced till the heart begins to act : 
but when this u the cow, it has of itself sufficient power to 
set all the blood of the body in a current. 



Thefa are lo many proofii that the eontraAiofi of th« 
ventrielea has a share in propelling the blood throughout the 
whole course of the circulation ; out the heart also a^i&tfl« 
by the enlargement of its cavities after their contraction, 
which, whether it be the effect of mere elastieity, or of an 
active power of dilatation, certainly takes place with grtat 
force. The heart in short acts at once as a forcing and a% 
a sucking-pump. The proofs of this are, that the auricles 
and still more the ventricles, dilate, not gradually, but 
suddenly, and with more force than they could be disteufleJ 
by the blood being impelled into them ; that the currents 
observed in living animals are often seen to be increased 
coincidently with the dilatation of the auricles ; by the rt^ 
locity of the flow of blood from the auricles into the ven- 
tricles being disproportionate to the degree of contraction 
of the former. Tnis part of the heart's action will be 
further illustrated in speaking of the influence of atmo- 
spheric pressure. 

From the heart the blood is poured into the arteries, a 
series of ramifying tubes through which the current is dw 
tributed, divided into a gradually increasing number of 
streams, which progressively diminish iu size, till it arrito 
at a net work of the most minute canals, the capillaries 
As a general rule, when an arterial trunk divides, the sum 
of the diameters of the branches is greater than the dia- 
meter of the trunk^fhus in the annexed diagnm cio 
which the arrows indicate the course of the blood), the iram 
of the diameters of the branches 2 2 is greater than that of 
1, and the sum of those of 3 3 3 greater than that of 2, 
from which they arise. Hence the arterial system has been 

4 




*x^ ? ***• ^^* 2» t«»«e bnmdiei late wMeh It irtdlvi^t H. 
•mall brmnohM. wocwulvely h«umiu« raMU«r mm! ■■^lU^ Jf^LZTZL^ 
Date ia 4, Um capUUry braoehet. "MHW mta^ Ift^ tunu 

compared in form to a cone, of which the heart is at the 
apex— and the stream of blood will be like a current ctwIu. 
ally growing wider, so that if no additional impulse be giv^n' 
to It, It will become slower as it becomes more diataut from 
the heart, an effect to which the friction of the blood anin^t 
the walls of the vessels will also contribute. The ell^t c f 
both these causes however is so sUght that ^ Poiaeuille hss 
found that the force of the current of blood in all arterir^ 
sufllciently large to be experimented on is relativeW tl»o 

relation to its diameter as that in the artery at the %rM 
do«i to Its diameter. Thus the diameter of an artery mav 
be taken as a measure of the force of the eumnt of bU^ 
whL .Vi**u"?* appear moreover that the direction in 
wnich a branch u given oflf fh>m the trunk hai any appr*. 



H B A 



81 



H E A 



nabk influttDee on Um velocity of tha cttmnt ill it— mast 
iroquently tbe brmnehei of arteri^tt are given off lo u to 
Ibrm an acute angle vith the continued trunk at 2, from 
1 2,— Irat often they separate at right angles, and leu fte- 
qnently ao aa to form obtuie angles. Neither can the 
•feet of the tortuosity of an artery be calculated^ though 
there can be little doubt that, emteru paribtu, the current 
in It will be slower. An important point in the arrange- 
■Mnt of arteriea ia the freouent union* or anastomosis, of 
branches with each other. The purpose of this is evidentlv 
to prevent any part beine cut off from its supply of blood, 
by the oompreision or ooliteration of one of its arteries. 
Henee it is that even when the main artery of a limb has 
been tied, the nutrition has still been amply effected by 
the current of Uood being diverted into the collateral chan- 
nels, which subsequeiitlv oecome enlarged* [Ambuvsm.] 

The chief property of the art^ies by which thev aff«Gt 
the cireolalion ia their extreme elasticity. It is by this that 
when dilated they contract on the blood that had been 
fiwoed into them* and propel it in every direction— and that 
when elongated they again shoiten, and that when empty 
they remain open and tubular. The chief effect of the 
action of ibis elasticity is the gradual conversion of the 
jetting pulsatile motion which the blood receives from the 
ibreible and successive contractions of the ventricle into an 
even and steady cunent. The elastic contraction of any 
part of an artery after iu distension can have no general 
mtfuenee to accelerate the blood, for it would pre«s that 
4tt«d equally in all directions, and thus would retard the 
current coming from the heart to any |Nirt to exactly the 
wune degree ^Uat it accelerated that p ?Bsing from that part 
towards the veins— the one influence exactly nullifying the 
other. 

To convert the jimlsatile motion however into a uniform 
one no more admirable property could have been imagined 
than this elasticity, which by continuallv acting to contract 
the arteries (which are always during health in a state of 
shgfat distension) maintains a propelling force upon the 
blood during the iutervals in which the ventricles are at 
rest If the elastic power were not exercised* we should 
see, on opening ap artery, a jet of blood, and then a pause, 
then another jet, followed by a second stoppage of tbe cur^ 
rent, just aa when by the successive strokes of a pbton we 
force water through a rigid tube— the jets of blood being 
coincident with the contractions of the ventricles, and the 
pauses with the intervals of heir dilatation and rest. But 
the arteries being elastic, when the impulse of the ventricles, 
which wt the same time distends them and forces a jet of 
blood through an orifice in them, ceases, their elasticity, 
making them contract, forces some more blood out of the 
crifice, and thus makes the stream from it continuous. In 
the arteries near the heart indeed the force of the ventri- 
cular contraction is so great that it predominates over that 
of ihe elastic contraction; and the current, though continu- 
cos, is irregular* piesenting a succession of jets — ^but as we 
meede ftnm the heart, this predominance becomes less, the 
surreasion of jets beeomes less distinguishable, and in the 
veins we And a perfectly equable stream. An artificial con- 
trtvaoee fo9 effecting the same object, vis. the convenion 
of a series of motions of a fluid into a continuous one, may 
be seen in an oigan. The air is forced into the wind-chest 
Inr a series of strokes of the beUows, and if the walls of that 
chest were flxed it would issue from it into the organ-pipes 
in tbe same intermitting manner; but the top of the chuBst 
is BBovable* and ia loaded with weighte (proportioned to the 
sise of the instnimentX eo that it maintains a constent and 
stottdy prcasure on the air below it, which therefore, though 
driven in by a succembn of small forces, passes out into the 
oti;an-pipeo under the influence of the single force firom the 
top of tbe cbcsl in a continuous steady current* A similar 
amngenmotia employed in fire-engines, where the elastic 
power as the air which partly occupies the chest into which the 
water ia forced. rFiRB-KKOiNi.] 

We have said that the arteries are dilated slightly by each 
eoluan of blood poured out by the ventriclM: nom this 
arises tbeir pulses which may be said tobe owin^ to the dila 
laiioa of tbe arteries produced bv the wave which is propa- 
gated along tbe column of blood conteined in them. Oue 
may form an idea of what is here called the wave by ob- 
seiTing a ripple in a running stream. There are in that 
case two difflerent motions of the particles of the fluid: 
they lavve aU together, with an abaoluto change of place, 
and ibia eonstitnles the strsam : but again, they move sepa 



rately ; one partide or series of particles rises, ana the next 
falls, and as the first Adls again, the second rises^this con- 
stitutes the ripple or wave. In it the particles undergo only 
a relative and temporanr change of position, for they all 
return to rest in their mrmer places, as is shown by any 
light body that may be floating in them, which merely riAcs 
to the top of the wave, and again descends to precisely tbe 
same place as it had before the wave arrived. So in the 
circulation there is a constant stream running through the 
vessels, and at every contraction of the ventricle an impulse 
is given to that part which is next the heart, producing a 
wave which is propagated with incalculable rapidity through 
all the arteries, and causes at each part of them a slight di- 
latetion as it passes within them. The repeated contractions 
produce a scries of such impulses, waves, and dilatetions, and 
when a finger slightly compresses an artery, it feels the ten- 
dency to dilatations, in what is called ihe puhe. Tbe degree 
of dilatation is so slight that ita existence was much disputed ; 
but M. Poiseuille has proved that 4n the larger arteries it is 
equal to about 1-1 Uh of their average diameter. In feeling 
the pidse however we perceive a greater impulse than so 
slight adilatetion could produce, because ihe finger fllattens 
the artery, and therefore we feel the force of the wave over 
a large part of its cireumforence* and we increase its velocity 
by diminishing the sise of the cbanneL From this descrip- 
tion it will be evident that the characters of the pulse by 
which the conditions of health or disease in any person are 
decided will depend on two circumstances — ^the state of the 
heart, and that of the artery itselfl The frequency of the 
pulse will de]>end entirely on the number of contractions of 
the left ventricle in aoertoin time^ and hence the varieties of 
fipequent, slow* irregular, and int^mitting pulses are entirely 
referrible to the heart* The sise and degree of contraction 
of the artery will produce the fullness or smallness, the 
hardness or softness, and all the other characters which are 
determined by the touch rather than by mere counting. 

But the arteries have another power besides that of their 
elasticity, by which thev influence the circulation, though 
tlie mode and extent of ite operation are less clear. Thia 
is the power of contraction which they possess during life, 
and which is sometimes, but erroneouslv, called muscular. 
The vital contraction of the arteries diffen firom the mus- 
cular contaotion, in being slow and gradual, in not being 
at all times exciteble by any of the stimuli that excite the 
muscles to contract, as mechanical irritation, electricitv, &c.* 
but following generally some peculiar influence, as tiiat of 
cold, or some particular local excitement, as inflamma- 
tion* &C. From elastic contraction it is distinguished by 
being exercised only dyring life, and then tending to re- 
duce the artery often to a smaller calibre than its elasticity 
would, so that on the complete cessation of life the artery 
dilates to the sise which ite elasticity, the consequence of 
its mechanical structure, would in any circumstances tend 
to give it It must be regarded as an instance of that vital 
contractility which is observed in many tissues quite dis- 
tinct from the muscular, as in the skin, the dartos, &c. It 
is best seen by exposing an artery during life, and cutting 
it durectlv acrou ; the orifice will then contract slowly, but 
powerfully, till it is completely closed, either at ito very ex- 
tremity or at a short distance within the tube ; if the animal 
be killed the artery will remain closed for some time, but 
will then again gradually dilate under the influence of its 
elasticity. 

It doM not appear oeriain that this vital contractility of 
the arteries exercises any constant influence on the circula- 
tion ; but, on the contrary, the immediate cessatbn of the 
flow of blood ilrom a vein and in the capillaries, when the in- 
fluence of the heart is cut off by tyine the main artery (after 
separating the collateral vessels), or oy removing the heart, 
and the possibility of exactly regulating the velocity of the 
current in the vem of a part by permitting or preventing 
the nupplv ftom the heart, seem sulBcient to prove the re- 
verie. There are many occasions however in which it evi- 
denUy acts, and in none more importently than in cases of 
wounded arteries, in which it is among the most effectual 
means of arresting hmmorrhage. [Hjkuorkhaob.] It is 
shown also in the paleness and sminking of a part when 
exposed to cold, snd in the smallness of the pulsations 
then felt in the main artery ; and Schwann has seen the 
diminution in size of the arteries in the mesentery of a frog, 
when cold was applied. It is probablv the principal cause 
of tbe emptiness of the arteries after death ; for as they will 
contract long after the heart has ceased to act and to finrce 
^ Vol. XII.— M 



H E A 

blood into (hem. tbsf will pour much of that vhich th«7 
contained into the veins, in which it vOl be retuned hj the 
valvei. Halei found that Ihit pover of contraction reiislad 
the pasiaf^ of ilimulants durinR life throut^ the arteriei; 
for B laacb larger quantily of waler could be driven with a 
);i*en fbtce through the vessels of a part iban of brandy, 
though the latter passed most easily after death. For some 
time 100 after the heart has ceased to act, this power is 
sufficient to resist the injection of fluids into tbe veiseta, 
and hence in making preparations it is advisable to wait a 
few liDurs alter death, that tho fluids may run with more 
ease along the arteries. 

It is probable that the TJial contractility of the artn'ies 
is principally useful by reflating, according to their need, 
the supply ctTblood Id certain organs, for it seems to exist in 
the greatest dcgreo in arteries which run most tortuously 
and which are distributed in parts requiringoccasionally in- 
creased supplies or velocity of btood. as the spleen, &c. ; per- 
haps too it u exerted in maintainini; the portal eirculalioD, 
which can receive but little assistance from the heart, whoso 
influence must be nearly expended in forcing the blood 
through the capillaries of U)e digestive apparatus. How- 
ever, it must be acknowledged that at present we only know 
that such a power exists ; the amount and manner of its 
action are quite problematical. 

Much has always been said of the influeitce of tho eapil- 
lariGs on the circulation, but littlo has yet been proved. 
They forra a danse network of extremely minute tubes, 
in which tho arteries i>eem to terminate and the 



:, for their delicacy jirevents the possibility of discover- 
ing any such structure as could deride to whicl 
eels they belong, and indeed it ia only by observing that the 

's of blood-globule* pass in recular directions, that 

ti- van prove that toey are canals with delfnile membranous 
walls. When the circulation ia examined in the web of the 
foot of a fro™<frora which the annexed highly-magnified 
sketch is taken), or in tbe transpaient partsofotlier animals, 
as the fins, tails, or lungs of fish, frogs, lizards, &c, we see 




a number of minute glnbulea coursing along in little streams, 
in some ports in a confuE^ed multitude, as in the vcs>icls which 
are sufliciently large to admit several to pass to;;ollicr, at 
others in only a single line, where the vosel is but little 
larger than llie globule itself. Here and there a globule is 
seen to be checked in its course, as if the canal « ere too 
nAcrow for its pa.sagc ; then it turns a little, and a^ain 
ruUs on. Tbe currcnls run generally in the same direction 
in tho same ve«E*ls, nil tending to a larger brmnch, which 
may be rcgardiMl at the commencement of a vein, and set- 
tiny out frum the minutest termination of the artery. The 
capillaries are the most delicate of all organic tissues, 
measuring from m to ji^ot an inch in diameter; they 
exist in alt tissued of tbe body, vary in g In arrangement only 
in the greater or less closeness of the network which they 
form, and of which the meshes are in some organs so fine as 
not to exceed in width the diameter of the capillaries them- 
selves, as is the cose in the iris and lungs. It is through 
these vessels that all the important processes of secretion, 
nutrition, and absorption are efiected, for there is no suffl- 
oent evidence for believing in the existence of a still more 
minute series tnversed oiily by tho colourless parts of the 
blood, and which some have described as vasa serosa, vasa 
exhalaniia, &c. But hitherto no observations have been 
made which can give any idea aa to the precise manner in 
which these processes are performed ; no pores can be dis- 
vered at the aides of the capillaries for the passage of 
la, which it is therefore probable is effected by simple 
ittdatiao; nor can any op«n tenninatioiu be aaen, for 
<»Mcl»wmft»nKt«nMudt«niuiui«inr«iii«. ,^ 



2 H E A 

Tlie influence of the naoBtsit ■rterioa and nin*, aad uf 
the capillariea, on tbDGiTculat>OD.U beat aean in the pbenu- 
mena of local aetion, as inflammation, blushing, turgeaocm-e. 
See. If the web of a fr^( foot placed in % mioroecope bo 
irritated, tho capillariea are seen slowly oontracting. so a* 
sometimes to prevent the flow of blood through them, and 
if tbe stimulus be to great u to produce inflammation, then 
they dilate, end a larger number ofglubulee is aem passini; 
along them with great rapidity. The same may be seen iii 
the human eye, tbe vessel* in the front of which are so 
minute that tbey give no colour to it i but if tbey ba irri- 
tated bv a particle of dust, at once tbey dilaie, and mum 
blood-glob ales entering them, they are seen a* tortuous 
canals filled with blood. On a larger scale one ieea, afla a 
wound or other injury, the parts around grow redder, and 
swell from the afflux of blooa to its capillaries, and if the 
indammation arise in a part which can be compared with 
another similar one, as in the hand, one feel* that tbe pulte 
is fiiUer and stronger on the injured than oa tbe aoond side. 
indicating that a larger quantity of blood is paMinj; through 
it. A slill more evident aceumulation of blood ii abown 
in blushing, in which, fi'om a mental impmsioo, in an 
inalant all the minute vessels of tbe faoe, neck, head. 
See , become distended with blood. The palatMaa of fear 
is produced by the oppoaite condition, ana we have other 
cases in which a decrease of the quantity of blood in a part 
is seen in tbe deficient nutrition end abrinkiiu of parte 
which have beoome useless, a* in the giUa of tadpolea. the 
horns'of deer, &c. All these dronmstancea are cVeariy suf- 
ficient to prove that, independent of any influeneeexiendiuz 
firom the oeort or orteriee, there is in the vvy minute \bi- 
sds of all parts a power l^ which the supply of blood pass- 
ing through them mav be either increawd or diminished, 
whether it be eflecteil by an alteration in the propeUiiii.' 
power of the vessels themselves, or, as some imagine, by an 
increased allraclion or repulsion between the tissues and 
the blood. In any ease, we have only proob of it* occj. 
sional influence, and that in many it is intimately oonnectol 
with llic nervous system, for it' constantly followi pain ur 
mental excitement; hut we have no evidence that it exor- 
cises any constant influence on the course of the blood. 

Following the course of the circulation we oi»ne Bow to 
tho veins, which may be regarded as the most pa«ci^r ul 
the parts engaged in it, though they are constructed so as 
to permit many important external agencies to art upon lli<> 
motion of llio blood. While the arteries form a series "t 
branching canals in which the main current ia diicrii~l 
into streams whose number increases as their indivi- 
dual size decreases, tbe veins are mode up of a aeries m 
which a vast number of currents gradually units into ottteri 
whose number decreases as their sue incr e aa o a <a* abov u 
in the following figure), and which all at last meet in ia» 
great trunks, tbe vcniB cav». In addition to other pecn- 
liarilies of slruclure the veins have valves, S, 5. S, very 
similar to those at the origins of the arieriea, which are ar~ 
ranged in pairs, or in 3's, at difierent distances, in tbe coura; 
of nearly all those veins in which the blood has lo nic 
ogoinst tho power of gravitation. Their simple u»c ii 
evident ; the blood, returning slowly through the canillariet. 
and much of the force of the heart being expendoa in piu- 
pelling it so fhr, would be apt to retrt^rade, or remain sta- 
tionary, if the weightof the whole column in the weins b,ir* 
down upon the arteries, ami through tbem oo tbe heart. 
As BOon however as a portion is raised into a veia. when it 
tends to return lo, the arteries it forces down the ra)v>-». 
'liich close the canal of the vein and aupport lite binoi 
above them, till another portion rising tend* it onward*. 
Thus while tbey permit tbe blood to poai without obsiacio 
towards the heart, they entirely prevent it ftaoa tvirn- 
groding; and if it were stationary, the column of hia^A 
would be like a stream branching out, and divided b; a 
number of closed locks in which the portion of fluid bvlwrrtt 
any two is prevented from exerdiing any influntct) oa the 
— -•■ons adjacent to it. 

e veins, tike the arteries, are elastic, and tbb pown k 
occasionally exorled in recovering them fMm too ^reat -l.*- 
lension ; tbey too have a vital contractility wboae mnuni'T 
is remarkably shown in Iheir shrinking when cold is i- - 
plied, but its effects have been even less calculated iban •« 
arlcries. 

We hove seen that pressure exerted equably on all ]vr • 
of the walla of an artery would force the blood as aifh n: 
one direction aa the other, w that it cvuld be of m oe n 




nccclenling the cfrraUtlon ; but from the arrangement of 
ihe valves equal pressare on the veins has a very different 
i-ffert. for it will bo prevented by Ihem.ftom producing 
any relroerade current lowards the extremities of the ar- 
teries, nnd thus the greater part of the power exerted will 
fic (ra-ned in [U\Tjur of the Uuw of blood tawards the heort. 
Sulfa pressure is exercised by the rauscLes surrounding the 
If ills; as they contract they comptess the veins, and thus 
fine the fluid lo flow in the only possible direction, vii. 
I.^u-ards the hcarL Their Jnllucnce in this vty is shown in 
the peater tendency to dlieued and permanent ililatation 
• ■f itie veins immediately under the akin and other parts 
tiMnoIe from Ihe muscles, than in the deep-seated branches 
in which this I'aiicose stale (as it is called) very rarely 
rn-cura, although the number of valves in the former is 
^ilcTDi^mucb greater; in the benefit derived by supplyinf; 
Ihe place of muscles by artificial pressure on tbe veins by 
li^ndages, be. ; fay tbe increased f\itlnes9 of Ihe veins, and 
ii;lcirity of tbe current commonly seen in bleeding when 
i!ic bleed inff-statr is compressed and moved about in the 
bind; by the general acceleration of tfae circulation by 
rousci'Iar exertion ; and, on the contrary, by tbe tendency 
lo lilognation and swelling of the veins in ihe indolent, or 
th<?>M whose muscular systems are grootly debilitated. 

But a stilt more important inlluenre which is permitted 
by the prescnceof tbe valves is that of atmospberio pressure, 
li acts principally in respiration. When tna cheat is ««- 
pdQded fbr the purpose of inspiration, it is' evident that the 
atmosphere will ptess with equal weight on aU parts to fill 
i.p the vacuum thus produced. From without it will pass 
ai oncA into the most open course through the trachea into 
the lungs, which it distends ; but at the rame time the blood 
will be Ibrccd lowards the heart and the great vessels con- 
lamcd !□ tbe chest, and will assist in filling up tbe vacuum 
to a degree directly proportionate to their volume as com- 
pared with that of the lungs. An experimental proof of 
this influence in the veins (for in the arteries its effect is 
prevented by the valves at their origins) is aUbrded by in- 
troducing a lube into tbe juf^ular vein of an animal, and 
fUcing its opposito extremity in a vesael ftiU of lluid. At 



> HE A 

every inspiration the fluid will be seen lo rise, and at every 
expiration to descend a little, indicating flist a suction 
towards the heart, and next a slighter expulsion of fluid 
ttom it. ft is seen also in cases in which the brain is ex- 
posed by removinz a portion of the skull : and in cases of 
Hernia Orebri [Hkajj, Injuries of thk], in which, in ad- 
dition to its slight elevation by the pulsation of the arteries 
at its base, the brain is seen to enla^je and rise at every 
exniration and <o bcoomc flattened at every mspiration. 
All these phenomena are still more evident when a strong 
inspiratory eSect is made, as in sighing. 

As inspiration draws the blood into the chest, so expira- 
tion acta by compressing all the large vessels to force it out 
of that cavity away troxa the heart. Its principal influence 
must he exerted on the arteries, for the blood would be pre- 
vented from passing far along tbe veins by their valves. In 
tfae arteries (and to a less extent in the veins) it is seen to 
act in the increased velocity of the current that issues from 
a wound; in the fullness of the vessels of tbe face and 
other parts during a strong expiration, or when holding the 
breath, coughing, or sneraing, actions which are sometimes 
the causes of rupture of the smaller vessels, and produce 
an evident alteration in the pulse. 

Atmospheric pressure on the veins must also oct to some 
extent in filling up Ihe vacuum which the sudden conltac- 
tion of the ventricles must produce in the pericardium. Of 



time the blood will tend to rush towards the auricle* 
and dilate them, so that they may fill up the vacant space. 
Dr. Barry proved this fVirther, by showiu|i; that if a tube h« 
introduced into the sac of the pericardium, without allowing 
any air to enter with it, a fluid placed in it will be seen to 
be drawn towards and driven trom the sac, at each contrac- 
tion and dilatation of the ventricles. 

Such are the powers concerned in the circulation, and the 
principal cl!t«ts which they produce. The influence of each 
IS certain, but what is its extent, and what are the circum- 
stances under which it is chiefly exereised, cannot be ac- 
curately determined. In order of importance, tbe contrac- 
tion of the ventricles must undoubtedly be placed for highest; 
Iben would come the auricular contraction, tbe ventricular 
dilatation, the auricular dilatation ; then inspiration, expi- 
ration, and tbe cavity in the pericardium when the ventricles 
contract. All these assist at all times in moving the blood ; 
the elasticity of tfae arteries tends at oil times to equalize 
the velocity of the current, while their vital contraction and 
that of the veins, Ibe action of the capillaries, and the mus- 
cular pressure on the veins, influence it only at particular 
perio<£i. It is probable that one of these powers may some- 
times replace another whose influence is prevented, as in 
the lungs on which muscular and atmospheric pressure can 
have no influence, but in which many circumstances prove 
an intimate relation between the blood and tfae action of 
the capillaries ; and in the liver, in wfaich the ^'entricular 
have little power, but in whicfa the con- 



HEART, DISEASES OF THE. When we consider 
the compound, or rather tfae mecfaanicaliy complicated 
nature of the faeart; its constant action, from the hour of 
birth to the hour of death ; the extent to whicfa every organ 
depends upon it for power to perform its flinctions in th* 
animal economy; and the frequent derangement of some 
one of these organs, which tenda to impede or render mora 
laborious tbe heart's unceasing action — we cannot be sur- 
prised at finding that this central organ of life is subject to 
many diseases, and that there is great difficulty in assign- 
ing to each unhealthy state its peculiar cause. 

In giving some account of the disorders to whicfa the 
heart is liable, it would perhaps be best to arrange them 
according to their causes ; but as it is much easier to obtaia 
a knowledge- of tbe structure of this organ than of the 
remote causes of its several diseases, we shall here enume- 
rate and describe first those lesions wfaich occur in its 
investing membrane; secondly, those which affect it as a 
whole ; and thirdly, those met with in its various parts. 
Those who desire to be further acquainted with this sub- 
ject are refined to the works of MM. Corvtsart, Laenoeo^ 
Cruveilhier, Bouillaud, Berlin, and Drs. Elliotson, Hope, 
&c. 

Diieatet rif Ihe inmtting Membrane qf Ihe Heart, A« 
PericartHum; ^6(mee.— Ilupericaidiura has been reported 



HE A 



64 



B A 



«} abMnl IB a'cM miUUwd jbjr Mr.BobiMOtt in Om 
'Ameneui Jounial oi Um M«lk«l 8ei0Deis»* Pabrmry, 



183J ; but Um enilQOt tsaggersUocM of lus aoeottnt nndBr 
it ttoiafc to ipv« credit to any portioo of it. 

Ptrieatdiiii, In^mmafiom o^ IA# iVrioanftiMi, ro- 
wmblco nittch, is it* polbologicof oooditioiiti iDflftmauliott 
of oth« toRMift taombr«iMi» and it indneod by timikr 
enuMt» MM expoMiro to damp and odd. It of eoona pmenli 
peculiar trniBtoaia, arisinc from tho titnation ana natm 
of Ibo indindttal organ ; tana tbe Mtient will eomplain of 
toodomoat o?or tbe legion of tbe beart, amonntia^ wben 
Bietsttie b made, to acute lancinating pain, wbieb preienta 
nim ftom lyin^ on tbe left side, and ia mucb inereaiod by 
drawing deep inamrationa or oongbing, tbia latter tvmptoui 
frequently depeoaing on tbe pleura being involved in tbe 
inflammatory ettack. Tbis pain bowever ia not always to 
severe ; freouently only a sense of oppression is felt Tbe 
pulsations oi tbe beart are freqoentv sometimes regular, but 
at other times intennittenf« and so strong as to constitute 
nolpltations ; but still* if mucb effusion bas taken place 
Into tbe pericardium* tbe band wben applied to tbe cbest 
will bave difficulty in perceiving tbem. Tbe nrwcordial 
portion of tbe tborax b often bul^ out bv tne fercible 
action of tbe beart and tbe quantity of fluid effiised into 
the cavity of tbe pericardium* Tbis effusion varies mucb 
in quaotitv and consistence at diflbcent periods of tbe 
disease; tnns in many cases only a little bloody semm 
will be found; in otbera* pus in large quantities^ coagn- 
laled lympb, bands of fibrinous matter uniting tbe Iwo 
layers of tbe serous membrane, and even eartilaginoua 
or osieons deposits. Tbe dull sound discovered if per* 
eussion in tbe praeordial region of a person in bealtb 
is always* in this dtiease^ increased in proportion to tbe 
nuantit) of fluid in tbe pericardium* and in nropoitioQ as 
tnts fluid becomes ornnised sounds will be neard b^ tbe 
application of tbe stetnoscope, and often of tbe unassisted 
ear, varying in tbeir nature aeeording to tbe state of tbe 
organismg process* and resembling at one time tbe ereaking 
of new leatber* at anotber tbe rubbing together of paper 
or parchment* tbe noise made by a flloi fcc Other sounds 
also are fteqoently beard, wbir^ denend upon tbe disease 
being aeeom p an i ed by leaions within the heart itself. 
Although at tbe eommcneement of the disease the patient 
may have symptoou of acute inflammation* the aeoompa- 
nying fever having a type suflleiently tonic, this state doea 
not endure long ; tbe eroions into the pericardium hinder 
the heart's action ; the free passage of tbe Uood through 
its catities becomes Airtber impeded by various internal 
parts of tbe organ sharing in tne inflammation ; and* the 
circulation being no longer vigorously and equably carried 
on* a erowd of distressing nmptomSk Mich as inability to 
sleep, stsrtings, feintness* s nortneis of breath amounting 
to sttflbeattoo, dropsies. Sic* render life almost insupport- 
able* and if not speedily relieved, soon nut an end to 
r&istecioe. It is worthy of remark that this disease fre- 
quently serompanies acute rhoumatism, particularly of the 
j«MnU ; and also that patients* wben apparently recovering 
Irum acute rheumatism, are sometimes suddenly attacked 
and tamed off by inflasamation of tbe pericardium. So 
marked is tbis latter occurrence^ that many distinguished 
physicians have con»idered that tbe pericarditis ukes tbe 
place of the rheumatism* constituting what is termod a ' me- 



llMMmidaofUw hoait will la this 



•ohn 



Tbe seriotts nalore of tbis disease and the rapidity of iu 
psogrsm demand very prompt antiphlogistic treatment ; but 
on the eontraiy eame physicians exhibit tonio mtdifines- 
A distinction engfat to be drawn however between recent 
acute eaoH and those in which* from pcevions attaeksi the 
eonstitataoa u weakeoed, and tbe bean's aetion impeded 

by old adhesions and deposits beiwwa the two laveta ef the 
perieaaliuai* and Mrhaps withia the organ itsell. 

ifyi ^e iM i Mu ri ft Msi; Dropy qf l/W Artoerdlfini.— In 
addition to the morbid efltoions which may ooenr in the 
forieaidiam* aa the reenlt of inflsmmatton of that a»m- 
knno, it is feaad in some few mstancea dielMided* and 
•oaMttaHs to aa eaorosoaa degma*by aa iaeieaee of its 
iaiaraal tobtiealiag secretion: this eonatitales dropsy of 
dinok The fluid may vary ia quaatity Aom a 
to aeverat pounds; Udiflbrsfromtbeeffbeiiaof 
pericarditia in bamg meiely a morbid increase of the natn- 
til oaemltoa. ael a ea ai a lin g inlna flbnaoua del* or ferming 

tho perkaidilic affusion wbMh la tbe 



Ihn 




removed from the sarfeea. aad dull in primwtien to tho 
quantity of tbe eff^isioa* bat no aaormal sonnd ia pro 



loandiaprodi 
ohsCmetisa t 



unless, oy the aoMunt of prossnra, some oh s t r ac t ioa to the 
eirenlation arises in the interiorof tho heart. The eetioa of 
the loan becomes much impeded when tho perieaidnim is 
greatly disteaded with fluid* and when this ehstractiea !• 
the brsathing is eoi^ined to prasoareon other neightwinng 
organs many teiy dtttremiag symptoatt are prodweed. 

The treatamat res em b l es much that of other dropsies; 
aad it baa beea a questioB whether or aot the operattoa of 
panetariag the membrane aught be prmetised. 

Diseoser f/tke Heari iimff; 4le0ii0r.--ThoQgh the cw- 
cumstaaee may seem rather lo belong lo a trsatiee en whmi- 
strositiee* we may remark that this organ has beea fettod 
wanting in soam aeepbalous beings who bavw ahowa* 
for a short time^ evident signs of life. 

Dijp/arfeiwi/.— The heart is not always Ibnad in its 
usual situation at tbe tune of biith* there being eases on 
record where it occupied tbe right Inslnsd of the left sidw of 
the chest, the other oiwans or the body preeenting at tbe 
same time a rslattve change of position withoat any dis- 
turbance of their ftmetions. It hM alao beea feand pnitwd 
out of the left into the right side of the cheat by lamooi^ 
or* what is more eomiaoa, by extea«ve effbsiea sir laid ims 
the pleura of the left side of the diest. The whole haart 
has beea found banjpi^ vrithout the thorax, alee ia the 
abdomen* and formmg a portion of a ttnaoar p r ^^ee t ed 
beyond the abdominal parielee, eonsiituting what are t 
hernias of tbe heart For a laore elaborate a c eoaat of 
last*mentioiied anorasal conditions the reader shoaM 
suit a memoir on this sal^oct bv M« Bresehet 

\^var aaa^ffv p ^^i^u^B^^p^^g^paag^a ^Mf p^Vv A<g^Hnv a* a g^^g ^^aq^^^w 

cukr stracture of the heart is not Awe from the atlacka el 

iaflamiaatioa, though whether the morbid 

aMUcee in tbis structure, or in the membi 

to determine. This however ia certain, that whea 

mation of tbe muscular stracture exists* there wtt 

feuad traces of it ia tbe perieardiam, er ia the Uaiag 

braae of the heart* or ia both: aad an eaaael pea 

symptoms of thooae distiiwt nam theee of the alhfl 

ease: the treatmeat eoaseqnantly wOl be aimte ia both 

The program of this iaflammatioa may bo tmeai 

diflbreat stages. Thus we shall flad at em 

muscular structure softened and of a d esysr 

usual* at a fttrtber period presenting a greyah er y ell ow ah 

softened mam; pus also mav be feuad* or at 

will eo thia the walls of tne heait aa to 

rations. 

Csaceroift omd TViAsrraler Drarfo p eir a l.— 'Ia tho 
these deadly changes of structure are not of ft e q aeat 
rence ; still, in support of tbe feet thot thee do oec 
ally oreur, we have tbe aathorities of MM* Aadral aad 
Laenner. 

Hffpurirvpkff t\f ike I7esrl.^lndependently of any aaor* 
bid process existing in itselt the muscular straetare ef 
tbe heart is often grmtly increased in bulk* aa if the 
nutritive process were too active in pronortioa to tbe 
absorbent, and new matter ware depontea asorv raptdly 
than the old could be removed. Pnan the pecaUar aatart 
of the fttnctions of tbe beart this diseaw beeamas veer 
important, and its effbets not lem dan ger o u s than miaiid i 
It is usually divided iato three kiads; namely, soapW 
bvpertrophy* the least eommoa* in which the parielee ase 
thiekened without any change ef capacity la the cav^ ; 
aieentrie or anearismal hypertrophy* the ferm meet ft^ 
oueatly laet with* ia which tbe parietea are thutheaod aad 
tbe enckeod eaviqr er eavitiea proportioaallv ealarg^d; aad 
eoaoaatrie hyportaahT, when the eavin m dimiaishid m 
proportioa to the thickaem of the partefi Aay 





theee kiads efhypertropfaj may aflbet the 

wart* or tiie whole oigaa. 
en this Inersase of site may proceed is i 



cavity of the heart* 



The astral to 



have beea found weighing upwards of twanlv m 

'hv heart is nam 
to nine ounces. In h j i p e rtiu p h y the shape ef tho 



whmas tbe average weq^bt of a nealthy heart 




often maeh altered* the tmnsverse often exeesdiag the vrr«> 
tieal diameter; but those changea must depend «pva 
whether the whole organ* or only a part, be imp l i cat ed m 
the dweese. The ebest is often bulged eat towards the Ml 
side, tbe sound produced by percasaoa laore daO 
the beelihy state* aad the pulsatieas vary atiu a g ; 
the bed-«lothca art often visibly luiNd aad Ike 



I nhrtt IMMMt I II* iMiMM V 



HE A 



86 



HE A 



ii niott fkemienflT met with in old penont» uid «8pMally 
those who nave been addicted to a too generous mode of 
living* The morbid sounds produced by these obstructions 
at the various orifices will resemble those of the bellows, 
file, or saw, according to the degree of the obstruction ; and 
sometimes a triple or even a quadruple sound will be per- 
cei\'ed instead of the two normal sounds. The effects of 
these obstructions will be sanguineous and serous conges- 
tions, oppressions of the breath, apoplectic seisuies, and 
other symptoms of embarrassed circulation. 

Ruptures (\f the Heart, — ^Ruptures are sometimes found 
to occur, not only in the valves and columns of muscular 
fibres within the heart, but also in its parictes. The 
effect of such injuries will depend upon their extent 
and situation. A valve or one of the bundles of muscular 
fibre cannot be broken through without causing much in- 
convenience to the free circulation of the blood; but it sel- 
dom happens that the parietes of either cavity of the heart 
are sufficiently injured to allow the free passage of blood 
into the pericardium without instaat death being the con- 
senuence. 

Pressure fVom without and prcsf^ure from within will 
both give rise to these accidents. Under the first head may 
be included all wounds, whether produced by cutting or 

Ikointed instruments, by falls from great heights, or by vio- 
ent contusions of the chest. Pressure from within will 
operate whenever an orifice of the heart is so narrowed or 
blocked up by thickenings or adhesions of its valves, or 
diseased deposits, as to prevent the blood from pasi>ing freely 
through it ; there will then be a tendency in the cavity to 
dilate in proportion to the extent of the obstruction, and 
this dilatation may end in rupture. Under such circum- 
stances violent exertion or a previous thinning of the pa- 
rietes by abscess will greatly promote (he rupture. 

Pereietance ^f the Forcanen Ovale* — It is by no means 
verv uncommon to meet with cases in which the opening 
leading from the right to the left auricle of the heart has 
not been properly closed up at the time of birth. Accord- 
ing to the extent of the communication thus remaining, a 
greater or less proportion of venous blood will pass into the 
left side of the neart, and being there mixed with red blood 
circulate through the arterial system. The arterial blood 
being adapted to produce in the animal economy certain 
effects ana changes necessary to life, and the blood of the 
veins being unable to produce these effects until it has in 
its turn been submitted to the action of air in the lungs, the 
health of every individual in whom the mixture of arterial 
and effete blood occurs will suffer in proportion to the 
extent of that mixture. 

The symptoms of this disease are blueness of the skin, 
lips, and nails ; a temperature of the body below that which 
is natural and healthy; shortness of breath, palpitations, 
faintings, a sense of suffocation induced by slight exertion, 
and sometimes a great disposition to hicmorrhage and de- 
pression from small losses of blood. This disease has from 
the colour of the skin been named 'blue disease/ ' morbus 
caeruleus,* or ' cyanosis.* The persistence of this opening 
between tlte two auricles is not the only though the most 
frequent cause of this disease ; sometimes the partition be- 
tween the two sides of the heart is ruptured or ulcerated 
through, and at others the duct communicating between 
the aorta and pulmonary artery has remained ^inclosed ; in- 
deed any anormal state of the cavities of the heart, or of 
the great vessels proceeding from it, which gives rise to an 
extensive aduiixturo of venous and arterial blood, will pro- 
duce the disease. Hypertrophy of the right side of the 
heart, with or without dilatation, and contraction or ob- 
struction of the orifice of the pulmonary artery, and of the 
right auriculo-ventricular opening, frequently occur at the 
siiiue time with persistance of the foramen ovale, and in- 
crease all the painful symptoms produced by it. Little in 
the way of treatment can be done in these cases, but every 
cause of excitement should be carefully avoided, and during 
the attacks of sufiocation and tUintness small doses of dif- 
fusive stimulants, as eether and ammonia, may be advan- 
tageously employed. 

Servowt LHwa^es qftf^e Heart. — ^The last class of diseases 
affecting the heart which remains to be noticed differs from 
all the preceding in not presenting any organic changes. 
They are met with chiefly in women suffering from ansemia, 
chlorosis, hysteria, and other nervous syoiptoms ; and in men 
in whom a naturally nervous temperament has been rendered 
acre irritable by th« too fret use of stimuli or by depress- 1 



ing putidni. In tlieie eaiM itrong pulMtioiia of tba heart 
are experienced, increased by exertion to sueh an extent a* 
to proQuce palpitations, a sense of faintness, and short n ess 
of breath amounting to suffocation. Sometimea a slight 
bellows sound is heard at the heart, and in patients labour- 
ing under anemia and chlorosis this is frequently accompa- 
nied by a noise like snoring, heard chiefly m the carotid and 
crural arteries. In all these cases great attention should be 
paid to the general health ; in the cases of anemia and byst v - 
ria, iron medicines and the shower-bath will be of the greatest 
service ; and, as far as possible, sources of anxiety should 
be removed. The morbid sounds will all disappear as the 
mind and body of the patient are restored to their hoaliiiy 
condition, but it must be borne in mind that the heart it 
essentially a muscular organ, and by severe exercise it uiav 
be increased in bulk like other muscles; consequently if 
these nervous states which give rise to so much action i^f 
the heart be not removed, they may in process of time U> 
the foundation for more permanent and serious dl»easo. 

HEARTSEASE, or PANSY, is the cultivated state nf 
the plant called Viola tricolor by botanists, improvi^l 1 i 
crosses with V. altaica and other allied species. 

Several hundreds of beautiful varieties are now comni -h 
in gardens. Although tliey will all grow in almost aity k*<.<) 
of soil, yet, in order to bring the finer sorts to any degree* 1 1 
perfection, a loam, mixed with sand, and highlv manun I. 
is absolutely necessary. By proper treatment tltey may U- 
had in full flower at two different seasons — from April :«« 
June, and from September until the frost destroys tli*. :;i. 
The ground chosen for the first planting should not be fi.! . v 
exposed to the mid-day sun, as the plants are liable ici U: 
scorched by it, but should be open to the east or west ; tho 
second planting must be in ground fully exposed, as the im- 
lluence of the sun is not so powerful as to injure them ;it 
the later season of the year. 

The original species from which all these varieties sprar.^ 
are easily preserved ; but this is not the case with many of 
the finer sorts, whicli, as in animals and in other plants, 
the higher they are bred, and the finer the kinds, art* \u 
proportion difficult to keep in health. The principal caus> > 
which affect them are excessi\*e heat in summer, and ut: 
and cold in winter. They am however easily nropagati'l 
and only require to be looked over frequently, wnen, a uu. 
of them are found damping or decaying at the bottom . t 
the stem, the top must he taken of, and struck. AVht- . 
there is danger of losing any of the sorts during wint^i, 
tho best way is to strike a quantity in autumn, and t 
place hand-glasses over them until spring; at that ut ■«• 
those which are alive may he soon multiplied in abuu< 
dance. 

Where fine large flowers are wanted, the plants shoi.il 
alwavs be struck from cuttings the same season, and gruuD 
rapidly. In striking them, artificial heat is altogether uu 
necessary, unless when the operation is performed cuilv 
All that is required for the purpose is a small hand-gl..^^ 
to place over the cuttings, and a mat to shade them dur::i.: 
bright sunshine. After they are well rooted, they mu»t I .> 
taken carefully up, and planted in abed previously prv| .i: i 
for them. They will then flower in great profusion li.^m 
April to June. 

At this period other plants must he propagated fv«r tl ,• 
autumn flowering: they must again be kept inabhnld 
situation, until the intense heat of summer is over, ulip. 
advantage must be taken of dull rainy weather for plantu j 
them out in beds, where, if the soil and situation be ^^* :. 
they will soon flower, until destroyed by frost. 

Varieties are obtained from seed. In order to have th* -.i 
fine, considerable care is requisite in selecting the ^ix ! 
It must always be gathered at those seasons when the \\a\ ^^ 
flower in the greatest perfection, and from the best fum • : 
and largest blossoms. Thev will generally be fouiul in .1. v 
state m the early part of the season, from Apnl to Jui. •. 
or in autumn, a fler the greatest heat of summer u |:i< 
at other seasons the flowers <ire smaller, and it is fi...r \ 
that this affects the seed. The seed should be sown >. 
spring, in light soil, with tho protection of a cold fia ... 
When the plants are very young, they must bo rcm.u. : 
from the frame, and planted thinly under haudg^a-^. «. 
where they will remain until they are sufllcieotly strong • » 
be planted out in the flower-garden. At every shifting il \ 
must have plenty of water, and be carefully biiadcd «fui . !» 
bright sunshine. 

I^ike all other florists* flowers there are certain charactc:* 



H B A 



87 



H S A 



which ore deemed indispeiiBaUe to the fomation of a good 
bloom. Mr. Gorrie {Oard, Mageusine^ vol. viii., p. 573) 
thus defines il — ' Large and round petals, the flower form- 
iog nearly a circle, not muoh undulated— (if inch across 
is large enough, but some are broader) ; colours brilliant, 
distinct, and permanent ; eye rather small, and not deeply 
pendlled ; flower^etalk strong and upright ; and the stigma 
filling the open part of the eye.' 

HEAT. This great natural agent, which is universally 
diffused, beoomes sensible to us in the first instance by our 
bodily sensations, but we find afterwards its effects in the 
%-arious changes which it is capable of producing on all 
labstanoes. Bxpansion, fusion, evapomtion, thermo-electric 
currents, and various physiolo^^ical phenomena, are effects 
of heat, or at least accompany its absorption. 

Every existing substance may be regarded as a source of 
heat. In this respect the sun is the most important natural 
source which our svstero possesses, its heat when condensed 
in the focus of a lens being exceedingly Intense. When 
concentrated by a number of powerful lenses on one scale 
of a balance of extreme sensibility, no derangement of equi** 
librium ensues ; as far therefore as experiment can inform 
us it is imponderable^ and the increase or diminution of 
beat in any body is therefore unaccompanied by any altem* 
tion of we^t. 

Heat may be produced artificially by any means which 

Eropag&te ogitations internally in bodies: hence friction, 
ammering, percussion, sodden condensation, chemical 
combination, and electrical disdiaiges, are all proper to pro- 
duce or rather to develop heat 

As to the nature of heat, whether it should be regarded 
as a substance or an accident, has been discussed from the 
time of Bacon to the present day. Those who regard it as 
haWng a material existence suppose that a subtle fluid, 
called caloric, capable of permeating the densest substances, 
IS universally diffused ; that its parts are mutually repul- 
sive, but are attracteVl bv the material particles of boaies, 
and hence they account for the expansions and contractions 
of bodies, while the effects of radiant heat are explained on 
principles analogous to those on which the undulatory 
theory of light is founded. 

Tliose who regard heat as only accidental to matter rest 
their opinion on the fact that the artificial production of 
iieot is aceompanied by vibratory motions in the material 
molecules of tne heated substances. The measure of the 
quantity of heat produced mechanically would on this hy- 
pothesis have a direct connexion with the sumofthetn> 
t*tra of the system of vibrating particles. Hence the com- 
munication of heat by contact would be the same as the 
propagation of vibratory motions from the system of par- 
ticles composing the heated body to that of the touching 
body. This hypothesis is liable to a great objection ; for 
heat is propagated through a vacuum, and if even we sup* 
pose all space filled with some fluid, in order to explain solar 
ndiation, the hypothesis loses its simplicity, and differs from 
the former principally by its greater vagueness. It has been 
susr^ested bv Brewster, that the solar rays are nothing more 
than faeateo light, but this opinion is open to several objec- 
tions founded on the different laws by which beat and light 
are transmitted and modified. 

It IS of greater advantage to study the properties of heat, 
and make those properties the ground for its measurement 
and the calculation of its effects, than to speculate on the 
nature of an agent intimately connected, not only with light 
and electricity, but with the absolute nature of the material 
mnlecnles. 

Heat radiates flx)m ail bodies in straight lines and in all 
directions, and in the law of its emanation it resembles 
li?ht, its Intensity diminishing in the same proportion as 
the sine of the angle of emanation. If we conceive two balls 
which are heated unequally to be enclosed by a concave 
snrface which by any means is preserved at a uniform tem- 
perature, the radiation of heat from the warmer ball, di- 
rected on the colder, being more copious than the radiation 
from the latter on the former, the temperature of the hotter 
wO! sink, and of the cooler rise, in proportion to the differ- 
ence of radiations, and this will continue until the tempe- 
ratures become permanent, in which case the radiations are 
necessarily equal. In the same manner, when the different 
parts of a room in which there are one or several sources of 
wsbX have acquired a permanent temperature, that tempe- 
rature for each part will then be such that the heat which 
it raiiti liy laduttm mul be wpnX to the ouaotity ab- 



sorbed, and which it has received by radiation firom all 
other parts of the room. 

One conseqjuenoe of the free radiation of heat in open 
space is that its intensity must vary inversely as the square 
of the distance from the origin. Hence every portion of 
space has a determinate temperature due to the amount of 
radiation, not only from the sun and fixed stars, but also of 
the non-luminous bodies of each system. It seems however 
difficult to conceive with Poisson, that in addition to such 
temperature from heat emitted, it can have any tempera- 
ture peculiar to its locality ; in fact, that vacuum can possi- 
bly have any proper heat. 

But though the laws of the free emanation of heat and 
light are similar, those of theu: transmission through sub- 
stances are very different When a metallic body is but a 
little heated in a fire, we have heat unaccompanied by 
sensible light ; and in the lunar rays thelight, though origin- 
ally transmitted from the sun, arrives at our planet without 
any sensible heat, even when collected in the focus of a 
burning-glass. Again, a plate of glass placed before a com- 
mon fire will intercept the heat until it becomes itself suf- 
ficiently heated to radiate. When however the source of 
heat is more intense, a small portion will be directly trans- 
mitted ; while for the solar rays we find the heat is trans- 
mitted as well as the light. It is still more remarkable 
that when the sokr rays are decomposed by transmission 
through a glass prism, the differently coloured rays of the 
spectrum have each a different intensity of heat, the least 
refrangible possessing the greatest portion; the greatest 
hear is found at the place occupied by the extreme red rays, 
or even a little beyond them. 

Not only may raaiant heat be collected in a focus by re- 
fraction through a lens, but also by reflexion from a polished 
concave mirror. If we employ a pair of mirrors, and if a 
heated body be placed in the focus of one, and a thermo- 
meter in the other, the reflected heat falling on the buU) of 
the instrument will cause the mercury to rise ; and con- 
versely, a colder body will make the column of mercury 
descend, for the excess of radiation proceeds in this case 
from the thermometer. Recent experiments on heat show 
that the analogy of the laws of heat and light extends even 
to polarization. 

The experiuietiis of Leslie have shown how greatly the 
quantity of radiant heat may be affected by the state of the 
surfaces from which they finally emanate. The method 
adopted by Leslie for examining the powers of radiation 
possessed by different substances was extremely simple and 
ingenious. Having employed the system of two specula 
above mentioned, he placed a tin canister filled with hot 
water in the focus of one, and a differential thermometer 
[THsitMOUBTBa] in the other focus. The four sides of the 
tin canister were covered with the substances of which he 
proposed to seek the radiating powers ; when three oi the 
sides were respectively covered with lamp-black, paper, and 
crown-glass, and then turned so as -to radiate directly on 
the speculum, the heat reflected by the other raised the I 
thermometer accordmgly to 100^ 98^ and 90* ; but when 
the iburth side, which was uncovered, was similarly directed, 
the thermometer fell 12^ Thus it appears that polished 
metallic substances are bad mdiators, which may be attri- 
buted to the internal reflexion of the heat from their sur- 
faces, for the sources of radiauon must evidently be at some 
small depth below the geometrical surfaces. A similar ap- 
paratus served to measure the absorptive power of different 
substances, by covering the bulb of the thermometer as uni- 
formly as possible with an envelop of the substance to be 
examined; this power is thus fbund to be nearly in proper^ 
tion to that of radiation. The maxhnum effect of the re- 
jected heat was not however in the strict geometric focus, 
but, in consequence of aberration, it was found to be a little 
bandit. 

The power of radiating heat is certainly the most univer- 
sal mode of its propagation between dii&rent particles of 
matter as well as thrbu^ considerable spaces. Howevei, it is 
usual, for greater simplicity, to designate this propagatiou 
through solid bodies as propagaUon qf heai by contact 
Poisson has shown in his memoirs on that subject that the 
general equations which express the law of the distribution 
of heat in solids may be derived from the internal radiation 
of the particles which eompose them. Whichever of these 
two views may be adimted, we are led to important physicHul 
distinctions between different homogeneous substaniBeSy vii. 
their condiietiDg powers intenudly and eztarAally. If «• 



X'fi-r^ <^ 



H B A 



8S 



a E A 



lftlwtwotubtteneM,MApiaeeofiii«Ulftiid of iwood, at t1i« 
MOM tempeniUm at indieatad by tba ihermometer. when 
Md in tlie wana band the metal will fed eolder than the 
wood, the heat of the band being nore tapidly absorbed by 
the metal, at bein}( the better eonductor of heat. Or if wo 
place the extremities of a rod of eopper and of glass in a Are, 
and hold with the hands the other extremities, the heat 
will be found to aseend rapidly through the meUl and Tory 
slowly through the glass rod. Though such plain observa- 
tions are sumcient to give a general idea that bodies conduct 
heat differently, vet, to obUm exact measurementa of con- 
ducting powers. It w'dl be necessary to have a more precise 
idea, since such power is a constant coefficient belonging to 
every body in particular, and without the knowledge of 
which it would be impossible to compare the result of theory 
with observation. 

Newton remarked that, when two subatanees of ttn«}ual 
temperatures wen placed in contact, the colder received 
ftom the other in a given small time a quantity of heat 
proportional to the diiference of their temperatures. This 
simple law has recently been found not strictly correct, but 
is sufficiently so when the diiference of temperatures is in- 
considerable. If /, if repreeent the temperatures of two 
bodies of the same physical nature placed m contact, and if 
we leave out of consideration the hMit escaping b}r radiation 
from their surfiwes, the quantity of heat communicated may, 
by Newton's law, be represented by k {t-^f) ; where the 
coefficient h isa constant peculiar to the given substance, and 
is proportional to the interior oonductibilitv. 

If now we conceive the sur&ce of the boay to be of a uni- 
form temperature, and subject to a current of air also of a 
uniform but inferior temperature T, the loss of heat by a 
unit of surface in a unit of time indefinitely smell will, bv 
the same law, be represented by H (I— TX where the coeffi- 
cient H is proportional to the exterior oonductibility under 
such circumstances. 

The exterior conductibility may be very different in the 
same body by slight alterations in the smoothness or even 
eolour of the surnoe ; it is by this antagonist principle that 
heat acquires a permanent state corresponding to the differ- 
ent positions of the psurts of bodies relative to the sources 
of hest and the dispersing surfaces. 

The mathematical theory of the distribution of heat is 
founded on the principle that when a bodjr has arrii'ed at a 
permanent state of temperature the quantity of heat given 
out by any particle to tlie a^JAcent colder regpon must be 
•qud to that received ftom the wanner particles near it, 
and conversely. For example, suppose a solid body to be 
contained by two parallel planes of indefinite extent, the 
lower plane being preserved by any means at a uniform tem- 
perature represented by o, and the upper likewise preserved 
at a uniform temperature. In this case it is easily seen that 
the temperature would be uniform in any section of the 
body parallel to its bases, but would increase from the lower 
plane in an arithmetical progression to the upper, for with 
this law the temperature of any point of the body taken in 



the transverse direction wOl differ by equal quantities from 
the temperatures of any two points which are at equal dis- 
tances, the one above and the other below it ; hence the 
flux of heat from the warmer region to this point is equsl to 
Uiat from this point to the colder. Though there is therefore 
a constant flux of heat from the upper to the lower plane, 
the distribution of heat has then acquired a permanency. 

In the above instance we have had no regard to the ex- 
ternal conductibility through the sides by supposing the 
planes of indefinite extent. A simple instance will now be 
adduced in which we can show the manner in which this 
consideration may be introduced into the calculus. 

Suppose a thin cylindrical rod to be placed in a medium 
of wnich the tempemture is constantly lerob while its 
extrevaities are maintained at constant but different tempe- 
ratures; in this case the distribution of heat wUl follow, at 
equal distances along the rod, a geometrical progression in- 
creasing from the coUer extremitv to the hotter, for on this 
supposition the heat whieh would be retained bv any sec- 
tion in consequence of the unequal difttences of its tempe- 
rature with those of sections similarlv placed above and oe- 
low it; if there were no radiation, will be exactly lost by the 
•xternal means of conduetkm, for it is a property of the terms 
of a geometrical progression that the second dUrerencee are 
proportioiial to tne terms the m i el fes ; the heat which 
would be retained is proportional to this seoood diflcBrence, 

Rd.tim bifil ffXtciiiiOy tnittod i9 pcDportionl to Iha t«iB« 



perature itself. Thus tlik law, whiA r e n de rs tha iaiwaal gain 
of heat equal to its loss externally, r spresents the law of its 
permanent dtstribution. Those who are acquainted with 
the calculus of partial differences may tbid these prindpSca 
applied, not only to the permanent distribution of lieat, but 
to the laws of cooling in bodies warmed from any sources, 
and bounded by any aurfrees, in the excellent work of 
Fourier iT%ec>ne de CMeur}, and in the meomirs of Pois- 
son, Libri, and others. 

The propa^tion of heat in liquids depends very little on 
any communication by contact If we place a heat e d )4aic 
on the surfroe of water in a vessel, but so as not to touch 
the edges, a thermometer placed in the water will indicate 
little or no alteration of temperature ; liquids are therefore 
heated by the transposition of their parts. Thus, if wah a 
blowpipe we apply heat to the bottom of a v es se l oonlainini; 
water, in whicn are floating some small particies of dust, a 
current will be perceived A the warmed liquid rising from 
the point to which heat has been applied, and anotner d«- 
scending current of the colder parts, whi<^ being heated in 
turn rise also ; in this manner the heat is distributed through 
the whole lic^uid, for as the heat expands the particles of 
liquid which it first meets, they become speeifically lighter 
than the adiacent fluid, and they must thctufore ascend by 
tlie laws of hydrostatics, while the heavier take tbeir places. 

Little as is the conducting power of liquids, that of ca>«4 
is probably much less, if any ; but there would be great dif- 
ficulty in establishinj; this experimentallv. The effect of 
beat on gases is to increase proportionally their elasticit> . 
and this disturbing force produces violent moliona in tbrir 
parts, so that the whole shortly aoquiree a uniform tempera- 
ture, when other forces, such as gravity, are not taken into 
consideration, and when the bounding surfoees are not ca- 
sentially subjected to constant unequal temnefatursa. 

Tliese three modes of the propagation of neat exiat in our 
globe, and are the cause of important phenomena in ib« 
distribution of climate. 

First, the great mass of the earth, considered inrefereor* 
to its solid parts, has an external source of heat in radiaii> » 

Erincipally firom the sun. The maximum quantity of tin* 
eat is bestowed on the region between the tropics, whil« 
the poles are at a temperaturo which, but for the action nf 
the sea and atmosphere, would probably be that of space ; 
the internal heat of the earth would in a hoasogeneouft 
sphere be distributed symmetrically relative to its centre, 
diminishing towards the surfoce, whic^ would lose heat Uv 
external radiation ; but the external source of beat alludt^i 
to, by producing a flux from the equator to the poles, fura» 
a permanent compensation for this radiation. 

If ve suppose the mass of the earth to have been at any 
remote period at a very high temperature, of which, beai<io« 
its general form, there are many striking geological pro«»fH. 
the effect of tlie radiation of its heat tkrotwh the rolrWr 
surrounding space would be to cool first the superfici;*! 
strata, and successively, though in a less degree, the intcnuil 
strata, until a permanent state aas reached when the dimi- 
nished radiation would be exactly compensated from extertial 
sources. Hence, on descending below that comparatiteU 
shallow envelop affected with diurnal or annual variations 
of temperature, we ought to find a continually inereaftii).; 
temperature towards tne centre, a result which has be«*ii 
verified in the mines in several countries in Europe. Poi%- 
son deems these experiments inconclusive, in coiuideratu*ii 
of the small depth which we are aide to penetrate; for viib- 
out assuming any increase of heat towards the centra, ttte 
same superficial phenomenon would occur on the suppoM> 
tion that the whole solar system had been transferred into 
a refpon of space possessing a diflferent temperature from 
that m which it formerly moved ; but this view, which is 
purely speculative, cannot be verified by feeta. 

The propagation of heat bv motion in fluids lias an im- 
mense tenoencv to equalise the temperatures of different 
latitudes, and the unequal depths of different places in the 
bed of the eea would, from the same cause, produce eurrenu 
warmer than the adjacent water. The elasticity aequurd 
by portions of the air in contact with tlie warmer regions of 
the globe destrovs the eouilibriura of iliat fluid, and gent- 
rates winds of wnich the neat is communieated lo the dis- 
tricts traversed, while the oountor^eurrenta, or eold winds, 
rush forward to occupy the abandoned apacea. The earth 
having always had a rotation, a limiting snifeee naeeasanly 
existed beyond which the centrifugal ffwce prevailed; hence 
if th« fiurflMQ iif tbQ caith ba« frwr M • (inini»t«ira of 



H E A 



H E A 



Sic* Fahronheit, the waters now occupying the bod of the 
M*a, being in a state of vapour, could have filled no more 
than llie space between that limiting surface and the surface 
ol' the e^rlh ; but the greater cold would necessarily convert 
the vapour in the upper regions into water, which, descend- 
ing in rain, would be again vaporised, and this reciprocal 
action going on during the process of cooling, would be 
capable of producing immense alterations on the earth's 
surface. It has been suggested by Mr. Babbage that a 
cause of a similar nature may have led to the rings and 
belts of the superior planets. 

Most of the instruments constructed to measure heat are 
founded on its general tendency to produce expansion* but 
a few of them on other properties of heat. Beside the various 
thermometers, we may notice the calorimeter of Lavoisier and 
Liplace, in which an internal chamber of a box is preserved 
at the temperature of melting ice^ being constantly sur- 
rounded with that substance, yarded against the contact 
of the air : in a division of this chamber, a cell ftimished 
with a stop-oock, a body is plunged at any temperature, and 
remains until it ceases to melt the ice, when the (quantity 
of melted water conducted through the stop-oock is taken 
a» a measure of the quantity of heat given out by the body. 
This instrument is of use in determining tlie specific heats 
of substances, and the calculation of latent heat ; but this 
subject more properly belongs to heat regarded relatively 
to its chemical effects. For the measurement of high tem- 
peratures, see Pyrombtbr. 

The dilatation of substances by heat is nearly proportional 
to the increase of temperature, except when they are about 
to chauge their physical or chemical states ; thus water near 
the freeiing-point expands when the temperature is di- 
minished, which b probably owing to the different arrange- 
ment assumed by its constituent particles preparatory to 
erystallisatton. From the experiments of Dulong and Petit, 
the pure gases appear to afibrd the most strictly propor- 
tionate expansions, and to correspond to mercury between 
the freezing and boiUng points. AVater and alcohol, when 
near boiling, have very irregular expansions; and crys- 
tallized bodies expand unequally in the directions of their 
diGcrent axes - the slow propagation of heat in glass causes 
very unequal expansions, and consequently fractures. In 
gAtcs the law of Gay-Lussac is very simple ; their expansion 
(«;ven when containing vapour) is 0*375 of their volume at 
the freezing*point, when their temperaturo is raised to the 
boiling-point; and is equable during the interval. [Gas, 
p. 84.] 

Expenments by Fresnel, Trevelyan, Powell, Forbes, and 
others, have greatly tended to prove that a repulsion due to 
heat exists between particles at small distances. If a 
bcated poker be laid slantingly on a block of lead at the 
onlinmry temperature, it wiU commence to vibrate, first 
stuwiy, and wfll increase with such rapidity as to produce a 
musical note, which continues for some time, at the termi- 
nation sometimes changing to an octave. Though a different 
hypothesis may partly explain this circumstance, yet the 
number of phenomena of a similar nature adduced of late 
years tender the hypothesis of repulsion extremely probable. 

The folk>winff table eivcs the dilatation of a unit length 
uf different solids from the freezing to the boiling point, and 
IS a mean taken irom several observers :— 



Glass tube 


? 00083 


Copper 


•0017 


Crown glass 


*000S9 


Brass 


'0018 


Platinum 


•00093 


Silver 


•0020 


Palladium 


*0010 


Tin 


•0022 


Cast iron 


•0011 


Pewter 


•0023 


Steel 


*0012 


Grain tin 


•0025 


I)o. Tempered 


•0013 


Lead 


•0028 


Gold 


-0015 


Zinc 


•0030 






Glass 


•00009 


Reflecting Powers, (Leslie.) 




Brass 


10 


Steel 


7 


Silver 


9 


Lead 


6 


Tin foil 


sk 


Glass 


1 



Block tin 8 

Chtmieal Agency <^Heai,^The agency of heat in pro- 
moting chemical action is important and extensive; in some 
rases no combination can take place without it, and in others 
It creally facilitates chemical combination, while in some in- 
ttanees it deoomposea compound bodies and resolves them 
e4ther into siinpler or elementary forms of matter If we 
P. C, No, 735 



add any salt to wat^ at common temperatures they will 
combine and the salt will be dissolved as long as their 
mutual affinity exists at the degree of .heat empl^ed ; but 
if we increase the temperature we augment the aflanity, and 
thus it is that most salts and other substances are mora 
soluble in hot than in cold water, the increased affinity sub- 
siding as Uie temperature falls ; this however is true of 
fixed bodies only, for gaseous substances, such as ammonia 
and carbonic acid, are much more soluble in cold than in 
hot water, and at high temperatures the gases are totally 
expelled. 

in the above cases of solution of salts in water, heat 
merely increases affinit^f, but is not requisite to the produc- 
tion of chemical action ; if however we mix oxygen and hydro- 
gen gases, they will remain diffused throughout each othei 
for anv length of time, unless heat be applied to them, and 
they tnen readily combine, with the formation of water. In 
other cases, as those of some solids, it is probable that heat 
increases affinity only by rendering the bodies fluid ; thus 
lead and sulphur do not combine at common temperatures, 
but if we render them fluid by heat, they readily unite ; 
whereas meroury being a fluid metal, although there is no 
reason for supposing iluit its affinity for sulphur is greater 
than that of lead, yet when triturated at common tempera- 
tures with powdered sulphur readily combines with it. 

Again, some metals unite with oxygen at common tem- 
peratures, especially if moisture be present, but there are 
others which require the application of heat to cause any 
notable combination to take place between them ; thus tin 
and lead at common temperatures are but little acted upon 
by exposure to oxygen gas, but if we heat them in it, the 
oxides of these metds are readily procured. 

There are some gaseous compounds which can scarcely 
be procured by the direct action of heat on their elements : 
thus oxygen and azote do not unite, even when strongly 
heated, so as to form nitrous acid or any other compound; 
but the heat which accompanies the electrical spark seems 
capable of producing this effect On the other hand, am- 
monia cannot be obtained even by the heat so generated, 
when the gases which form it are subjected to it. 

Although the instances are not so numerous, yet there are 
many cases in which heat by direct action and without the 
aid of any intervening affinity is capable of decomposing 
compounds ; thus when ammonia is heated in earthen 
tubes it is resolved into its elementary gases by the mere 
action of tho heat, unaided b)r any affinitv between the gases 
and the material in which it is heated. With water the 
case is different : it is not decomposed by heat, unless ex- 
posed to some substance capable of uniting with its oxygen , 
so that when its vapour is passed through an ignited earthen 
tube it suffers no change ; but if we substitute an iron one, 
then this metal at a high temperature takes its oxygen and 
evolves the hydrogen. 

In other instances heat is capable of decomposing com- 
pounds when they consist of two substances of very different 
degrees of volatility : thus when phosphate of ammonia is 
heated the alkali is expelled and the acid left ; but when 
the volatility is nearly equal thev then rise in combination : 
this is the case with muriate and carbonate of ammonia. 

Heat has also great power in modifying as well as in 
causing chemical action, and different degrees of it produce 
very opposite effects in some cases. If we heat mercury to 
about its boiling point exposed to the air, it becomes per • 
oxide ; but if we expose this product to a higher temperature 
than required for its formation, it is then again resolved 
into metallic mercury and oxygen gas. At common tem 
peratures sulphur retains three equivalents of oxygen, and 
does not yiela even one equivalent to copper; sulphuric acid 
is constituted of the above numbers of equivalents, and on 
putting a piece of copper into it no change occurs ; but if the 
mixture be heated the order of affinity is to a certain ex- 
tent reversed ; the copper takes one equivalent of o^t^vgen, 
and becomes black oxide, while the sulphur united with the 
two remaining ec[uivalents of oxygen is expelled in the state 
of sulphurous acid gas. 

It is impossible to refer to or peruse any account of a 
chemical investigation without perceiving the important 
and widely extended range of the chemical agency of heat, 
from which we have selected a verv few, and those perhaps 
not the most striking cases, by wnich this subject might 
have been illustrated. 

HEAT OF VEGETABLES. That plants possess a tern- 
perature higher in winter than that of the air which §ur- 



H E A 



90 



H E B 



voUTids them is luiown by the obvioui flwt that snow tnelU 
at the foot of a tree sooner than at a distance from it ; that 
the temperature is lower in summer is equally well proved 
by the coldness of the fluid which is discharged from many 
vines and vine-like plants when cut across. These pheno- 
mena have been examined with care by several observers : 
John Hunter fbund that a thermometer whose bulb was 
plunged II inches deep in the trunk of a walnut tree 
generally indicated in the autumn a higher temperature 
than that of the external air by 2* or 3°; Schopf at New 
York, and Bierkander in Sweden, Pictet, and Maurice, 
and various other ohaervera, have obtained similar results ; 
they have fbund even tubers and bulbs with a temperature 
higher in winter than that of the external air by e** or 7"* 
Rcaum., while on the other hand fh>m the spring to the 
autumn it is Ipwer. 

The former &ct accounts in some measure for the power 
possessed by some plants of resisting cold in winter, and for 
the protection given to the unper parts of trees by heaping 
straw up against their trunks in winter. During every 
season of the year trees are absorbing water from the earth ; 
water when absorbed parts with its beat very slowly through 
the carbonated matter of a trunk ; in winter the tempera- 
ture of the earth, which determines that of the water it 
contains, is uniformly higher than that of the atmosphere, 
and consequently the temperature of the interior of a tree 
is also higher, in proportion to the difference between the 
heat of the soil and that of the air. In the spring and 
summer, on the contrary, the earth is cooler than the air, 
and the temperature of trees is cooler also. 

These considerations throw some light upon the effects of 
Irost upon trees. A youn^ tree is, ctBteris paribus, affected 
more than an old one of tue same species ; either because 
its roots derive their food from a smaller distance under the 
soil, or because the heat obtained Arom the soil is sooner 
parted with on account of the thinness of the bark and the 
smallness of the whole mass. Unhealthy trees, which also 
suffer in like manner, may be supposed to do so in conse- 

auence of the weakness of their power of pumping warmer 
uid up from the soil in winter. 

Independently of this source of heat in vegetables, there 
is another that deserves attention. Whenever oxygen 
combines with carbon to form carbonic acid, an extrication 
of hetfl takes place, however minute the amount ; such a 
combination occurs much more extensively during the ger- 
mination of seeds and the impregnation of Howers than at 
any other time. At the first of these periods extrication of 
heat takes place to a considerable amount, as is remarked 
in the germination of barley heaped in rooms, previously to 
being manufactured into malt : in the latter it also occurs, 
but in consequence of liowcrs not being confined in close 
cases, the heat is lost as soon as it is disenga^^ed, and never ac 
cumulates, except in a lew special instances. Saussure found 
the temperature of the male flowers of the commun gourd, 
at between seven and eight o'clock in the morning, half a 
t'cntigrade degree higher than that of the air; and those of 
the tuberose 9-lOths of a similar degree. It is however 
only when large quantities of Howers expand within close 
cases that this phenomenon is particularly remarkable. 
Accordingly, in tho spathe of araceous plants it has been 
remarked at its greatest intensity. Lamarck, Senebier, 
and De CandoUe, found the flowers of Arum maculatum, 
between three and seven o*clock in the afternoon, as much as 
7** Reaum. warmer than the external uir. Schultz found a 
iliffercMce of 4" to 5® between the heat of the spathe of Ca- 
ladium pinnatifidum and the surrounding air at six to seven 
o'clock P.M. Hubert and Bory de St. Vincent assert that 
at hunrise the spathe of Arum conlifolium acquires in the 
Isle of France an elevation of 30^ R. above the atmosphere. 
Final I v, Messrs. Vrolik and Vricse at Amsterdam, and 
Adolphe Brongniart at Paris, have confirmed the fact by 
new ub»ervatious in the hothouses of those cities. 

Hence I appears that plants not only have, under all 
cirrum tances, a temperature different from that of the ex- 
ternal air, being warmer in wmter and cooler in summer, 
but that under particular circumstances the heat of certain 
parts IS elcNatea in a very remarkable degree. We know 
that heat is necessary for germination and for vegetable 
impregnation. May we not therefore conclude that nature 
h.is given to plants the power of extricating for them- 
selves an additional supply of caloxic at these important 
veriods ? 

UEATEL^ (Euoa.} 



HBBSRDBN, WILUAM, M.Dn was bom in London 
in 1710. In 1724 he was sent to St John's College. Cau- 
bridge, of which, six years afterwards* he was elected a 
Fellow. He studied medicine in Cambridge and London. 
and after taking bis degree practised aa a physician, a«»il 
delivered an annual course of lectures on materia meoi' a 
in that university. In 1 746 he was elected a Fellow of xu^ 
Royal College, of Physicians, and soon after left Cambridgi-, 
and commenced pmctising in London, where he al oii<-« 
mat with the greatest success, and obtained the high'^t 
reputation. After thirty years* extensive practice, fiudit ;; 
his health declining, he gradually withdrew himself fn.ni 
his profession to retirement in Windsor, where he die<i m 
1801. In 17dO he was elected a Fellow of the Ro>al So- 
ciety, and in 1778 an assooiate of tho Royal Society of Mr- 
dicina in Paris. 

It was at the suggestion of Dr. Heberden that the puM;< 
cation of the Medical Transactions of the College of Ph> ^i^ 
cians was commenced. He contributed many \'aluui>i • 
papers to the first volume, which appeared in 1768, and to 
two succeeding volumes: among them may especially l- 
noticed his paper on the Angina Pectoris, a disease not 

Ereviously described, and that on the Chicken-pox, inbi* :i 
e first distinguished from the Smallpox. He coniributol 
also some papers to the Transactions of the Royal Society . 
but his principal work was the * Medical Commei:tanc%' 
which he wrote in 1782, and which was published after ti .•« 
death. It contains the practical results of his lenethtMU'! 
experience, and was compiled from obfervationi which hr 
had always been in the habit of writing by the bedside *f 
his patient. It was written in very elegant Latin, aii<i 
affonls sufficient evidence of an accompUs»hed and obseni..^ 
mind, and of very extensi\'e practical knowledge. <Mem ur 
prefixed to the Commentariei.) 

HEBRADENDRON. This is a new genus of tlie ni- 
tural family of Guttiferse, established by Professor Grah..(ii 
of Edinburgh, (br the gamboge tree of Ceylon, to nhitii 
reference was made from Garcinia. Under the artu.^ 
Gamboob. the two commercial varieties of this substiiiK . 
known by the names of Ceylon and Siam gamboge, ^i-rc 
mentioned; the plant yielding the former has been clcarl> 
made out, that producing the latter is still unascertained. 

The gamboge of Siam is in cylinders, eithei;. solid or ij«l- 
low, usually called vijtes: it is supposed to have this luri'i 
from being so rolle<l, or from being poured into the hohow 
of bamboos, according to Lieutenant White, in hia * Vuit to 
Cochin China.' It is usually of the best quality, but Mr. 
Pereira has shown that some very impure is occasionally in 
the form of pipes. As this pipe gamboge is usually oxport< *! 
from Singapore, it has been doubted whether it was actuuUr 
the produce of Siam ; but we have specimens from Mr. (i\ 
S win ton, which were sent to him direct from Siam when !.•* 
was chief secretary of the Indian government, as the pi •> 
duce of that country, and which are identical with tiie lK«>t 
pipe gamboge of commerce. The only information respci ; - 
ingits preparation which we possess is that given to Khm * 
by a Catholic priest, who officiated as such to the Cath^; • « 
of Cochin China, and who stated that the inspissated juirt- « • 
tained from breaking the leaves and young: shrubs a* %% . 
as the fragrant lignum aloes, is given as a tribute to tho k . j 
of Siam by the Christians residing there. The tree iui>>; 
therefore be common, and probably near inhabited pl.i<\ 
and therefore very likely to be Oxycarpus cochinchinen.'^iN . . 
Lourciro (now referred to the genus Garcinia), who nntiir« .: 
from its acid fruit, and describes it as cultivated in Cu«- . 
China. We have s}>ecimens of a plant something sim.. 
to this in the form of its leaves fh)m Mr. Malcolm>ou, t* • - 
lectcd by him in Ranc^oon, which he thought might b> x> • 
gamboge plant, as it contiiincd a yellow purgative juicv i 
the rind of its fruit. Dr. Graham thinks that the Siam pl.u * 
may be a nearly allied species of the same genus as ti.«* 
Ceylon plant. 

The Ceylon gamboge is usually considered inferior : th^t 
which forms an article of commerce no doubt is so, and >« t- 
have been informed by one of the principal merchant* of C v - 
Ion that finding the gamboge there VC17 cheap, he had U-t n 
induced to purchase and send it to England, but had u. : 
been able to sell it from its inferior quality. No doubt L.tu • 
ever some of very excellent quality is proaueed inCe>lun t.% 
the tree which has been called Hebradendron cambogt'>n:> .. 
and Mrs. Colonel Walker describes it as 'brilliant and 1 v- 
ctllent,* and- 'as good for water-eolour drawings as any tNt- 
ever used.^ Dr. Graham aeeribaa itt inftriohly to naal cf 



i) E B 

an in tmoanne the utiole fbr market ; tliougfa it 
doubtAil whether the Ceylon gnmbo;^ of commarcu 
fielded b* Ihis tree; but Mrs. Walker on one occaxi 
paning ihroBf^ a forest of theae tree«, saw all of them with 
the bark cutoff in nrioua placei. Ur. Chriatjaon has shown 
that then ia all but an identity of oomposilion with that of 
Siam ; and ita medicinal effeeta are preciiely the aanM a* 
proved in Ceylon by Dr. Pitoairn, ana by Drt. Graham and 
Chrjittson in Bdinbur^. 

Thii plant, though new named, i* Hx from beinr new. Dr. 
Gniiiam ootiBidera it to bu identical with the cSrcapuIi of 
Herman, the Cambogia gutta of Linnnus, the Garoinia 
Hi>reltB of late autliors, and the Stalai^itis eambogioidsH 
of Moon's *Galali)pue of Ceylon l*lantB.' The last name 
mi^ht have been retained, as it was originally intended for 
It. Iiod it not been discovered by Mr. Urown that the spe- 
cimeni in ihe 'Banksian Herbarium' e<^lected by Kcanig, 
and from whkh Murray's eharacter of the genus and species 
was eitablished, ronsist notofone, butof twodistinct plants, 
tbe flowers of Xanthochymus ovalifolius beine ■tac>k by 
sealin^-wax upon a branch of what appears to Be Ais Cey- 
lon plant. The genera Stalagrailis and Xanthochymus are 
therefore one eenui, as was previously inf^red by Cara- 
beaeedas, who mu retained for it the former, as the prior 

TliogenusHebtadendnintTudiaciDDs flowers; the male 
havint; Ihe calyx mombrnnaceous, four-sepalled, peraiatent ; 
roTol four^netalled ; atsmens monadelphous ; column tbur- 
sided ; anthen terminal, opening by the circumcision of a 
Hal and umbilicate terminal lid. The inflorescence of the 
female tree is similar to that of the male, the flower white 
and a little larger, with a eermen precisely in miniature of 
the fhiit, and surrounded (like it) with several (ten?) eboi^ 
tite staraeui ITie berry is many (fbiir) celled ; cells one- 
seeded, surrounded at the base with some fVee abortive 
stamens, crowned by alobed and muricated sessile stigma; 
cotyledons fleshy, united ; radicle central, filiform ; trees 
wiih entire leaves. 




m flovotaf Imaib of B< 






■ ■sun' »a latonllr ; *■ •Btb« 

The species called H. cambogioides forma a moderate 
tiled tree, with the leaves obovate, elliptical, abruptly sub- 
aeuminale ; the male flowers clustered in the axils of the 
petioles, on short sdnglo-flowered peduncles; sepals yellow 
BQ the inside, jreUovish-white externally; petab yellowish- 



white, red on the inside near the base ; beriy about the rise 
of a cherry, round, with a firm reddish-brown external coat, 
and sweet pulp ; ripe in July. It is called in Ceylon Aana 
(eatable) Goraka. G. cambogia is called simply Gorako. 
The gambf^ is used by the natives both as a pigment and 
medieiDally. Mrs. Walker describes it as being collected 
by cutting pieces of the bark about the sise of the palm of 
the hand early in the morning. The gamboge oozes out in 
a semi-liquid state, but hardens on exposure to the air, and 
is soraped off by the collectora next morning. 

This tree is found in various parts of Ceylon, but not very 
abundantly near Colombo. In a tour through different parts 
of the island, Mrs. Walker writes, 'We found the Ceylon 
gamboge tree several times in forests distant from the ha- 
biisiion of man, which proves the tree to bo indigenous.' 
Colonel Walker writes to Dr, Wight, that ' it is fiiund in 
great abundance along the western and eaalern coast in the 
nei;;hbourhood of Ballocola ; hut it also grows inland, where 
it (iould not have been planted by the Dutch. Its favourila 
abode seems to be low sandy ground, as about Kan- 
deraane, Negombo, and towards Chilaw; also^ 100 miles in- 
land, at so nigh an elevation aa 2000 feet above the sea.* 
Garoinia elliptica, a native of Silhet, and G. pictoria of the 
Wynaad district, are thought to be other species of this 
genus. 

We Bra indebted to Dr. Graham's papers in the 'Com- 
panion to the Botanical Hagaiine' and Ibe ' Ediuborgh 
Philosophical Journal,' and to Dr. Wight's letters in IM 
' Madras Journal,' for most of the above information ; and 
o Dr. Lindtey for the accompanying figure. 

HEBREW LANGUAGE forms a branch of that ex- 
ansivB fhmily of languages which are known by the name 
of Semitic ; a name which in derived from Ihe real or sup- 
posed descent of the people who speak theio languages 
from Shem the son of Noah. The Semitic languages may 
be divided into three branches : the Arabic, to which the 
Ethiopic is closely allied ; the Aramseon, consisting of two 
dialects— the Bnhylonisn or East Aramsan (sometimes but 
etroneously called Chaldeo), and the Syrioo or West Ara- 
mnan ; end the Hebrew, to which the FhcBDician and 
Punic are closely related. Of these languages the Arabio 
is Ihe most copious, and tfae Arutnman the poorest and least 
developed ; the Hebrew holds an intermediate rank between 
these, Deing more perfect than the Aramnan, and inferior 
to the Arabic. 

The Hebrew language derived its name from the He- 
brews, who date their origin from Ahraharo, who is called 
'the Hebrew' CTayTt) in Gtn. xiv. 13. The etymology of 
this word ia doubtful. According to the Jews it is derived 
from Eber n3^)> &n ancestor of Abraham (.Gen. X. 24. 
25; xi. 15); but Geseniusand many other critics maintain 
that Eber cannot be regarded as |a historical person, and 
that his name has been invented in the same manner as the 
names of Ion, Dorus, jBoIub, &c., by Ihe Greeks, to ac- 
colint for the origin of the people. It has been supposed 
with some probability that the name of ' Hebrew" was oti- 
ginally applied to designate all the Semitic nations west of 
the Buphnites, which appear to have emigrated from Meso- 
potamia. According to this eiymologv, the word ' Hebrew' 
IS derived from the root lay, 'to pass over.' This ap- 
pears to have been the opinion of the translators of the Sep- 
tuogiat, who render Gm. xiv. 13, 'Abram the Hebrew,' 
by "Afipan Tif mparf, that is, * Abram, the passer-ovar.' 
All the descendants of Abraham were, according ta 
this view, originally called Hebrews ; and the name 
was only restricted afterwards to the inhsbitants of Pa- 
lestine, (See Ewald'a Hebrew Grammar, f 3; and G»- 
aaniua, Hebrew Lexicon, under *Tiy) This name is 
never applied to the language of the Hebrews in the Old 
Testament; in /fOtaA, xix. IB, it is called the language of 
Canaan (^33 /ISto); and in It. xxxvL II, 2 Ktjigt, 
xviii. 26, 2 Cknm. xsxii. 18, and Neh. xiii. 24, the Judaic 
or Jewish language (nnVT). The language ^oken in 
Palestine in the tim« of Christ is frequently called Hebrew 
('E^poIffTi) ia the New Testament iJiAn, v. 2; xix. 13; 
Aeit, xxi. 40 i xxii. 2 ; xxvi. 14) ; by which the Aramaian 
i» probably intended. In the writings of the Rabbinical 
Jews the Hebrew is generslly colled the 'holy languoga' 



H £ B 



92 



H E B 



thB Hebrew language appears to have been formed in 
Palestine by a union of the antient Aramnan, which was 
brought by the Abrahmites from Mesopotamia, with the 
PhoBnician or Canaanitish, the language of the original in- 
habitants of the country. Tiiat the Ph<snician and Hebrew 
languages were very closely allied is evident from the Phoe- 
nician names of persons and places, and from the specimens 
of the Phoenician language which we possess in coins and 
inscriptions. (Bochart, Geographia Sacra, b. ii. cc. 1 — 7 ; 
Bellermann, Handbuch der Biol. Lii^ vol. i. sect. 66 ; Bel- 
lennann, Vemtch eitter Erkldrung der Puniichen Stellen 
im Pmulu9 dea Plauius ; Dessen, De Ph^micum et Pamo- 
rum intcriptionibus, Berl. 1810; Dessen, Bemerk. uber 
Pkoniziiche und Punische Munzen ; Gesenius in an Ex- 
cursus entitled Uber die Phoniz. und Punische Sprache und 
ihr FerhdUmee zur Hebraiechen, in his Geschichte der 
Hebr. Sprache ; Gesenius, Vereuch uber die Maitheeieche 
Sprache, Svo., Leip. 1810; and Paldogrcmkiiche Studien, 
uber Phoniz, und Pumsche Schri/i, 4to., Leip. 1835.) The 
long settlement of the Hebrews in Egypt, and their forty 
years' wandering in the wilderness, must have had an im- 

E>rtant influence upon their language ; but the number of 
gyptian words received into it apoears to have been small. 

Many critics have divided the history of the language 
into four periods:-— I. From Abraham to Moses. II. From 
Moses to Solomon. HI. From Solomon to the Babylonish 
captivity. IV. From the Babylonish captivity to its final 
extinction as a spoken language. But there are in reality 
only two periods in which any difference can be traced in 
tiie language ; the first extending from the time of Moses 
to the reign of Hezekiah, and the second firom the reign 
of Hezekiah to its final extinction as a spoken language. 
The language in which the Pentateuch is written diflers so 
little from that of David, Solomon, and Isaiah, who lived 
many centuries after the time of Moses, that many critics, 
supposing it impossible that a language should have re- 
mained stationary for so many centuries, have maintained 
that none of the books of the Old Testament were written 
previous to the time of David and Solomon. It is not very 
easy to disprove this opinion ; but the remarks of Ewald 
on this subject appear worthy of attention. He observes in 
bis ' Hebrew Grammar,' $ 7 (Ens;, trans^, that ' the He- 
brew language in the first four oooks of^ the Pentateuch, 
which contain records of unquestionable antiquity, partly 
by Moses or from his time, appears already, a fewminutisB 
excepted, fully developed. 

' From Moses until about the year 700 it underwent two 
changes: for as the structure of the Semitic language is in 
general more simple, so also is it less changeable than that 
of languages of greater development, as Sanskrit. To which 
is to M added, that in that period the Hebrews did not ex- 
perience those influences which materially affect a lan- 
guage; they did not advance much in civilization, were 
never long subjected to nations of foreign tongue, and lived 
almost entirely separated from all nations, especially from 
nations of foreign language. Their language therefore ad- 
vanced little in development, but it also suffered little fh)m 
corruption. There are however in those books of the Pen- 
tateuch some certainly important differences which after- 
wards disappear, and many differences of that kind have 
become less distinguishable by us, because the more modern 
punctuation has treated all words according to one standard, 
and that the standard of the language at a late period.' 
The study of the Hebrew language appears to have been 
sreatly promoted by the schools of the prophets, which were 
foundea by Samud ; and it is to the influence of these 
schools that we are probably indebted for the lyric poems 
of David and the aidactic and amatory poetry of Solo- 
mon. 

The conquests of the Assyrians and Chaldsans from 
about B.C. 720 tended to introduce the Aramaean language 
into Palestine. It appears from Isaiah (xxxvi. 12) that the 
principal people in Judsea, even in the reign of Hezekiah, 
Ibund it necessary to study AramsDan. The Aramaean 
colonies (2 Kings, xviL 24), which were planted in the 
kingdom of Israel to supply the place of the Israelites who 
bad been carried into Assyria by Shalmaneser, must have 
caused the spread of the Arameaan language in the northern 
parti of Palestine even before the destruction of the king- 
dom of Judah. The long residence of the Jews in Babylon 
fter the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar i 
nsed the extinction of the Hebrew as a spoken language, I 
least among the conunon people. Afiter their letum to 1 



Judsa, according to the edict of Cyrut, it appears from a 
passage in Nehemiah (viii. S), that the common people did 
not understand the Scriptures when read to them in tl.e 
Hebrew language. But Hebrew continued to be spok* r. 
by the upper classes for a considerable time after the Wul-y 
lonish captivity. The prophecies of Haggai, Zecbariah. ■ .. 1 
Malacbi, who lived in the latter part oftbe sixth ceutu.s. 
are written in tolerably pure Hebrew. The inscriptioiii^ i ! 
the coins of the Maccabees are in Hebrew ; and the Ilebn .* 
language does not appear to have been disoontinuvd in 
writing and conversation amons the upper classes till tUv 
century preceding the birth of Christ 

But the Hebrew, from the period of its extinction as a 
spoken language, has been always more or less cultua:i-<i 
by the Jews. After the destruction of Jerusalem b> ti.i- 
Romans, numerous schools were established by the Jeivs, ui 
which their language and literature were taught. Of xUv^a? 
schools the most celebrated were those of Tiberias ami 
Babylon. The Mishna, which contains the traditions of tl*e 
Jews and interpretations of the Scriptures, is suppo^^td Xa 
have been compiled in the latter part of the second or tl*- 
beginning of the third century, by Rabbi Jehuda. Toi* 
Mishna was considered from this period one of tlte iinu- 
cipal works of Hebrew literature, and the Rabbis of TiU*- 
rias and Babylon wrote numerous commentaries upon lu 
These commentaries were at length collected into iw.> 
separate works, and entitled the Jerusalem and Bab\loin.iii 
Talmuds. The Jerusalem Talmud appears to have bvtu 
compiled in the third or fifth century, by Rabbi Jochonau ; 
and the Babylonian Talmud in the sixth century, by Rai»( i 
Asci. Each Talmud is divided into two parts, tne Mishn.:. 
or text, and the Gemara, or commenta^. The ' Mi&hi.:* * 
has been edited by Surenhusius, 6 vols, fol., Amst^ 16i^^ ; 
the Babylonian Talmud was published at Berlin at. 1 
Frankfort, 12 vols. foL, 1715 ; and the Jerusalem TalmL<i 
at Amsterdam, fol., 1710. To the same schools we are a]<^<> 
indebted for the system of punctuation and accents i»hM ii 
we have in the Hebrew Bible. This system, which ui 
doubt represents faithfully the traditional interpretation * t 
the Scriptures and pronunciation of the languacri' h\ 
the Jews, is entitled Masora (fT)^DD)» tbat is« * tradui .u * 

T T 

It is uncertain how long the scliool of Tiberius lasted ; 1l: 
the Babylonish school was broken up by the Arabs, A.t>. 
1040, after a long period of prosperity, and most of li..- 
scholars took refuge in Spain, where they founded S4-li- •N 
in most of tlie principal cities. Those schools produrc«l a 
succession of writers; of whom the most celebrated vu% 
Maimonides, who lived at the latter end of the tuiinl 
century. After remaining in Spain for nearly four cen- 
turies they were banished by the Christians in 1492. 

The Christians paid very little attention to the Hebn-v 
language before the Reformation. The publications ot' u. o 
Buxtorfsin the seventeenth century tended to diffuse tij, 
language among Christians, but their works contained r- 
philosophical views of the language, since they implicn.^ 
followed the decisions of the liaaorites. The Grammax < i 
Schultens, which appeared in 1731, and which may still U 
consulted with great advantage by Hebrew scholars, Cv'i:- 
tained a much clearer development of the principles of tit. 
language than the Buxtor& had given. His knowledge i r 
Arabic enabled him to compare the forms of that laneuu... 
with the Hebrew, and thus to draw the attention of scholar « 
to the important fact that the study of the cognate U:\- 
guages is necessary to obtain an accurate knowledge • I 
Hebrew. But the publications of Gesenius and EwaiU in 
the present century, which are enumerated at the end if 
this article, have done more to facilitate the acquisition . t 
the language than the works of all preceding writen. 

It appean probable that the language of a count n. 
which was divided both physicallv and politicall> u ••• 
several ports, must have containea various dialects; l»u; 
this cannot easily be proved, since almost all the lUlr* u 
writera belonged to the kingdom of Judah. The laiiguj.* 
of Galilee and the northern parts of Palestine ap|i'jf» . 
all times to have inclined to the Aramaan ; in the time • f 
Christ, the Galilean dialect differed from the langi..-. 
spoken in Judna. {AfaiL xxvL 73.) In the book of J uJ. . * 
(xii. 6), the pronunciation of the Ephraimites is d.«\ . 
guished; and many critics think that they can dlvcv«^r 
traces of the northern dialect in the song of Debgiah 
{Judges, V.) 

Few liteniy •ttbjeetf bave ocounoiied gieatar diacussioa 



j»' 



H E B 



93 



H E B 



tbaa tli« l«lten» voweb, pointB^ and aceenU of tbe Hebrew 
language. But with legard to the letters it appears proba- 
ble, that the preaent square characters in which Hebrew is 
written were not employed previous to the Babvlonish cap- 
tivity, but that tbe Phcenician letters were used, which are 
stilt preserved with a slight alteration in the Samaritan 
alphabet According to the Jewish tradition* the present 
square characters, which belong to the East Aramnan lan- 
guage, were first introduced by Ezra when he revised the 
canon of Scripture ; but they could not have been univer- 
sally adopted till a later period, since the Samaritan Pen- 
tateuch, which was not introduced into Samaria till after 
the Babylonish captivity, was written in tlie antient cha- 
racter, and the coins of the Asmoneans in the second 
century before Christ also employ the same character. It 
is difficult to say when the change was introduced. It has 
been conjectured that the square characters were in use in 
the time of Christ, from his referring to the letter yod as 
the smallest letter in the alphabet; a fact which is true 
of tlie present Hebrew alphabet, bnt would not apply to the 
antient Hebrew or Phosnician alphabet* 

It ia a characteristic of the Hebrew language, according 
to tbe system of most modem Hebrew grammars, that the 
alphabet consists only of consonants, and that the vowels 
are expressed by means of small points placed above and 
below the letters. The antiquity of these points has occa- 
sioned great controversy among the learned. Some have 
maintained that the points are as antient as the letters, and 
that both the points and letters were taught Moses by 
God himself; others, that the points were first introduced 
by Ef ra when be transcribed the Scriptures in the present 
square characters ; others, that the Hebrews bad originally 
three Towel pointa, a, i, and o, answering to the three 
lettera Ht \ Jf* <^od that the present svstem of punctua- 
tion was not introduced till the time of the Masontes ; but 
it is now generally considered by eminent Hebrew scholars, 
Gesbcnitts, Winer, Ewald, &c., that the whole system of 
punctuation was first introduced by the Masorites, of wliom 
some account has been given above, perhaps as earlv as the 
sixth or seventh century, and certainly not later than the 
tenth or eleventh. It appears certain from many oircum- 
slanccs that the Hebrew letters were originally written 
without points. They are not found in antient Jewish 
eoins and inscriptions; they are not once mentioned or 
alluded to in the Talmud ; they appear to have been un- 
known to Origen and Jerome ; the antient versions, such 
as the Oialdee paraphrases of Jonathan and Onkelos, and 
the Greek translations of Aquila, Symmnchus, Theodotion, 
and the Septuagint, must have been made from Hebrew 
MSS. withoujt points, since they freauently give a different 
interpretation to the words from that which they must 
mean according to the present system of punctuation ; and 
it is allowed that all the other Semitic languages had an- 
tientl^ no points. The best arguments on both sides of the 
question are given in Buxtorf 's * Tiberias, sive Commen- 
tarius MasoreUiicus,* 4to., 1620, in which tbe antiquity of 
the points is maintained, and in Capellus*s 'Arcanum 
Punctationis revelatum,' 4to., 1624, in which their anti- 
quity is denied. Further information on the subject will 
be &und in most of the grammars which are mentioned at 
the end 4^ this article. The system of accentuation de- 
pends on that of pomts, and was in all probability intro< 
duced at the same time. The accents mark the relation of 
one word to another in a sentence, and thus serve an im- 
portant purpose in the i^ntax of the language. Many 
scholars have considered the accents almost useless; but 
one of the moat eminent Hebraists of the present day re- 
marks (Ewald, ' Hebrew Grammar,' $ 642, Engl. transL), 
*We everywhere find a beautiful harmony between the 
accentuation and the syntax, so that they mutually support 
and explain each other. Whether we set out from the 
syntax, and learn to comprehend it without knowing any 
thing of the accentuation, or whether we proceed from tbe 
aooentuation to the syntax, an accurate investigation will 
always lead to the same results, so that he who thoroughly 
understands the syntax is for the most clearly possessed 
of the accentuation also, and he who understands the 
latter becomes throughout more easily at home in the 
ibrraer. This is however at the same time the best com- 
mendation of the accentuation.' We must distinguish 
however the accentuation of the historical and poetical 
hooka. The remarks of Ewald apply onlv to the accentua- 
tioQ of tha biitorieal books. Many of toe accents in the 



poetical books sorve the same purpose as those in tbe his- 
torical; but the greater part were intended to indicate the 
tone according to which the Scriptures were chanted in 
the synagogue. The accents are explained with great 
clearness in Stuart's ' Hebrew Grammar.' 

Further information respecting the Hebrew language 
and Uterature is given in Hezel s *,Geschichte der Hebr 
Sprache und Litteratur,* 8vo., Halle, 1766; Kopp's 'Bilder 
und Schridender Vorzeit,' 1820-1 ; Gesenius's 'Geschichte 
der Hebr. Sprache und Schrift,' 8vo., Leip., 1815; Lowtli's 
' De Sacri Poesi Hebreoorum ;' best edition by Micliaelis, 2 
vols. 8vo., Gutt, 1768-9 : this work has been translated into 
English by" Gregory; Herder, • Geist der Hebraischeu 
Poesie/ best edition by Jusli, 2 vols. 8vo., Leip., 1825 : this 
Work has been translated into English by Marsh, Burling- 
ton. U.S., 1833; Bellermann, ' Versuch iiber die Metrik der 
Hebraer,' 1813; Saalschiitz, *Von der Form der Hebr. 
Poesie,' 8vo., 1825 ; the introductions to the Old Testament 
by Eichborn, Jahn, De Wette, and Augusti; Hurwitz, 
' Hebrew Tales, selected and translated from the Writings 
of Antient Hebrew Sages ; to which is prefixed an Essay 
on the Uninspired Literature of the Hebrews,' 12mo., 
Lond., 1826 ; the article Bible, in this work. 

Grammars,— The following list is only intended to direct 
the attention of the student to the principal grammars. 
Buxtorf, 'Thesaurus Grammaticus Lin^ucB Sauctm He- 
bi*8Q8B,' 8V0., Basel, 1615: this work is taaen from the He- 
brew grammar of the Rabbi David Kimchi, and is the best 
grammar according to the Rabbinical System ; Schultens, 
' Institutiones ad Fundamenta Linguos HebrsBse,' 4to., 
Leyden, 1731 ; Robertson, ' Grammatica Linguao HebrsBOD,' 
8vo., Edinb., 1758 ; Jahn, ' Grammatica Linguie Hebraica?, 
Leip., 1 788 ; Gesenius, ' Ausfuhrliches Grammatisch- 
kritisches Lehrgebaude der Hebr. Sprache,' 8vo., Leip., 
1817; but his smaller grammar, forming the first volume 
of his ' Hebniisches Elementarbuch,' is better adapted for 
beginners. The Hebrew grammai's of Gesenius formed 
the basis of a very good Hebrew and English grammar by 
Stuart, published originally at Andover, U.S., in 1821, and 
reprinted at Oxford in 1831. The ' El^mens de la Gram- 
maire Hebraique,' by Cellerier, 8vo., (rendve, 1820, is also 
formed upon the Hebrew grammar of Gesenius. The 
grammars of Ewald contain the most philosonbical exhibi- 
tion of the language that has yet appeared : his larger 
grammar, entitled ' Kritische Grammalik der Hebr. 
Sprache,' was published at Leip., 1827, 8vo. The writer of 
a review of this work in the 13th No. of the 'Journal of 
Education ' remarks that ' the reader will not expect to find 
in the work of Ewald the elementary parts of Hebrew 
grammar entirely different from those which were stated 
by the Buxtorfs, and by Gesenius and his followers in Eu* 
rope and America. The characteristics of Ewald's gram- 
mar consist in his manner of accounting for the general 
rules, and in his attempts to refer the rules and their apna- 
rent exceptions to more general principles. ' But this 
laudable aim leads Ewald into a number of new conjec- 
tures, which in his Critical Grammar he" pronounces 
authoritatively against his predecessors. The conjectures 
of Ewald were however generally supported by independent 
investigations.' A smcdler Hebrew grammar was published 
by Ewald in 1828, which has been translated into English 
bv Nicholson, 8vo., Lond., 1836. Lee's 'Grammar of the 
Hebrew Language,' 2nd ed., 8vo., 1831, contains noany 
excellent observations, but it is deficient in clearness of 
arrangement, and cannot be recommended to beginners. 
Hurwitz, • Grammar of the Hebrew Language,' 8vo., 
Lond., 1831, is well calculated for beginners, but it does 
not give a philosophical development of the lanc^uage. 
Those who wish to use a small grammar will find the fol- 
lowing works useful: — Yeates, 'Hebrew Grammar,' which 
has been frequently printed, and Hincks, 'Girammar of the 
Hebrew Language,* Belfast, 1832. In the schools and uni- 
versities of Holland the two following works are principally 
used : Schroeder, ' Institutiones ad Fundamenta Linguse 
Hebrsese,' reprinted at Glasgow, 1824, 8vo. ; and Roorda, 
•Grammatica Hebrsea,' 2 vols. 8vo., Leyd., 1834. Stier's 
' Neugeordnetes Lehrgebaude der Hebr. Sprache,* 2 vols. 
8vo., Leip., 1833, is said by the writer of a review in No. 
13 of the ' Journal of Education ' to be the ' best work now 
extant in any language on the elements and what is usually 
called the etymology of the Hebrew language.' 

Grammars without vowel points : — ^Masclef, ' Grammatica 
Hebraica,* % vola. 8yo., Pari^ 1 731 ; PWrkhurat's 'Methodica 



H E B 



94 



H B B 



Hebrew Crraniniar/ prefixed to his Hebrew and English 

Lexicon; Wilson's 'Blements of Hebrew Grammar/ 4th 
ed., 8%'o., 1810 ; Newton's * New and Easy Introduction to 
the Hebrew Language,' 12mo., Lond., 1806. 

Lexicons. — Buxtorf, 'Lexicon Hebraicum et Cluldai* 
cum/ 8vo.» Basel, 1G34; reprinted at Glasgow in 1824; 
Stock, ' Clavis Lingua) SanctsD Veteris Testamenti,' 6vo^ 
Jena, 1753 (best ed.) ; Winer*s edition of ' Simonis Lexicon 
Manuale Hebraicum et Chaldaicum,* 8vo., Leip., 1826: 
tbis work is said by the writer of a review in No. 1 1 of the 
'Journal of Education' to belong 'to the most usefbl 
works of its kind, especially for students who have 
overcome the first difficulties of the language ;' Leopold's 
'Lexicon Hebraicum et Chaldaicum/ 12mo., Leip., 1832, 
a useful lexicon for beginners ; Gesenius, 'Thesaurus Phi- 
lolo^ico-criticus Lingun HebnciB et Cbaldo^a),' 4to., 1828- 
3 5, of which two parts have as yet only appeared. Gcsen ius's 
first work on Hebrew lexicography was entitled ' Hebriiisch- 
Deutsches Handworterbuch uber die Schriften des Alten 
Testaments,' 2 vols. 8vo., 1810-12, which was translated 
into English by Leo, 2 vols. 4to., Lond., 1825. In 1815 
Gesenius published a smaller Hebrew and German lexicon, 
which has gone through several editions, and formed the 
basis of* A Manual Hebrew and English Lexicon, 'by Gibbs, 
Andover, U.S., 1824; reprinted in London, 1827 and 1833. 
llie most recent Lexicon by Gresenius, entitled ' Lexicon 
Manuale Hebraicum et Chaldaicum,' was published at 
Leip., 1833, and has been translated into English by Robin- 
son, Boston, U.S., 1836. Porkhurst's * Hebrew and English 
Lexicon,' which was published originally in 1 762 in 4to., 
and has since been frequently reprinted, is intended for the 
use of those who are unacquainted with the vowel -points. 
A review of the most important Hebrew grammars and 
lexicons is giN'ea in Nos 9, 11, and 13, of the * Journal of 
Education. 

Those who are commencing their Hebrew studies without 
the assistance of a master will find the following works 
useful : — Leusdcn*s ' Clavis Hebraica Veteris Testamenti,* 
4to., Utrecht, 1083; Robertson's 'Clavis Pentateuchi,' 8vo., 
Edinb.. 1770; reprinted at Norwich, 1824; Bythner's 
' Lyra Prophet ica, sive Analysis critico-practica Psalmorum,* 
reprinted at Glasgow in lb'J3; Meisner's 'Nova Veteris 
Testamenti Clavis,' 8vo.. Leip., 1809 ; Reay's ' Narratio do 
Josepho,* Oxf.. 1822; Olivant's 'Analysis of the Text of 
the History of Joseph, upon the principle of Professor 
Lee*s Hebrew Grammar, 8vo., 2nd ed., Lond., 1833 ; 
Greenfield's * Book of Genesis in English- Hebrew ; accom- 
panied by an Interlinear Translation, Philological Notes, 
and a Grammatical Introduction,' 8vo., Lond. 

HEBREWS. [Jews] 

HEBREWS. EPISTLE TO THE, a book of the New 
Testament. The absence of the initiatory formula usual 
in the apostolic epistles has led some to doubt whether this 
book is an epistle or a dissertation. But it contains allu- 
sions to particular circumstances, which prove it to be an 
epistle (v. 11, 12; vi. 9, 10; x. 32-34; xiii. 19.22,23). 
Tlie general opinion respecting the j^wons to whom this 
Epistle was ad(lre9:»ed is that they were the Jewish converts 
in Jerusalem or Palestine generally. This opinion, as 
Michaelis has shown, is supported by the contents of the 
book itself. (Marsh's Michaelift, vol. iv., pp. 193-7.) Others 
suppose it to have been addressed to the Jews of Asia 
Minor, and Dr. Noesselt contends for its having been written 
to the Thessalonians. Conccrnuig the language m which 
this epistle was written critics have been much divided ; 
some supposing that it was written in Greek, and others 
that it was written in Hebrew and translated into Greek. 
The latter opinion was held by Clement of Alexandria, 
(who states ' that it was written by Paul in the Hebrew 
language for the use of the Hebrews, and that Luke trans- 
lated it for the benefit of the Greeks*); by Eusebius, and 
by other fathers; and is stronglv advocated by Michaelis. 
The other opinion is supported by Lardner, Macknight, 
Rosenmiiller. Professor Stuart, and most modem commen- 
tators. But the arguments on either side are far from being 
Conclusive, 

The author of this Epistle is equally uncertain. The 
general voice of tradition assigns it to the apostle Paul, but 
it has also been ascribed to Barnabas, to Luke, to Silas^ 
and to ApoUos. 

In the llrst ages of the church it appears to' have been 
generally considered as a production of the apostle Paul, 
though great doubu were ycrj earij entertained on tiie 



fubject In the Alexandrian ehureh w» have th* tetUisony 
of Fantftnut (a.d. 180) to its Pauline origin^ as well as that 
of Clemen^ ia the passage cjuoted above, and in olher parts 
of his writings. Tnese testimoniea are preserved by Euse- 
bius {Hi9t Ecrles., book vi., c. 14). Eusebius also quotes a 
passage fromOrigen {Jind,,c. 26), which baa been variouitly 
understood, but which seems to imply that an ol^eetton 
had been raised against the Pauline origin of the epi»tU 
from the superiority of its style to that of the ocknowledgi*f I 
Epistles of Paul, and that to meet this objection Ongi'ii 
supposed the sentiments to be Paul's, but tho diction thai 
of some other person, a disciple of Paul. But lie adds—* I f 
any church therefore hdd this epistle to be Paul*s» let it 
receive commendation for this. For it is not without reaKOii 
that the antients have handed it down as Paurs.' lu 
Origen's own writings it is frequently auotod as bci.u' 
written by Paul; and after his time tne Alexandria u 
fathers unanimously ascribe it to the same apostle. Turn- 
ing to the Eastern church we find passages in the writw./^ 
of the fathers, which are thought by some to be indirict 
quotations from this epistle. The earliest direct testiniunv 
is that of Eusebius, who mentions foiurteen epistles as bciiii; 
clearlv and certainly Paul's, but adds thai ' some have n;* 
jected that which is written to the Hebrews, alleging, with 
the church at Rome, that it is spoken against as not Unii^ 
Paul's.' He frequently cites it as written by Paul. Tiir 
Western church seems to have been greatly divided on thtji 
subject from about the close of the second to the middle of 
the fourth century, when Jerome states that the £pi«>t}c 
was received as Foul's by all the Greek and some of the 
Latin churches, though rejected by most of the Latins, who 
ascribed it to Barnabas or Clement of Rome, but held it lu 
high esteem, and read it in their churches. Jerome hmi- 
self, and Augustin, constantly refer to it, sometimes as an 
apostolic production, and sometimes as St Paul's. TlK'ir 
authority appears Anally to have established the belief in 
its Pauline origin among the Western churches. Tlie 
modem advocates of the same opinion have attributed tho 
doubts which prevailed in the Western church at the end 
of the second century to the disputes with the Montaiii»t«. 
who relied on this Epistle in support of some of their 
opinions. On tho other hand, thoie who beheve that Paul 
did not write the Epistle ascribe the strong testimony vl 
the Alexandrian fathers in its fiivour to their great fond- 
ness for the allegorical interpretation of Scripture* whi* h 
the style of this Epistle is thought to sanction. The pn»- 
sage in 2 Peter, iii. 15, is thought by some to refer to tbc 
Epistle to the Hebrews. 

The internal evidence in &vour of Paul being the authr.r 
is drawn from the reference (c. xiii., v. 23) toTunotby.«hi) 
is known to have been Paul's intimate friend and Arequttiu 
companion; and from other incidental allusions <see x. 
34; xiii. 18, 19, 24). In the arrangement of tlie Epintlr. 
the former part being doctrinal and the latter pari horta- 
tory, in the mode of using quotations from the Old Te^io- 
raent and the style of argument adopted, in the doctnn«« 
most prominently stated and the phraseology eaiplo>»4l, 
there are great resemblances between Uiis book and Si. 
Paul's acknowledged epistles. (For examples see PixW. 
M. Stuart's Comnteniary on ths Hebrews, In trod., aci:*. 
20 — 24, and Home's Introduction, vol. iv., p. 415, S(c.« t>d. 
1834.) The chief objections against the Pauline origin of 
the epistle are drawn from the absence of the usual ftddns* 
at the beginning, tlie superioritT of the style to that fif 
Paul's acknowledged epistles, and the resemblance betw««n 
its style and that of the Alexandrian school. The point* 
above stated are discussed with great ability and candour 
by Prof. Moses Stuart in favour of the Pauline origin cf 
the epistle, and Prof. Bleek on the other side. 

The opinions which assign the authorship to Bamabaiw 
Apollos, Luke, and Silas, rest on very sughl groninU 
The second of them was first started bv Luther, a conjcr. 
ture founded on the resemblance which the epistle bcAm 
to what we might expect to hav^ been written on such a 
subject by a man of the character given to ApoUoa in jtcU. 
xviii. 24—28. 

Tlie date depends partly on the settlement of the Ibmrr 
question. Tho internal evidence of the Epistle shows thai it 
was written while the temple at Jerusalem was standing 
(see viii. 4-5 ; ix. 9), and probably not long before Its <:»*> 
struction in a.Dw 70. If Paul was the author, it was pro^m 
bly written during hia first impriionnient at Romew asHi 
immediatdy belbre ha was roteaed (mo xiii l%» 19, t3K 



H EB 



85; 



H E C 



Aeoordliigly mfmt entics teSn it to A.i>. 61 or 6S; tome 
say A.O. 58. 

The euionical attthority of this Spistlo depends partlr on 
its authorship ; but may be signed on other grounds. It is 
repeatedly quoted by Clement of Alexandria, and apparently 
by Barnabas* Hennas, Polycarp, Ignatius, and Justin Mar- 
tyr. It is contained in the Fesnito Syriac version, the date 
of which isnot later than the seeond century, and in the old 
Latin versions made about the same period. From that time 
the questions of the canonteal authority and the authorship 
are very much mixed up together. 

The design of the writer of this Epistle appears to have 
been to sustain the ftiith of those to whom he wrote, while 
they were suffering under persecution and inclined to apos- 
tacy. With this ^ject he argues the dignity of Christ as 
stqwrior to angels (o. i., ii.), to Moses (c. iii.), and to the race 
of Jewish priests (iv. 14--16 ; v. — viii.) ; the superiority of the 
Christian to the Jewish religion, inasmuch as the latter was 
only typical of the blessings conferred by the fbrmcr, and 
was intended only to last for a time, while Christianity is to 
be permanent (c. ix. ; x. 1 — 18). He proceeds to apply 
tbe^ arguments to encourage the Hebrews to constancy 
in their fhith, and to enforce his exhortations by the example 
of eminent men (x. 19— xii.). After urging them to the 
practice of various Christian duties, he concludes with the 
usual salutations. In warmth of feeling, elegance of Ian- 
gau^, and force of argument, this epistle yields to no book 
of the New Testament 

(Lardner's Credibility; Marsh's Michaelis, vol. iv. ; Prof. 
Moses Stuart's Commentary on the Hebrews; of Prof. Bleek's 
Brief an die Hebriier, perhaps the best commentary on this 
epistle, two vols, only have appeared, the first (8vo., Berlin, 
1 828) containing Dissertations, 8cc., and the 2nd the Com- 
mentary as far as c. iv., v. 13, Berlin, 1836; Hug and 
Home's IntroducHons ; ibr a list of commentators see 
Walt's Bibiiotheea Britannicc^ and Seller's Biblical Her- 
mmemtiei.) 

HEBRIDES, THE (or Western Island3 of Scotland), 
are scetteretl in the Atlantic Sea, along the western coast 
of North Britain, between 55** 35' and 59^ N. lat., and 5** 
and 8° W. long. They amount to the number of nearly 200, 
but more than one-half of them are so small or so sterile 
as not to be inhabited. In 1808 only 79 were regularly 
peopled all the year round, but in eight more houses were 
found, which were tenanted during the summer, and aban- 
doned at the approach of winter. 

These idands are commonly divided into the Northern 
and Southern Hebrides, the most western point of the main 
land, the promontory of Airdnamurchan (.'ifi* 40' N. lat.), 
betn^ considered as the point from which the line of division 
between them runs westward into the Atlantic. But geo- 
graphically they should be divided into the Eastern and 
Weiftem Hebrides, as the greater number of them are at no 
great distance from the coast of Britain, and one extensive 
grfnip is much ferther to the west in the ocean. The wide 
and open strait which divides the last-mentioned group, 
which is comprehended under the general name of hang 
Island, ftom the former islands and the mainland of Soot- 
land, is called the Minch ; and in its narrowest part (about 
'JO miles), between Skye and North Uist, it is called the 
Little Minch. 

The surfhce of the Hebrides is stated to exceed 3184 
square miles, which is nearly one -twelfth part of Scotland 
^n.i one-thirtieth of Great Britain. They are larger than 
CofAica, or the two provinces of Holland, and than any 
cituijty of Great Britain, excepting Yorkshire and Inver- 

The surface of these islands varies considerably. Some 
of the larger islands, espeeially those which approach the 
mainlaiid, are mountainous , such as those of Arran, Jura, 
MulU and Skye, in which the elevated masses rise to the 
height of 2000 or 3000 feet and more above the sea. The 
re<t are in general only hilly, the most elevated parts not 
e\reeding 1500 feet ; and in a few of them the hills do not 
Tvte to more than 300 or 500 fbet, as in Tyree and in the 
ftouthem Islands which belong to the group of Long 
lidsnd. The coasts are everywhere rooky, and in many 
partii high, and particularly so along the western shores 
t.nrards the Atlantic, with the exception of the innermost 
angles of the bays and inleU, where they are frequently 
low. The southern islands of Long Island have a series of 
&and-hil]s on their western coast, and the shores are gene- 
nlly indented by large bays and itilets, whieh fono a vast 



number of harbonn of every description, some of which,' in 
security and capaciousness, are equal to any in the world. 
It is stated that there is no place, even in the larger islands, 
whieh is more than seven miles from the sea-shore. The 
rivers are small, but numerous, and all of them abound in 
salmon, trout, and eels ; many of them contain also several 
other kinds of fish. Some of the islands abound in lakes. 
Those of Long Island alone cover 25,000 acres, and in 
the small island of Tyree they are stated to occupy about 
700 acres. The soil is in general as good as in other parts 
of Scotland, except a few tracts particularly favoured by 
nature. The islands of Bute and Islay are considered 
fertile, and also several districts in the island of Skye. But 
a comparatively small portion of the surface of the whole is 
under cultivation. The whole area of the islands compre- 
hends 1,592,000 Scotch acres, of which only 210,000 are 
arable or meadow land ; 600,000 acres mountains, morasses, 
and lakes; 70,000 acres pasture ground, commonly on 
hills, and of little value ; 25,000 acres are barren sands 
toss^ about by the winds ; 22,000 are occupied by peat- 
mosses ; and 30,000 acres are dry at ebb-tide, and serve as 
kelp-shores. Tliere are no natural woods on the islands, 
but about 5000 acres have been planted. 

The backward atate of these islands is chiefly to be attri- 
buted to the want of timber, their great distance from towns 
and markets, and the difficulty of intercourse on account of 
the boisterous seas which surround them, and the storms 
which frequently prevail nine months of the year, especially 
from the south-west This wind brings torrents of rain almost 
annually from August to the beginning of March. Early jii 
March, and often also in October and November, a north-east 
or north-north-east wind prevails ; and although the coldest 
that blows here, it is generally dry and pleasant. The climate 
is upon the whole mild. Frost and snow are almost unknown 
in the smaller isles, and they seldom prevail in the larger 
to any considerable degree. On the sea-shores the ther- 
mometer rarely falls more than 5? below the freexing-point. 
The annual quantity of rain which falls in the higher 
islands may be between 30 and 36 inches; but in the lower it 
probably dkies not exceed 25 inches. Grasses and com ripen 
very quickly : in Uist, Lewis, and Tyree, big, or bear, is fre- 
quently cut down within ten weeks after l^ing sown. 

The great mass of the population resides within a mile 
of tlie sea-shore. The traveller meets With scarcely an in- 
habited house 1000 yards from the sea-mai'k, or 300 feet 
above the level of the ocean, except in the islands of Buto 
and Islay. From their language and customs it is evident 
that they are of the same stock with the inhabitants of 
Ireland and of the Highlands of Scotland. In most of the 
islands they gain as much by catching herrings, cod, and 
ling, with which the surrounding sea abounds, or by burning 
kelp, as by their agricultural industry. 

The Hebrides belong politically to four Scotch counties. 
Those of them whieh lie m the Frith of Clyde, between the 
peninsula of Cantyre and the coast of Ayrshire, constitute a 
county by themselves. [Butb ; Arran.] All the other 
Southern Hebrides, together with the islands of Muck, 
Rum, and Canna, which are included in the Northern 
Hebrides, are annexed to the county of Argyle. [Aroyle.] 
The Long Island, except Lewis, constitutes a part of luver- 
ness-shire. Lewis is a part of Ross-shire ; and Skye be- 
longs to Inverness. 

The Hebrides are mentioned by Ptolemy under the name 
of EbudsD, and by Pliny (iv. 16) under that of Hebudes. 
Pliny makes the Hebudes thirty in number. 

(M*Gulloeh's Highlands and Western hlanda ; Mac- 
donald's General Vtew of the Agriculture of the Hebrides,) 

HEBRUS. [Maritza.] 

HECATiEUS of Miletus, son of Hegesander, was one 
of the earliest Greek prose writers. He was present at the 
deliberation of the lonians (b.c. 501), and attempted to 
dissuade them from revolting against the Persian king. 
(Herod.« v. 36.) He is also mentioned by Herodotus (v. 
1 25) as being siive at the time of the flight of Aristagoras, 
B.C 497. 

His works* which consisted of histories, genealogies, and 
geographical pieces, were held in considerable esteem by 
the antients. Herodotus (vi. 137) quotes one of his his- 
torical works. Strabo (i. p. 12, Casaubon) complains that 
his geographical works only contained the descriptions of 
the poets written in prose ; but he is mentioned by Am • 
mianus Marcellinua (xxii. 8) in conjunction with. Eratoe- 
tlieiies and Ftoleniy. Heeatasua appeais> like Herodotuji 



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to Iinve visited distant countries for the purpose of aeauinng 
information respecting the history, eustoms, and pnysieal 
pci'uliarities of foreign lands. Herodotus (ii. 143) gives an 
account of a conversation of Hecatssus vrixh the priests at 
Thebes :i Egypt, which was apparently derived from his 
works. 

The fragments which remain of the writings of Hecatsdus 
have been published by Creuzer in hb 'Historicorum Grm- 
corum Antiquissimorum Fragmenta,' 8to., Heidel., 1806, 
by Klausen, ' Hecatfl>i Milesii Fragments,' Svo^Berl. 1831 ; 
and in the 'Museum Criticum/ vol. i., p. 88-101, Camb., 
1814. 

HE'CATE, one of the antient Greek divinities, tho 
daughter of the Titan Perses and Astoria, according to 
Hesiod {The(^.j 411). Her attributes corresnond in most 
respects with those of Artemis ; and it has tnerefore been 
conjectured that she may originally have been the same as 
Artemis. Her name,'the feminine of Hecatus (' the far- 
shooting'), one of the names of Apollo, the brother of Arte- 
mis, i^ tnought to favour this supposition. Hecate presided 
over hunting and fishing, the deliberations of the popular 
assembly and the courts of justice. She seems also to have 
appropriaterl to herself part of the duties of Persephine 
(Proserpine) ; since she was regarded as the mistress of the 
lower world, and the patroness of magic. She was consi- 
dered a beneficent deity, who answered the prayers of her 
worshippers. Her statues were placed at cross-roads and 
before nouses.. She was held in much respect in Athens, 
where she was regarded as the patroness of families and 
children. She was greatly venerated by the inhabitants of 
iEgina, who held a festival once a year in honour of her ; 
which was said to have been instituted by Orpheus. (Pan- 
san., ii. 30.) 

HECLA. [XCELATTD.] 

HE'DERA, a genus of Araliaceous plants consisting of 
nearly fifty species, inhabiting chiefiy tne warmer parts of 
the world, is interesting to Europeans for containing among 
others the common ivy with its numerous varieties. This 
plant, the Hedera Helix of botanists, does not exactly re- 
present the habit of the genus, for many of the exotic spe- 
cies, mstead of being creepers, adhering to other plants, or 
to rocks ana wafiS by their sucker-like roots, are trees of 
considerable siie 

Common ivy is dispersed through many distant parts of the 
Old World, lying between the Qinaries and Europe on the 
west, and the northern parts of China on the east. In the Ca- 
naries it acquires its largest size, being what is culled in En- 
?^li8h gardens the Irish or giant ivy, which grows so much 
aster than the European form. In the north of India, and 
indeed occasionally in Italy, the berries, instead of being 
black as with us, are bright yellow, and it is suppose J that 
this is more particularly the Hedera of the Roman poets. 
Tho leaves vary much in form, and there is a kind which 
never runs or creeps upon other plants, but merely forms a 
compact bush. 

HEDGE, one of the most lasting and effectual of our 
fences. When hedges have been well made, and are kept in 
good order, nothing can surpass them, except well-built 
stone or brick walls, and even these are far less eficctual in 
keeping out trespassers of every description. 

Hedges are made of various kinds of .*ihrubs and trees, 
trained so as to tlirow out numerous branches along the 
stem firom the surface of the earth upwards ; this is done 
by judicious pruning when they are young. The head 
being cut off and the side branches shortened, numerous 
smaller branches spring out, which are shortened in their 
turn, and form a verv compact mass, consisting of the ends 
of stumps and brancnes pointing in every direction. Those 
shrubs which arc of a thorny nature are best adapted for 
hedges. Holly, which bears prickles on the edges of the 
leaves, is on this account by far the best shrub to form a 
hedge. But it has a great inconvenience in its very slow 
growth, and, except in verv old gardens, which have been 
surrounded by a hi^h holly hedge oefore the present gene- 
ration was born, it is very seldom that such a hedge is met 
with. The high price which the nurser)'men charge for 
this plant is another reason why it is more seldom planted. 

In forming a holly-hedge the ground should be pre- 
pared by trenching and abundant manuring* the plants 
should be most carefully planted after midsummer, or im- 
Tiu'diatcly before the usual rains which come at that season. 
There should also be a portion of virgin soil for the i-uots to 
spread iu ; and in planting they should be wcU divided, to 



give them the greatest poasible extant ftom which to draw 
tlieir nourishment The earth should be well presned to 
them by treading it down; and, in ease of a eontmucd 
want of rain* the^ may be oocasionally wateied, late in the 
e^'enin^, or early in the morning. By a little attention io 
them in the first Tear, they will form a good fence wteral 
years sooner than those which are compar«ti%'dy neglected. 
The plants which are usually put in are three years old ; 
but if thev could be transplanted at once from the seed'lM^d, 
they would sooner come to perfection ; and by being cut 
down and pruned earlier, would lay the foundation of a 
closer and better hedge. Next to holly, as forming a clo«e 
and durable hedge, is the yew : it bears very dose dipinnp, 
and forms a thick hedge and good shelter all through the 
year. For gardens and nursery-erounds, where shelter and 
occasional sliading are required, the yew-hedge is prefer r ed ; 
but in all places where cattle are put to pasture, they should 
never be permitted to grow. Many valuable horses and 
cattle have been destroyed by ^sing in places where yow- 
trees grew ; and notwithstanding the instinct which leads 
animals to reject food which is hurtful, they greedily cat 
the yew leaves in spring. The same may be said of box. 

The various kinds of thorns are peculiarly adapted tn 
form hedges, and they are consequently by nir the most 
common plants of which a live hedge is fbnned. 

For high hedges and strong fences the hornbeam and a 
variety of the beech which throws many branches from the 
stem are extensively used in old gardens, wlwre geomcth* 
cal figures and numerous angles are admired. 

Where it is desirable that the hedge should amve very 
rapidly to such a size as to be a good defence against cattle* 
elder may be planted. Elder grows very rapidly, and 
throws out many long hollow branches, which soon become 
hard, and are admirably calculated for a fence, and cattle 
will not eat the leaves ; but it is never very close or orna- 
mental ; and as it requires to be cut down frequently, it 
displays very unsightly knots and stumps when it has ac- 
quired a certain age. 

Sweetbnar is ornamental, and forms a good fence mgainut 
sheep. It is chiefly confined to flower-gardens wad en* 
closures in pleasure-grounds. 

Many other shrubs might be named, such as the f^ut 
Japonica, which is prickly, grows close, and bean a 
beautiful flower. It is as hardy as any native British plant, 
and will bear cutting and training as well as any of them. 
Hitherto no edges have been made of this shrub, except a 
few in the gardens of nurserymen ; but there is no doubt 
that if many young plants were wanted for hedges, they 
would soon be produced at a reasonable price. The privet is 
a very common and quick-growing shrub^ which is firraoeni I5 
planted as a hedge where cattle are not admitted ; out of 
all shrubs, the most common and most useful for the purpose 
of hedges are the black and white thorn, and they almost 
universally form the quick hedges by which our fields ajw 
separated and enclosed. 

In order to have a good hedge, the shmbs should Ke 
planted in a soil which is natiurally strong, but well puhc 
rised, and in which no shrub or tree has latelv gro«iu 
The best soil is that which is produced by the Jiecom|H>. 
sition of sods taken from commons or old pastures ; and it 
is observed that in new enclosures, where the quick hns 
been inserted between two sods, it always grows luxuriantlv. 
and only requires to be protected, when young, against tho 
cropping of cattle and sheep, which are fond of the you 1 it: 
tehder shoots. The usual mode is to insert, in the'earU 
part of the spring, two or three rows of quick in the snlc of 
the bank, on a level with the surface of the ground, whof«» 
a sod has been turned over, and forms the base of the bonk 
raised by the earth taken out of the ditch. This quirk 
requires to be protected from vtlle or sheen by some fenrc, 
[Fence.] Sometimes the ouiuk is planted in two cc three 
parallel rows on the top of the bank, which in this rase t» 
made much wider, with a ditch on each side. A doul \c 
fence in such case is necessary for its complete protectii*:; 
When the quick is planted on the top of the bank, tl f 
surface sods are reserved to lay at the top; and after Ui: .; 
broken and chopped to pieces, are dug into the bank. 
Stable-dung is frequently dug in at the same time, and -^ 
well bestowed: the quicks are then inaettod, and wt.i 
watered. They never fail to come up luxuriantl> ; an»l 
when properly pruned they form a close and impenetraV : (.* 
hcd^e. 

Many think that it is advantageous to prune nnd cut 



BED 



97 



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dovn die yoong aihooto every year, in order to excite them 
to throw out ilresh ones in greater number. But this is an 
error by which the growth of the hedge is much retarded. 
The shoot should be allowed to grow to its full extent the 
first and second year ; tlie root will then have struck deep 
ioto the ground ; and in the third or fourth year the quicks 
may be cut down to a few inches. They will then send 
oat several fresh and strong shoots, which mav be cut and 
pruned to the height and width of the intended hedge. 

In Holland and Flanders the hedges are often trained 
along stakes and rods placed for the purpose, and tied 
together with osiers. In this case every slender branch is 
tiiMl to the rods, and they are laid so as to cross each other 
frequently, and the redundant shoots which cannot be con- 
Teniently tied in are cut off. These hedges, when in 
leaf; look very close and light, and take up very little room ; 
and birds can scarcely harbour in them. It appears at first 
sight that much labour is required to train hedges in this 
way ; but this is by no means the case. When they have 
ooce grown to the proper height they only require to be re- 
gularly clipped. 

In forming a hedge it is necessary to take into consider- 
stion the quality of the soil, the aspect of the bank, and 
whether the land is porous, or very retentive of moisture. 
In the first case it will be advantageous to plant the quick 
in the side of the bank, raising the earth above it to keep 
in the moisture. A ledge may be made by setting the first 
sod at a couple of inches from the edge of the ditch. The 
water whicli may fall on the bank and run down the smooth 
side is arrested by the ledge and soaks into the roots. In 
the other case the top of the bank is the proper place, and a 
ftoiall concavity may be given to it to retain the water and 
keep the roots moist. 

In a dry soil which does not require draining, ditches are 
unnecessary, and it is much better to plant a hedge on a 
little hank formed by a few sods about eighteen inches 
vide, with a small water-furrow on each side. The whole 
width need not be above two feet six inches, whereas a bank 
sod ditdi take up at least six feet, and the plough cannot 
go nearer than a foot from the edge of the ditch or the 
bank. Thus eight feet are taken up by the fence. 

When a hedge has been left uncut for several years, it 
grows wide and high. It requires to be cut down once in 
icven or eight years ; in tliis case much care is required in 
the cutting that the shoots may grow out again regularly. 
The common labourers often do this very carelessly by 
euttmg the stems downwards with one or more cuts of their 
bill-hook. The consequence is that the stem is split and 
shivered, and the rain lodging in the ragged cut injures 
the wood and causes it to die down farther than it other- 
wise would. Hence the general maxim of ' cutting up,' so 
ttrongly recommended by all those who give directions 
about cutting hedges. Portions of the stems are often left 
of a greater length than the rest for the purpose of holding 
the bushes, which are generally laid ov^ the cut stumps 
to protect them against cattle. But it is better to cut the 
hedge regularly, one row close to the ground, and one a few 
inches longer ; this will strengthen the foot of the hedge, 
and prevent its being thin and hollow at bottom. 

When m hedge hu become old, and many of the plants 
are decayed* it is veiy dUficult to renew it If young quicks 
are planted on the same spot, they will scarcely ever succeed, 
unleaa very great preoautions are taken. The soil is ex- 
hausted or det^iorated, and must be renewed: but manur- 
ing is not sufficient ; fresh earth is required for the new 
quick. The simplest process is to level the old bank, 
spread the earth of which it was formed, which will be of 
gf^U use to the ground where it is spread, and form a new 
hank in the same place from earth taken elsewhere ; or, 
where it can be done without inconvenience, it is better to 
meke an entirely new ditch and bank, and to fill up the 
old. This is perhaps the surest as well as the soonest way 
of havings a new hedge which will be permanent. 

What has been said of renewing a hedge is equally ap- 
plicable to repairing gaps in an old one. It is of no use to 
put in young plants in the old bank. The earth must be 
ic^oQored, and fresh earth put in its place. The old hedge 
must be cut and trimmed, so that the young quick mav not 
te bbadod, and in that case the gap will shortly be filled up, 
and the hedge be restored as a continuous fence. Where 
the gapa are very small, and the hedge is not cut down alto- 
£:cr:ber, it may sometimes be advisaole to plant hollies or 
aiiner plant% which will giow well andUlup tbedeAci^cy. 
F. C Na 736. 



Well managed hedges are the most efiective fences, the 
cheapest, and the most pleasing to the eye. It is to the 
hed^-rows that England owes much of iu garden-like ap- 
pearance ; but the trees, which are their chief ornament, 
are very destructive of the hedge as a fence ; and where 
trees are planted it would be much better, if they stood 
within the hank, without interfering with the hedge. Whe- 
ther trees can be allowed in hedge-rows, iu a perfect system 
of agriculture, is a question which we will not attempt to 
answer. 

There is a method of repairing hedges which is called 
pkuhing. It consists in cutting half through some of the 
stems near the ground, and then bending the upper parts 
down in a horizontal or oblique position, keeping them so 
by means of hooked sticks driven into the bank. Thus a 
live hedge is made, which fills up the gaps in the same 
manner as a dead hedge would have done, and the bent 
stems soon throw out shoots. If the stems are young, and 
not above the thickness of a finger, an excellent hedge may 
be thus formed, which, when clipped, will be close and per- 
fectly impervious. But the work is generally done in a 
very injudicious manner. When a hedge is plashed which 
has been long neglected, the thick stems, which are hacked 
through, leaving only a small portion of the under berk un- 
cut, luLve an unsightly appearance, and seldom throw out 
shoots near the bottom, where they are most wanted. To 
plash a young hedge by merely bending the twigs is an 
excellent practice : but when the stems are thick and old, 
the only remedy is to cut them down, or make an entirely 
new bank well planted with quick. 

HEDGEHOG, Hcrisson of the French. The Hedge- 
hogs are placed by Cuvier at the head of the Insectivorout 
Manvnifers ; and M. F. Cuvier observes that in Chryiochlo^ 
ris the normal system of dentition of the Insectivora may 
be seen reduced to the narrowest dimensions; whilst in the 
Hedgehogs it appears to be brought to the greatest deve> 
lopment 

6 7--7 
Dental Formu/a.— Incisors ^ ; Canines ; Molars 

= 36. 

Generic Character. — Body covered with spines, with the 
power of rolling itself up in a ball by means of appropriate 
muscles; muzzle pointed; ears more or less apparent; 
tail short ; each Jfoot five-toed and armed with robust 
claws. 

Geographical Distribution of the Genue,— Species of 
Hedgehog have been recorded as inhabitants of Europe, 
Africa, and India. 

We select as an example the Common Hedgehog, Eri- 
naceus Europtnu. 

This is the Riecio of the Italians, Erizo of the Spanish, 
Ourizo of the Portuguese, L'Herieeon of the French, Ig^ 
of the Germans, Eegel-varken of the Dutch, Pin^-ndn of 
the IHnes, Draenog and Draen y coed of the antient Bri- 
tish, Urchin of the modern British, Echinue terrestritt of 
Gesner, Echinus (Erinaceus) terreHrie of Ray, and Aeon" 
thion vulgaris of Klein. There can be little doubt that it 
is the Echinus CEX'^^^c) of Aristotle. 

This indigenous animal is too well known to need a 
lengthened description. The length is generally rather 
more than nine inches. 

Food, Habits, Reproduction, — The food of the Hedgehog, 
which is a nocturnal animal, consists principally of insects, 
worms, slugs, and snails. That it will eat vegetables is shown 
by White of Selborne, who relates how it eats the root of the 
plantain, by boring beneath it, leaving the tuft of leaves 
untouched. In the 2Soologieal Journal (vol. ii) is an account 
by Mr. Broderip of an experiment made by Professor Buck- 
land, proving that, in captivity at least, the Hedgehog will 
devour makes : but there is no good reason for supposing 
that it will not do the same in a state of nature, for frogs, 
toads, and other reptiles, and mice, have been recorded as 
its prey. From its fondness for insects it is often placed in 
the London kitchens to keep down the swarms of cock- 
roaches with which they are infested ; and there are gene- 
rally hedgehogs on sale in Covent Garden market for this 
purpose. It IS hardly worth while to refiite the idle story 
that this persecuted animal sucks the cows ; but, according 
to Sir WnUam Jardine, it is very fond of eggs, and is con- 
sequently mischievous in the game-preserve and hen-house. 
The Hedgeh^ hybemates regularly, and early in the 
susuncc brings forth fiom two to four youne ones at a 
• VoL.nL- 



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98 



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birth, wbicb, at the time of their pioductioa. are bhnd, and 
have the spines white, soft, and flexible. The ne:it wherein 
they are cradled is said to be very artificially constructed, 
the roof being rain-proof. 

Utility to Ifan.— The flesh of the Hedgehog, when it has 
been well fed. is sweet and well-flavoured, and is eaten on 
the Continent in many places. In Britain few besides the 

fipsies partake of it. The prickly skin appears to have 
een used by the Romans for hackling hemp. 

We refer those who would pursue the history of the 
common Hedgehog still further to the interesting account 
in the ' History of British Quadrupeds,' by Thomas Bell, 
Esq., F.R.S., &C., 8vo. London. 

Among the foreign ErinaeeacUe, Erinaceui spatangui 
and ErinaceuM Grayi will be found recorded in the Pro- 
ceedings qf the Zoolos^iccd Society for 1832. Both came 
from the Himalayan Mountains, and the latter was consi- 
dered by Mr. Gray to be identical with Erinaceue collaris, 
figured in the Illustrations qf Indian Zoology, Mr. 
Bennett however regarded it as a new species, inasmuch as 
Erinaceus Grayi was destitute of a white collar, and dif- 
fered in other particulars firom the figure referred to. A 
species from the interior of South Africa, forming part of 
the collection brought from that country by Mr. A. Steed- 
man, Erinaceus frontalis, is recorded in the same vol. of 
the Proceedings, 

Mr. Gray places the subfamily Erinacina under the family 
Tal; fd^e. (Annals qf Philos(fhy, 1825.) 

HEDGEHOG, a name given in gardens to the round 
pricklv pods of various species of Medicago. 

HEDINGHAM. [Essex.] 

HEDJAZ,orHEJAZ. [Arabia.] 

HEJIRA. [iERA.] 

HEGEL. GEORGE WILLIAM FREDERICK, was 
bom at Stuttgart on the 27th of August, 1770, and was 
educated at the gymnasium of his native city. At the age 
of eighteen he proceeded to Tubingen to join the classes of 
theology and philosophy, where he had for his class-fellow 
the illustrious Schelling. Dissatisfied with the prevailing 
system of metaphysics, Hegel sought to supply its deficien- 
cies by the works of Plato, Spinosa, and Kant ; and in the 
conviction that a truly philosophical comprehension can 
only be educed by an enlarged and diversified inquiry, he 
combined with a knowledge of philosophy a profound ac- 
quaintance with the natural and political sciences. Upon 
being admitted to the degree of doctor in philosophy, he 
accepted an engagement as private tutor, in which capacity 
he lived for some years first in Switxerland, and afterwards 
at Frankfort-on-the-Matn, until, on the death of his father 
in 1800, he was enabled by the inheritance of a small 
patrimony to devote himself without restraint to the study 
of philosophy. He accordingly proceeded to Jena, where 
Schelling was teaching his system of Absolute Identity, and 
of which Hegel was at this period one of the warmest par- 
tisans. Here he composed as an academical exercise the 
essay ' De Orbitis Planetarum,' (JeniD, 1801), and shortly 
afterwards his first philosophical work, entitled * On the 
Difference of the Systems of Fichte and Schelling ;* which 
treatise, notwithstanding the sincerity with which Hegel 
then advocated the views of the latter, contained the germ 
of that dissent which was afterwards expanded into a pecu- 
liar theory. He was also associated with Schelling in con- 
ducting the * Critical Journal of Science ;* and among 
the most important of the artictles contributed by him is 
that ' On Faith and Science/ which contains a luminous 
review of the doctrines of Kant, Jacobi, and Fichte, whose 
several systems are represented as nothing more than so 
many forms of a purely subjective philosophy. In 1806, 
when Schelling went to Wiirzburg, Hegel was appointed to 
supply his place as lecturer. The duty of communicating 
his views to others necessarily imparted to them distinctr 
ness and precision ; and now for the first time Hegel openly 
avowed his dissatisfaction with the system of Schelling. 
The difference between the ideas of the master and disciple 
was marked still more strongly in the ' Phenomenology of 
Mind,' which was published at Bamberg, whither Hegel 
bafl retired after the battle of Jena. This work he used to 
call his ' Voyage of Discovery,' as indicating the researches 
he had passed through in order to arrive at a clear know- 
ledge of the truth. It contains an account of the several 
grades of development through which the • self,' or • ego,' 
proceeds : first of all from oonsctousne58 into self-conscious^ 
nebs; next into reflecting and active reason, from which it 



becomes philosophical reason* self-eognttant ano self-ana 
lyiing, until at last, rising to the notion of God, it mofu- 
fests itself in a religious form. The title * PhenomenoloL- v ' 
points out the limits of the work, which is confined to lUe 
phenomena of mind as displayed in the element of its im- 
mediate existence, t. «. in experience. It traces the course 
of mind up to the point where it recognises the identii> of 
thought and substance, of reason and reality, and where the 
opposition of science and reality ceases. Henceforward 
mind develops itself as pure thought or simple scienoe, and 
the several mrms it successively assumes, which differ only 
in their subject-matter or contents, are the objects of logtr, 
or dialectic. 

During his retirement at Bamberg, Hegel oondncted the 
political journal of that town with preat ability, and with 
an honesty and candour rare in the journals of that period, 
until he was called, in 1808, to preside over the gymnasiam 
of Nurnberg. The duties of this situation he discharged 
with as much energy as skill, and the benefit of the reforms he 
effected, both in the discipline and the studies of the school, 
are still gratefuUv noticed at the annual oommemorattun. 
In 1812 he published his 'Logic,' which was designed, with 
the * Phenomenology,' to complete the whole body of 
science. Hegel employs the term logic in a very extended 
sense. He does not confine it, as is usually the case, to the 
account of the abstract f(Hrms of thought and the laws of the 
enchainment and development of ideas, but understands 
thereby the science of the self-sufficient and self-determining 
idea— the science of truth and of reality. From his funda- 
mental principle, that thought and substance are one and 
identical it followed that whatever is true of the former m 
true also of the latter, and consequently the laws of iot;i«' 
become ontological. From this point of view Hegel do- 
scribes in this work the progress of reason; how, by virtui^ 
of a peculiar and inherent impulse, it passes constantly 
onwards, until at last it returns into itself. The (rener.l 
merits of this work were at once admitted, and the his^ri 
powers of philosophical reflection which it evinced were 
acknowledged by the offer of a professorship at Heidelberi^. 
His first course of lectures was attended by a numerous and 
distinguished class, attracted by the profoundness and ori- 
ginality of his views, notwithstanding the great obsruriiy 
of his style. By the publication of the ' Encyclopsedia <>f 
Philosophical Sciences,' in 1817, his reputation as a nhiloMv 
pher was established, and Hegel was invitefl by the* 
Prussian government to fill the chair at Berlin, which ha 1 
remained vacant since the death of Fichte, in 1814. Th:^ 
work, being designed as a manual for his class, take% u 
general view of his whole system, and exhibits in the cleart^t 
manner the ultimate tendency of his views. Considering 
logic as the base of all ontology, and starting from the idt-.i 
in itself or potentially, he considers it as tne essence and 
primary substance. He then examines thought as at fir^t 
existing in itself, then in other or in nature ; neit in the 
mind of the individual, in a purely subjective point of v\cvr ; 
and then objectively, in its outward realisation; and la.«iU. 
as he terms it, absolutely, i.^. as manifesting itself in ar, 
religion, and philosophy. From 1817 until death terrn.- 
nated his career there is nothing to relate in the life <-r 
Hegel beyond the constantly increasing celebrity of In^ 
lectures and the publication of several works. He succf><«- 
ively published the 'Philosophy of Jurisprudence;* tv > 
new editions of the * Encyclopnedia ;* the Ist vol. of th.» 
2nd edition of 'his 'Logic;' and several articles in the 
' Annals of Scientific Criticism,' which he had establLslif 1 
as an organ of his system, and of iU application to cTt-rv 
branch of art and science. He fell a victim, on the I ;f ti 
November, to the cholera which ravaged Berlin in 1h:?i. 
and was, in compliance with his express desire, buried b\ 
the side of Fichte. 

The history of philosophy firom iU earliest origin to !t> 
latest development forms so perfect and compact a wliol»». 
that no single part can be separately considered wiih.i.t 
losing something of its value and signiflcancy. This diffi- 
culty is greatly increased in the case of a philosophy mhxh 
gives itself out not only as the completion of iU iromo- 
diate forerunner, but as the sum and result of all antcr •: 
systems. Accordingly our general view of the Hegi-hsa 
system will be unintelligible unless preceded by a rap.l 
sketch of the states of philosophy out of which it grt?w 
The transcendental idealism of &ant formed the transit i ii 
from the empiria'smof the eighteenth century, and efff^tcJ, 
as it^were, a compromise between the aotient ivaliam aii4 



HE:G 



m Ea 



Ihe BTtyHriiifn ef Hmne. To Ui« t^vlm of Kant Bueceeded 
the pure and absolute idealism of Fiehte, destined to be 
displaced in its torn by Schelling's system of absolute 
identity and intellectual intuition, whion was itself to be 
further modified and developed by the dialectical momentum 
of HegeL Bssentially the systems of Hegel and Schelling 
are both founded on the same principle, vii. the abs(^ute 
ideality of thought and being ; for there is evidently but 
little difference between the doctrine of Schelling, which 
supposed that the himian mind contains within it the full- 
ness of reality and truth, the consciousness of which it may 
attain to simply by contemplating its own nature, and that 
of Hegel, according to whom the concrete notion, or the 
reason, comprises within itself all verity, and that in order to 
arrive at the science thereof it is only necessary to ^nploy 
ogicai thought, or dialectic. The difference is purely a dif- 
ference of method. For the cold and narrow abstractions, 
the rigorous formalism, of Fichte, Schelling had substituted 
a sort of poetical enthusiasm, and banishingfrom philosophy 
the scientific form it had received from Wolff, nad intro- 
duced into it the rapturous mysticism of the intellectual 
intuition. Hegel however, insisting that the scientific 
system is the only form under which truth can exist, re- 
established the rights and utility of method by his doctrine 
of the dialectical momentum, or development of the idea. 
Indeed with Heorel the method of philosophy is philosophy 
Itself. This he defines to be the knowledge of the evolution 
of the concrete. The concrete is the idea, which, as a unity, 
is diversely determined, and has in itself the principle of 
its activity. The origin of the activity, the action itself, 
and the result, are one, and constitute the concrete. Its 
movement is the development by which that which exists 
merely potentially is realized. The concrete in itself, or vir- 
tually, must become actual; it is simple, yet different. 
This inherent contradiction of the concrete is the spring of^ 
Its development. Hence arise differences, which however 
ultimately vanish into unity. There is both movement, 
and repose in the movement. The difference scarcely 
becomes apparent before it disappears, whereupon there 
issues from it a fiill and concrete unity. Of this he gives 
the following illustration : — the flower, notwithstanding its 
many qualities, is one ; no single quality that belongs to it 
Is wanting in the smallest of its leaves, and every portion 
of the leaf possesses the same properties as the entire leaf. 
He then observes, that although this union of qualities 
in sensible objects is readily admitted, it is denied in im- 
material objects, and held to be irreconcilable. Thus it is 
said that man possesses liberty ; but that freedom and neces- 
sity are mutually opposed ; that the one excluding the other, 
they ran never be united so as to become concrete. But 
according to Hegel, the mind is in reality concrete, and its 
qualities are liberty and necessity. It is by necessity that 
man is free, and it is only in necessity that he experiences 
hberty. The objects of nature are, it is true, subject ex- 
clusi\-ely to necessity ; but liberty without necessity is an 
arbitrary abstraction, a purely formal liberty. 

This concrete idea develops itself in obedience to certain 
laws which it determines of itself Among these Hegel 
distinguishes three species of thought, or three productions 
of thought in geneml. 1. The diought^ which he calls 
formal, as considered independent of its subject matter, or, 
in the Hegelian terminology, of all its contents, 2. The 
notion^ which is thought more closely determined; and 
3. The idea^ w thought in its totality and fully determined. 
The truth, determined in itself, experiences a want of deve- 
]'>pment. The idea, concrete and self-developing, is an 
crganical system, a totality comprising in itself vast trea- 
sures of degrees and momenta^ or germs of further deve^ 
Inpment. Now philosophy is nothing else than the know- 
Iviige of this development, and, in so far as it is methodical 
an>1 self-conscious thought, it is the development itself. 
With the progress of this evolution philosophy advances 
tv) wards perfection. The more the idea develops itself the 
more praciae and limited does it become, the wider its ex- 
pantaou and the deeper its intensity. All the partial results 
St i^ves rise to, as well as their systematization, proceed fcom 
t JO one identical idea. Particular systems are but so many 
diversified forms of the same Itfe ; they have no reality but 
in this unity, and their differences and their specific deter- 
minations taken collectively are but the expression of the 
f -»nna contained in the idea. The idea is at once the centre 
and the circumference— the source of light, which in all its 
trxnansiona does not pass out of itself; it is both the system 



of neoasflity 'and its own necessity* and yet neveriheledi 
Uberty. 

In the history of philosophy we have, under the form of 
accidental succession, the actual development of philosophy 
itselfl In the different systems which the histoiy records 
there is one and the same philosophy at different degrees of 
its development, and the different principles which have 
been employed to support these systems are but branches of 
a single unity and of one whole. The philosophy therefore 
which is the last in time is the result of all preceding sys- 
tems, and consequently must comprise the principles of all, 
and therefore it is the most perfectly developed, the 
richest, and the most concrete. The more concrete the 
idea becomes, the more widely extended is the domain of 
science. It reconciles the apparent inconsistencies of ap- 
pearance and reason, and a true philosophy removes the 
contradiction in which the antient philosophy was involved 
with the natural and historical development of the human 
mind. Starting from and nourished by experience, the 
thought rises to the idea of the general and the absolute, 
and, being allowed its free course, passes beyond the mo- 
ment of doubt and difficulty, to reproduce n\\ that it has con- 
ceived in a rational order, and to impress upon it the stamp of 
a logical necessity. For all verity is virtually contained in 
thought, from which, being made fruitful by experience, it 
is the duty of philosophy to draw it, and to deduce the 
actual consciousness. Accordingly it is the high preten- 
sion of the Hegelian philosophy to reconcile philosophy 
with reflection, and positive religion with the state and witn 
every political and religious establishment. It is, he ob- 
serves, an evil prejudice to suppose that true philosophy is 
opposed to the sober results of experience, and with th^ 
rational enactments of actual laws. 

Hegel divides philosophy into three parts : — 1 . Logic, or 
the science of the idea in and by itself, or in the abstract 
element of pure thought ; 2. Philosophy of nature, or the 
science of the idea out of itself — or in nature, or as nature ; 
3. Philosophy of mind, or the science of the idea in its re- 
turn into itself. Into the details of this division it would 
be idle to enter, as it would only lead to a dry and barren 
nomenclature. Each part is again divided into three parts ; 
for this holy number determines throughout the divisions 
and subdivisions of the system. In this respect, as well as 
for his obscurity and neologism, Hegel well deserves the re- 
proach of Wolfianism, which his master Schelling has urged 
against him. Schelling indeed disavowed him as his dis- 
ciple, which honour however Hegel still loved to claim 
with a satisfaction mingled with regret. 

A complete edition of the works of Hegel, in 1 7 vols., 
collected by Michelet and others of his disciples, is in course 
of publication. 

HEIDELBERG, an antient city in the circle of the 
Lower Main, in the grand-duchy of Baden, is situated in 
one of the most beautiful parts of Germany, on the left 
bank of the Neckar, over which there is a covered stone 
bridge of nine arches, 702 feet long and 30 wide ; in 49° 24' 
N. lat and 8** 41' E. long. The town is between the river 
and the mountains. On the south is the Konigstuhl, 
2000 feet high (called the Kaiserstuhl since the emperor 
Francis ascended it in 1815), on the summit of which 
a lofty tower has been erected. The population, which is 
now about 12,000, and gradually increasing, is much inferior 
to what it formerly was. Various causes have contributed 
to this decay : and among them chiefly the desolation of 
the Palatinate by the French in 1689 and 1693, and then 
the removal of the court of the elector Palatine to Man- 
heim in 1709. In 1689 the elector's splendid palace was 
most wantonly devastated, and in 1764 it was struck with 
lightning and rendered wholly uninhabitable. In the cellar 
of the palace is the celebrated Heidelberg tun, which con- 
tains 600 hogsheads. Heidelberg has three Lutheran, one 
Calvinist, and one Roman Catholic church, and a syna- 
gogue. It owes its chief renown to its university, which is 
the oldest in Grermany except that at Prague. It was founded 
in 1386 by the elector Ruprecht II., and soon acquired a high 
reputation to which its valuable library greatly contributed; 
for it gradually became possessed of 1956 Latin, 431 Greek, 
289 Hebrew, and 846 German manuscripts, in all 3522. The 
university continued to flourish till 1622, when the town was 
taken by Tilly, and the library sent by diike Maximilian of Ba- 
varia to Rome, as a present to Gregory XV., who placed it 
in the Vatican by the name of Bibliotheca Palatina. In 
1795 the French having compelled the pope to let them 

02 



H E I 



IM 



H£| 



take 500 mflmutohpto fnm the Vatiean» carried off 38 of 
tbe Heidelberg collection. In 1616, when FVanoe was 
obliged to restore all its plunder, the pope not only gave 
up tliose 38 manuscripts to Heidelberg, but, at the interven« 
tion of Austria and Prussia, ordered all the German manu- 
scripts to be restored. Accordingly 847 antient German 
manusoripts, and also the celebrated Codex Palatinus of the 
monk Oltfiried's poetical paraphrase of the Four Gospels, 
and four Latin manuscripts containing the history of the uni- 
versity, were delivered up to Heidelberg. Anewssra for the 
university commenced in 1 802, when it was assigned, together 
with the bailiwick, which has 80,000 inhabitants, besides the 
population of the town, to the grand-duke of Baden, who is 
of the Lutheran religion, and is himself the rector. The re- 
putation of the university is increasing, but the number of 
the students has been much reduced, because Prussian sub- 
jects must have a special permission from their government 
to visit it. Its annual revenue is now 108,000 florins, of 
which 84,000 are contributed by the government; and its 
library, much increased by the purchase of the librarv of the 
Cistercian convent of Salmansweiler (or Salem), is saia now to 
consist of 1 20,000 volumes. All the institutions and collec- 
tions attached to the university have been much improved ; 
and among the twenty professors are some of the most 
eminent men in Germany. The streets of tbe town are nar- 
row and gloomy, and there are no manufactures except on a 
small Ecale. Its trade is however improving, and the great 
beauty of the country and its many other advantages have 
caused a great number of foreigners to settle here. There 
are numerous descriptions of Heidelberg; one of tbe latest 
is Engelmann, 'Heidelbergs alte undneueZeit, Stadt, 
Universitat, Schloss, und Umgebungen.* 

HEIGHTS, MEASUREMENT OF. There are three 
very distinct ways by wliich heights may be measured. The 
first is by observation of the angles of elevation of objects, 
supposins; their distances to be known, which is explained 
roughly m works of trigonometry and mensuration, and 
with more precision in those on geodesy. [Mensuration.] 
The second serves for the measurement of heights in cases 
where not only the height of a summit is required, but also 
that of the slope which leads to it, at different distances 
fi'om the summit ; and this is done by means of tlie level. 
[LxvELLiNG.] The third, which we propose here to de- 
scribe more particularly, is accomplisl^d by means of the 
barometer. [B \rom stxr] 

If we ascend with a barometer through any height, the 
weight of the column of air which presses on the instrument 
is diminished, and the counterpoise, namely, tlie column of 
mercury under the vacuum, must diminish likewise ; that 
is, the mercurv must fall. The amount of this fall depends 
upon the height in question : and when the relation between 
the two is perfectly well ascertained, may be made the means 
of determining it. If the temperature at the higher and 
lower station were the same in all places and at all limes, 
and if the force of gravity were precisely tbe same at all 
heights, one formula would serve for all times and for 
different places, if the height of the barometer remained 
always the same at the same height above the sea. In such 
a case, one observation made in London a hundred years 
agOk combined with one made at Quito in the present time, 
would serve to determine the difference of level between 
those two places. And even as it is, the mean height of 
the barometer at the two places, when known, could be made 
to determine the point. But when only one or two obser- 
vations can be made at each place, the differences of tem- 
perature, &C., must be noted and allowed for: and this ne- 
cessity renders the numerical operations connected with the 
solution of the problem more intricate than they would 
otherwise be. 

If the temperature were unaltered during the ascent, and 
the force of giavity also remained uniform, the logarithms 
of the atmo^pheric pressures corresponding to different alti- 
tudes would decrease iu arithmetical proportion as tbe alti- 
tudes themselves inertaee in arithmetical proportion. Thus 
if at altitudes and h the logarithms of tne pressures were 
k and A - /, at an altitude 2 n the l<^arithm of tbe pressure 
would be A-2/, and so on. And since the height of the 
barometer is proportional to the pressure for the time being, 
this would lead to an equation of the form 

jT = c flog, h — log. hf) ; 

where t i» the difference of altitudes at two stations, and h 
and h' the heists of the mercury at the lower and upper 



atilioiif. niaii moved in every elmttenlirfvoik OB «iea« 
matics which proressea to apply the differential ealeuliia. 

The constant c might be aeCermined either from theory 
or actual measurement ; for if A and h' i^re known in any 
one oeae, end also z by trigonometrical or other meanire- 
ment, c might be determined, and being independent of jt, 
A, and h\ would then be known in all cases. But in truth 
e is not to be thus determined, for though independent of 
h and h\ it varies with temperature, the force of gravity, &c. 

1. If the temperature either of the higher or lower sta- 
tions be not the same in different observations, the multi- 
plier c will be of one value or another, depending on the 
temperatures. 

2. If the meroury be not of the same temperature at all 
times, its specific gravity will vary, so that a given column 
of it will not represent the same atmospheric pressure at all 
times. 

3. If tlie foree of gravity be taken into account, the pre«* 
sure taken off by the ascent will be a larger proportion of 
the whole pressure than was supposed in the investigation 
of the preceding formula, since it is taken from the part of 
the atmosphere where the force of gravity is greatest. This 
is independent of its ereater weight as being taken from 
the densest part of the atmosphere. The latter circum- 
stance has been already taken into account in the formula, 
and from it comes the law that the logarithms of the pres- 
sures diminish in arithmetical progression, since the pres- 
sures themselves would diminish in arithmetical progretsbiun 
if the density of the air were the same at all heights. 

We now proceed to describe two formula) made on flight 
differences of hypothesis as to the element of the problem 
about which we know least, namely, tbe law of variation of 
the temperature of the atmosphere. The first formula, 
which is nearly in the form given by Laplace, is taken from 
the second edition of Poisson's Mechanics, and supposes 
that the air intermediate between the higher and lower 
stations may be treated as if it had throughout the mean 
between the temperature of the two stations. The second, 
taken from Lindenau's Barometric Tables (Gotha, 1809), 
is on the supposition (which was also made by Euler and 
Oriani) that the temperature of the air diminishes in har- 
monic progression through a series of heights increasing in 
arithmetical progression. 

Let h and h! be the heights of the barometer at the lower 
and upper stations ; t ana /' the temperatures of the air ; 
T and T' those of the mercury (ascertained by a thermo- 
meter whose bulb is in the cistern) ; r the radius of the 
earth, supposed to be 6366198 metres or 69622S3 yard>; 
and X the latitude of the place. All the temperatures are 
in degrees of Fahrenheit. Let 



-*( 



I 



c = 




20053 



<jM^-64 
900 



) 



1 — -002588 
z = c (log. h — log. A). 

Tlien z itself is a near approximation to the number of 
yards in the difference of level between the two stationa 
(for metres use 18337 46 instead of 20053*95) ; but if a more 
exact one be required, it may be found by calculating (ubing 
2r itself as just found) 

c^log.A-log.A+21og.(l+^)Vl +iy 

When the lower station is at a great distance frt>m the 

higher on the earth's snrfkce, then five-eighths of ~ should 

be used instead of - in the last formula. 

r 

The preceding is the most accurate formula which tbe 
present state of science will allow to be given, and there \% 
reason to suppose that the constant 20053*95 could noK be 
altered by a single unit with any increase of correctness^ 
The folio wipg formula however is sufficient fbr ocdinajv 
purposes : — 

in which the constant 20115 is that determined by a tsxi- 
siderable number of comparisons of theory with trigono- 
«-#,L«i observation made by M. Ramond in the Pyrenoev 



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prinefMLl pictures of the Diiaseldorf Gallery, in a series of 
fetters to Gleim. A complete edition of his works in 1 
vols. 8vo., with a critical and biographical introduction by 
Laube, is now tn course of publication. 

HEINSIUS, DANIEL, was bom at Ghent in the year 
1580 or 1581. He was taken to England at an early age 
by his fkther, who was obliged to leave Holland in conse- 
quence of the part he took in the wars which then pre- 
Tailed in his native country. His fkther returned to 
Holland after a short time, and sent his son, at the age of 
fourteen, to study law at Franeker. But Heinsius, con- 
trary to the wish of his father, resolved to study antient 
literature ; and accordingly, after remaining at Franeker 
only ax months, he went to Leyden, where he prosecuted the 
study of the classics under Joseph Scaliger. At the age of 
eighteen he explained the Latin classics in the university, 
and seven years afterwards was appointed professor of his- 
tory and politics. In 1607 he was made librarian and secre- 
tary to the university. Heinsius was considered one of the 
most learned men of his time, and was repeatedly solicited 
by many of the monarchs of Europe to settle in their domi- 
nions ; but he refused to leave his native country, in which 
he died on the 23rd February, 1655, at the age of 75, He 
held the office of historian to the states of Holland, Arom 
which he received a handsome salary. He also took an active 
part in the theological warfare of the times, and was ap- 
pointed secretary to the celebrated synod of Dort in 1618. 

The name of Heinsius is principally known by his edi- 
tions of the Greek and Roman classics. But nis Latin 
poems, which are seldom read in the present day, were 
uighly esteemed by his contemporaries : they were pub- 
lished at Leyden in 1602. He also wrote some poems in 
his native language, which were published by Petrus 
Scriverius in 1616. 

The following is a list of the principal classical authors 
edited by Heinsius : — * Crepundia Siliana, sive notSB in 
Silium Italicum,* 1600; 'Theocritus,* 1603; •Hesiod,' 1603 ; 
' Paraphrasis Andronici Rhodii in Aristotelis Ethica,* 1607, 
1617; 'Maximi Tryrii Dissertationes,' 1607, 1614; 'Dis- 
sertatio de Nonni Dionysiacis,' 1610; ' Senecse Tragoedis/ 
1611; 'Aristotelis Poetica,' 1611, 1643; < Theophrastus 
Ercsius,* 1611, 1613; 'Horatius et de Satira Horatiana,' 
1612; ' Animadversiones et NotsD in Horatii Opera,' 1629 : 
'NotSB et Emendationes in Clementem Alexandrinum, 
1616 ; •Terence,' 1618 ; • Paraphrasis Perpetua in Politica 
Aristotelis,* 1621 ; Aristarchus sacer, sive Exercitationes ad 
Nonni Paraphrasin in Johannem,* 1627;* Ovid,' 1630, 
1653, 1661; 'Livy,' 1620, 1631, 1634; 'Aurelius Prudcn- 
tius,' 1637; < Exercitationes Sacne ad Novum Testamen- 
tum,' 1639. Heinsius was also the author of 'Rerum ad 
Sylvam Ducis atque alibi in Belgia aut a Belgis anno 
1629 Gestarum Historia,' Leyd., 1631, fol. ; 'Orationes 
varii Argument!,' Leyd.. 1615, 1620, 12mo. 

HEINSIUS, NICHOLAS, only son of Daniel Hein- 
sius, was born at Leyden, 29th July, 1620. His education 
was carefully attended to by his father, and be enjoved the 
advice and instruction of Gronovius, Grotius, and other 
learned men of the time. In 1642 he visited England, and 
afterwards went to France, Germany, and Italy, principally 
with the view of consulting MSS. of Ond and CUuaian. 
In 1649 he was invited by Christina, aueen of Sweden, to 
settle at Stockholm, where he remained till the death of his 
fkther in 1655. He resided principally in Holland during 
the remainder of his life. He was sent on a public mission 
to Russia in 1667. He died on the 7th October, 1681. 

Heinsius edited 'Claudian,* 1650, 1665; 'Ovid,' 1652, 
1661; 'Virgil,' 1676; •Valerius Flaccus,' 1680. His 
Latin poems were published at Amsterdam in 1666. He 
also left behind him many MSS. notes on the Latin poets, 
which have been published by Burmann, in his editions of 
Virgil.Valerius Flaccus, Silius Italicus, Phaedrus, &g. {Life 
qf HHnmtii prefixed to Burmann's ' Adversaria,' 4to., 1 742.) 

HEIR, by the law of England, is he who succeeds by 
right of blood to the real property or lands, tenements, and 
hereditaments of the deceased owner, designated by the 
correlative term of ancestor, not given away from him by 
will. The English law which determines the succession to 
personal property, when uncontrolled by local custom, is 
contained in the statutes of distributions (22 and 23 Chas. 
II.. c. 10: 29 Chas. II., c. 3; and 1 Jac. II., c, 17), which 
are founded upon the provisions of the civil law. The 
l)er^on& ^o entitled are not called heirs, but next of kin. 

Tlie several rules of descent which rej^ulate the right to 



iSuoceed to real property spring from the system of feudal 
tenures, but faavfe been somewhat modified by the recent 
statute of 3 and 4 Wm. IV., c. 106. [Descent; Entail, 
Estate ; Feudal System.] 

Heir-at-law, or heir-general, is he who succeeds acconl- 
ing to the rules explained in the article Descent, where 
there is no will of his ancestor and no instrument which 
determines a special course of descent. Heirspecial is he 
who succeeds m the order pointed out bv some instrumcot 
which determines such special course of aescent. [Entail.] 
Heir-apparent is he whose right of inheritance is mdef«a&i 
ble, provided he outlives his ancestor ; as the eldest son. 
Heir-presumptive is he who, if his ancestor should die im 
mediately, would in the present circumstances be his heir, 
but whose right of inheritance may be defeated by the birth 
of some nearer heir ; the brother or nephew of a man who 
has no children is heir-presumptive. Heir by custom is he 
whose right as heir is determined by certain cusiomarj 
modes of descent, which are attached to the land. [Ds* 
scent; Copyhold; Gavelkind.] 

The expression 'heirs by devise has also been someiimce 
used, though such are not strictly heirs according to the 
English law ; but have been so called inaccurately after the 
heres /actus of the Roman law. 

The rules of the civil law upon the subject long prevailed 
in SciAland, both in principle and practice. But various 
alterations have been made in the Scotch law of inheritance, 
and now the different descriptions of heirs are far more 
numerous than in either the English or the Roman law. 
Heirs-at-law are called heirs whatsomever. Heirs-in-taiU 
heirs of tailsie, and heirs of provision differ little in thctr 
nature. There are also heirs active, heirs by cotK^ucst, heir» 
of line, heirs passive, heirs male, and heira portioners, the 
particular distinctions between each of whom it is not ne» 
ccssary here to describe. [See Bell's Commentaries wui 
Principles^ and Lord Kames*s Law Tracts,) 

The French law of descent has followed the Roman law, 
lind the obligations and privileges of the heir axe essentia^Uy 
the same as there prescribed. 

In America the English law of descents has been in meat 
instances rejected, and each state seems to have cstabli^h«*d 
rules for itself. There is no entire information upon thi.s 
subject ; indeed chief justice Reeve in the preface to his 
* Treatise on the Law of Descent in America,* nas this strone 
passage, that the nation ' mav be said to have no gener^ 
law of descents, which probably has not fallen to the lot of 
anyother civilized country.* (Kent's Commentaries^ lect, 65. > 
^ The term heres in the Roman law has a very different 
signification from the term Heir in the English law. Tiie 
Roman term herecUtas denoted all the rights and obi ({na- 
tions of a testator or intestate ; and the hereSt when his tiile 
as such was completed, represented the person of the tesu- 
tor or intestate, and as a consequence succeeded to all hxs. 
rights and obligations. A man might by his will appoint 
one heres or more ; and the property of an intestate mi^ht 
devolve on one heres or more, but this made no different < 
with respect to their character. Each person was here^ ni 
proportion to his share of the inheritance. The Heree a|> 
pointed by will was called scriptus, or f actus, or testamett- 
tarius ; the heres who succeeded in case of inte&tar> . er 
lege, or legitimus, that is, appointed by the law, or ab inU t- 
tato. 

An imnortant distinction between heretles as cslabli^V. I 
by the ola Roman law was this, and the distinction \m* tl.. 
same (so far as it could be applicable) both in the case ui 
testacy and intestacy. All persons who were in the po«cr 
(potestas) of the testator, or intestate, during his lifotira«\ 
such as children not emancipated, and slaves, were obl^^^d 
to accept the inheritance with all its burdens; the inbcru- 
ance in fact devolved upon them by the will of the testator, 
and no act of assent on their part was necessary. Oihcc 
persons, not in the power of the testator, were only bound 
to undertake the burden of the testator's debts in cih«e ihc% 
accepted the inheritance, for which purpose their expre»-- 
assent was necessary. But by the legiidation of Ju5tinid;i 
the heres in all cases was only answerable for the debt> i^ 
the testator, or intestate, to the amount of the proper i> 
which such testator or intestate left behind him, of vhtc .. 
however the heres was required to make an inventory within 
a certain time. (Cod vi.. Tit. 30, 1. 22 ; Instit^ ii. 19.) 

The discussion of the various rights and duties of liw 
Roman heres scriptus belongs to the subjeot of wills. 

In the case of intestacy the distribution of the property 



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irts analogous to tne distribution of an intestato s personal 
estate by the English law The Roman law gave no pre- 
fereoce to an eldest son over a younger, or to a brother 
over a sister. Bmancipated sons, who, by the strict rule of 
the civil law, were excluded from the inheritance [Eman- 
cipationI were placed by Justinian's legislation on the 
same footing as children not emancipated. It is unneces- 
sary here to state more minutely the rules which regulated 
the distribution of an intestate's property. (/r»hV., iii. 1 ; 
Nop, Ua,c. 1, 2, 4.) 

It is important to conceive clearly the fundamental no- 
tion of the difference between the Roman heres and the 
English heir. The Roman heree, when Ins title to the 
inheritance was completed, represented the person of the 
testator or intestate, and so far corresponded to our execu- 
tor or administrator. His title to the property, as heres, 
was absolute and derived entirely from him to whose rights 
and obligations he succeeded. The English heir, according 
to the strict principles of tenure, derives his title to the land 
not from his immediate ancestor, as such, but by virtue of 
bis relationship by blood to the person who acquired the 
land, deduced through his immediate ancestor. The con- 
sequences which flow from tiiese two different notions of 
the Roman heree and English heir are numerous and im- 

g)rtant. They are well stated, in a general way, by Mr. 
utler in hia note on Coke-Litt^ 191a. The stat 4 Wm. IV., 
c. 1 04, which makes all a deceased person's estate in land 
liable to the payment of his debts, has materially affected 
the antient riffht of the English heir. 

HEIR-LOOMS are such goods and personal chattels as, 
contrvy to the nature of chattels, go to tho heir by special 
custom along with the inheritance, and not to the executor 
of the last proprietor. [Chattbls.] They are principally 
such things as cannot be removed without damage to the 
mheritanoe, as chimney-pieces, fixed tables, &c. Deer in 
an authorized park, fishes in a pond, deeds, charters, and 
eonrt-rolls, together with the chests in which they are con- 
tained, are hett-looms. And so it seems are Journals of the 
House of Lords in the possession of a peer. By special 
custom in some places carriages also and household imple- 
ments may be heir-looms. 

The termination 'loom * is of Saxon origin, in which lan- 
guage it signifies a limb or member; so that an heir-loom 
u nothing else but a limb or member of the inheritance. 
(2 BL Com.) Chattels are sometimes directed by testators 
to go to the heir, together with the inheritance, as heir- 
looms* and though it is the duty of the executors to carry 
the intention into effect so far as they can, yet the direction 
does not affect the rights of creditors, neither can it effec- 
tuallj prevent the devolution of the chattels according to 
their real nature. 

HBIAMYS, a genus of Rodents nearly allied to the 
Jerboas. [Pbdbtes.] 
HBLARCTOS. JBkar, vol. iv., p. 91.] 
H ELDER and HELDER CANAL. [Hollakd.] 
HRXENA, daughter of Constantino the Great and of 
Fausta, was given in marriage by her brother Constantius 
to her cousin Julian, when he made him Cssar, at Milan, 
A.O. 355. She followed her husband to his government of 
Gaul, and died in 359 at V ienne. The historian Ammia- 
nus Marcellinus (b. xvi., e. 10) reports that the Empress 
Susehia bribed Hyena's midwife, who occasioned the death 
of a son, the only child that Helena bore ; and yet Eusebia 
had been the constant protectress of her husband Julian. 
The tnitb of the story is doubted by Gibbon, in his ' De- 
cline and F^ll ' (ch. xix.). 

HS'LENA, ST., the first wife of Constantius Chlorus, 
WBa bom of obscure parents, in a village called Drepanum, 
in Bithynia, which was afterwards raised by her son Con- 
stantine to the rank of a city, under the name of Heleno- 
polis. Her husband Constantius, on being made Csesar by 
Dtocdetian and Maximianus (a.d. 292), repudiated Helena, 
and married Theodora, daughter of Maximianus. Helena 
withdrew into retirement, until her son Constantine, hav- 
ing beoome emperor and triumphed over his enemies, called 
h» mother to his court, and gave her the title of Augusta. 
He also gave her large sums of money, which she employed 
in building and endowing churches, and in relieving the 
poor. About the year 325 she set out on a pilgrimage to 
Paiestine, and having explored the site of Jerusalem, she 
tbought that she had discovered the sepulchre of Jesus 
Cunst, and also the cross on which he died. The identity 
&f the croa» which she found baa been rnueh doubled : she 



however built a church on the spot supposed to be that of 
the Sepulchre, which has continued to be venerated by that 
name to the present day. She also built a church at Beth- 
lehem in houour of the nativity of our Saviour. From 
Palestine she rejoined her son at Nicomedia, in Bithynia, 
where she expired in the year 327, at a very advanced age. 
She is numbered by the Roman Cliuroh among the saints. 
(Eusebius, Life qf Constantine; Hiilmer, De Crude Dond" 
nic€e per Helencan inventione, Helmstadt, 1 724.) 

HELE'NA, ST., an island in the Athmtic Ocean, 1200 
miles west of the coast of Benguela, in South Africa, and 
nearly in the latitude of Cape Negro, and about 1800 miles 
east of the coast of Brazil, in South America. Seen at a 
distance it appears like a lofty mass of barren rocks rising 
in a pyramidal form ; on a nearer approach, rugged and 
almost perpendicular cliffs, from 600 to 1200 feet high, are 
seen encompassing the island all round, broken through in 
several places by deep chasms which open to the sea-shore, 
and which form so many narrow valleys winding up to the 
table-land in the centre of the island. One of the principal 
of these openings is called James' Valley, on the north-west 
coast of the island, and at the opening of it to the sea is 
James' Town, the only town and port of the island, which 
is defended by strong batteries, and is the residence of 
the authorities. James' Town is in 15** 55' S. lat. and 
5® 49' W. long. Ascending James' Valley we arrive at 
the plain or table-land of Longwood, situated in the eastern 
part of the island, and consisting of 1500 acres of fine land, 
nearly 2000 feet above the sea, sloping gently towards the 
south-east Longwood House was the place of Napoleon's 
confinement and death, and his tomb is at a short distance 
from it, situated under a willow-tree, and covered by a plain 
tombstone without inscription, and enclosed by an iron rail- 
ing. In the centre of the island rises Diana's Feak, 2693 feet 
above the sea. A calcareous ridge, which runs across from 
east to west, sloping abruptly on the south, divides the island 
into two unequal parts, the larger and finer of which is on the 
north side of it, containing James' Valley, Rupert's Valley, 
Longwood Plain, the deep crater-like dell called the Devil's 
Punchbowl, the Briars, near which is a fine cascade. Planta- 
tion House, which is a country residence of the governor, 
&c. The whole circumference of the island is about 28 miles. 
The population, exclusive of the garrison, is about 5000, 
about one-third of which are Europeans, and the rest are 
blacks, men of colour, and Chinese. The climate of St. 
Helena is one of the healthiest under the tropics, and is 
found beneficial to invalids from India, and even from 
Europe. The range of the thermometer at Plantation 
House is from 6 1*' to 73^ within doors ; it sometimes fiills to 
52^ in the open air between June and September. In 
James' Town it is generally from 5 to 7 degrees higher 
than at Plantation House, and at Longwood it is somewhat 
lower. The summer rains fall in January or February, and 
the winter rains in July or August. Cloudy days are fre- 
quent and refreshing throughout the year. Viewed from 
the sea the island appears barren ; but the interior is covered 
with a rich verdure, and is watered by abundant springs ; the 
soil of the valleys is very rich, and produces all the fruits 
and flowers of Europe and Asia. Homed cattle, sheep, and 
goats feed on the rich pastures. Pretty cottages in pic- 
turesque situations are scattered about the island. (Ma- 
jor Beatson's Tracts relative to the Island of St. Helena^ 
written during a residence of five years, 4to., London, 1816, 
with plates.) The base of the island appears to be basalt, 
and lava and scorise are found scattered about the surface. 

The island of St Helena was discovered b^ the Portu- 

fuese in 1 502. It was afterwards taken possession of by the 
>utch, who abandoned it in 1651 for the Cape of Good 
Hope. The English East India Company then took pos- 
session of it, ana it became a resting-place for their ships 
between India and Europe. In our days it has become 
celebrated as the place of banishment of Napoleon, who 
resided there five years and a half. It is now still visited 
by ships returning from India, who take in fresh provisions 
and water, and on those occasions the place assumes the 
appearance of a bustling market-town. 

HELGOLAND, or HELIGOLAND, a group of islands 
in the German Ocean, on the west coast of Sphleswig, 25 
miles from the mouths of the Elbe, Weser, and Eider. It 
consists of the principal island, so called, of the Sand Island, 
or Downs, and of several cliffs and reefe, the chief of which 
is that called the Monk. The main island is divided into 
the cuff and the low land. The cliff is a rock rising 



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mlmost perpendicularly, and varying in elevation from 90 | 
to 1 / feet above the level of the sea. The ascent to it is 
by a flight of 191 steps. The summit is a tolerably level 
plain aboitt 4200 paces in circumference. It is joined by a 
bottom of rock, 500 paces long, to the low land, which is 
an uninhabited down, with two good harbours, and to the 
east of the down is a road where vessels may anchor in 
48 finthoms. The circumference of the whole island does 
not exceed three miles. In former ages it was of much 
greater extent ; and is said to have been the residence of a 
chief of the Sicambri or North Fiieslanders, and the seat 
of worship of a Saxon deity. 

Of the rapid waste of this island, Mr. Lyell presents the 
following notice. Helgoland began in the year 800 to be 
much consumed by the waves. In the years 1300, 1500, 
and 1649, other parts were swept away, till at last a small 
portion only of the original island remained, oonsistinii^ of 
a rock of red marl (of the Keuper formation of the Ger- 
mans), about 200 feet high. Since 1770 a current has cut 
a passage no less th^n ten fathoms deep through this re- 
maining portion, and has formed two islands, Helgoland and 
Sandy Island. iPrinciples of Geology, book ii., ch. 7.) 

The inhabitants of the island, 24U0 in number, live on 
the cliff. They are descended from the Frieslandere, and 
s^teak, besides the old Friesland language, the low German, 
retain their antient dress and customs, and subsist chiefiv 
by fishingp and acting as pilots. They obtain turf, wood, 
vegetables, &c. from Cuxhaven and Hamburg in exchange 
for fish. The low land has now only some fishermen's 
huts; but when the English took possession of it in 1807, 
during the war with Denmark,, and it became the depdt 
for goods which were smuggled into the Continental ports, 
the low land was covered with warehouses, and the popula- 
tion of the island increased to 4000. On the conclusion of 
peace in 1814 England retained possession of the island, 
probably for the sake of its double harbour, and for the ad- 
vantages which it offers for defence, in having two wells of 
good water. The English have erected four oatteries and 
a lighthouse on the cliff. They have a garrison and a gover- 
nor, but levy no taxes and do not interfere with the internal 
government. The lighthouse is in da'' 1 1' 84" N. lat. and T* 
&Z' 13" E. long. 

HELIACAL (QXtoc. the sun), a term applied to the rising 
of a star, when it takes place just before that of the sun. 
If we suppose a star not very mr from the sun's orbit, then 
as the sun approaches that star it will become for a season 
permanently invisible, for it will rise after the sun, and set 
after it also, the heavens remaining too light in the quarter 
of sunset to permit the star to be seen. But as soon as the 
orbital motion of the sun has carried it past the star, the 
latter will begin to rise first, and in process of time will rise 
so much before the sun as to become visible just before 
daylight. In this case it is said to rise heliacally: thus a 
star gets heliacally before its season of disappearance, and 
rises heliacally after its reappearance. The successive he- 
liacal risings of stars thus form a continued warning of the 
seasons, and were used for this purpose among some antient 
nations. But since the precession of the equinoxes slowly 
changes the offices of different stars with respect to the 
seasons, an antient record of the time of the year when a 
given star rose heliacally would enable us to make a rough 

Sucss at the number of centuries elapsed since the time of 
10 observation. Uiwn such a basis Newton rested a great 
part of his system of chronology, taking the descriptions of 
the heliacal risings of stars from Hesiod. 

HELICA'RION. [Hklicid;k.1 

HELrciD.12. HELIX FAMILY, the general name by 
which the land Bhell-&nails are distinguished. 

Mr. Grav, in his paper on 5/r«77/art« (Loudon's Magcunne 
of Natural History^ vol. i., new series), observes that zoolo- 
gists have divided land-shells into several genera; but that 
the late Baron F^nissac united most of them into a single 
genus, as he wished to establish as a rule, that all the genera 
of Molluscans should be alone characterixed by some pecu- 
liarity in the animal. *The increased knowledge,' continues 
Mr. Gray, * of the animal has shown that some of the 
species which he (F^russac) referred to the genus Helix 
have very different animals from the tvpical kinds ; and it 
is probable that eventually several of the genera established 
before his time (which be attempted to set aside) will be 
found to be true genera, according to hit own theory. The 
knowledge of the animal, and the history of several species 
which were unkaowa at tho time he wrote his systeOi have 



shown that several of the characters which he ooniidered 
as of generic importance are common to other species be- 
longing to quite different groups. Thus we now know that 
some Helices iCarocolla inveriicoloTt Balea Chemnitsii^ 
and some others) are viviparous, as well as the PartuUt ; 
that the degree of development in the lower pair of tenta- 
cles is variable in the different species of Pupa and Vertigo ; 
and that to separate the latter genus from the fonner. on 
account of the partial obliteration of these orffans» hMs the 
effect of dividing very nearly allied species. I am inclined 
to think that mese and numerous aimflar fiicts» which 
must be well known to every practical conchologist, show 
us that we are warranted in establishing genera from any 
pecuharity in the structure or form of a series of sheila, as 
well as on a peculiarity in the animal alone ; espeeially 
when we cotisider how very few of the animals of the differ- 
ent species which we are called upon to arrange are or e\er 
can be known ; and also as we constantly find by expenence 
that every peculiarity in the form or structure of tne shell 
is the indication of some peculiarity in the habit or organic 
structure of the animal wnich formed it, and warrant* its 
separation from the rest of the species of the family.' 

Having thus laid before the reader the difficulties with 
which the history of this very extensive famdy is surrounded, 
we shall first endeavour to give some account of the general 
organisation of the HelicuUe^ pronerly so called, as mani- 
fested in one of the most common forms. 

Organization.* 

Nutrient Organs. — In the museum of the Royal College 
of Surgeons, in London (Physiological Series, Gal/erv* 
No. 301), is a preparation of the la^e Shell-snail {Helix 
Pomatiot Linn.), showing the form or the mouth and the 

Eart which performs the office of teeth. Tliis is a dentat4'd 
omy substance, of a dark colour and arched form, situated 
transversely above the aperture of the mouth, and forming;, 
as it were, the margin of the upper lip ; the lower lip is 
divided by a vertical fissure. No. 302 of the same aerus 
shows in Uie head of another Shell-snail the same structurw 
of mouth. No. 767 shows the soft parts of Helix Famatia^ 
and the alimentary canal has been injected with site and 
vermilion; so that the salivary glandb, from their whita 
colour, may be distinctly perceivea upon the parietes of the 
stomach. These elands are of a flattened, elongated, and 
irregular form, ana of a conglomerate structure: they loar 
be seen diminishing in breath as they extend upwards 
towards the pharynx, where their duota terminate. Here 
also the semicircular, dentated, horny jaw, the course and 
termination of the alimentary canal, and the position and 
form of the liver, are well displayed. The next pieparmtioo 
(No. 766), which exhibits the mouth, cBsopbagus, and 
stomach of the same species, shows the junction of the t\to 
salivary glands at their lower extremities, and the tern inac- 
tion of their ducts. The oesophagus and stomach being laid 
open, their internal structure is seen. iCatal, GoL, voL l) 
Circulating System,— In the Shell-snail, Helix^ the 
heart is situated on the right side of the posterior third of 
the pulmonary sac ; and in the Slug, Limax, it is aituate*! 
at nearly the middle of the posterior surface of the pulmo- 
nary sac, and protected above by the rudimentary shell, so 
that this part of the structure in these animals is, as in 
other poinU, nearly allied. The preparation in the CoUege 
Museum, No. 882 {Gallery), is a specimen of Helix Awio/ra 
with the shell removed in order to show the heart, which 
is situated on the left side of the dorsal aspect of the bodv» 
near the posterior part of the branchial sac. The pericar- 
dium is laid open, and the heart being injected, the auricle, 
from its thinner parietes, is seen of a red colour; a bnsile 
is passed behind the ventricle, and the aorta may be »««n 
ramifying over the liver. No. 883 is a specimen of Lfmax 
ater, Linn. (Slug), to show the heart situated in the middle 
of the back. {Catalogue, Gallery, voL iL). 

Respiratory System,— In the same series the soft parts 
ot Helix Pomatia are prepared (No. 1081), to a^ow the pul- 
monary sac, which receives the air by an anterior oriftee on 
the right side of the neck. The sac is laid open fh>m that 
orifice to the opposite extremity; and the roof of the cavity. 
upon which the pulmonary artery, or eontinaation of the 
veins of the body, ramifies, u turned back to exhibit tba re> 
ticulation of the vascular and respiratory surfkce. like parts 
are injected with size and vermilion. No. 1082 ia a simi- 
lar specimen, with the left parietea of the pulmocaij see 

* The fMfdflr thoiaA MpeckUy eooMlt SwBBnM^a. la wl 
will And mat fscvUtat vwudu SB ths sBslQvy «r tlw fidW^ 



H E L 



105 



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removed, mnd the orifice by which the air is admitted and 
flKpelled left entire. No. 1083 is the portion of the vas- 
cular parietes of the pulmonary sac removed from the pre- 
osding preparation, and inverted to show the ramifications 
of the piilmonary vessels. These are oontinued from the 
veins of the body without the interposition of the propelling 
ventricle. Na 1084 is a similar preparation. No. 1085 
shows the loof of the pulmonary sac of another Helix 
Ihmaifa^wiih the vessel mjected ; and in No. 1086 there is, 
in a similar speeimen, a bristle inserted into the rectum, 
which terminates dme to the orifice of the pulmonary sac. 
(Catalt^gue, Gailery^ vol. iL) . 

Brain^ Nerwnu Sifstem^ and Semes, — ^Not being able to 
refer to any preparation of the nervous system of a Shell- 
snail, we most call the reader's attention to this nart of the 
organization in a slug, which so nearly correspontu with that 
of the Shell-snail as to afford a Teiy sufficient illustration. 
In the same series of the same noble collection is a prepa- 
ration of a slug (Limax nt^,Linn.)«-No. 1304— laid open 
longitudinally along the back to show the nervous system. 
The viscera are removed. * In this,' says Professor Owen, 
* as in other Bncephalous Mollusks, a well-developed gan- 
ghon is situated above the OBSophagus ; it is of a transverse 
snapo, slightly enlarged at its extremities, and supplies the 
antennsB, or horns, and the eyes. The oesophageal nervous 
ring is completed by a larger ganglion below the tube, from 
which numerous nerves radiate to supply the body. The 
principal nerves are the two inferior ones, wliich extend on 
either side the mesial line of the ventral surface straight to 
the opposite end of the body, giving off ner^*es to the unis- 
cular disk or foot from their outer sides. A small unsym- 
metrical ganglion is formed on the nerve, which supplies 
the heart and respiratory apparatus.* No. 1305 is the same 
species of slug laid open along the ventral aspect, and the 
viscera removed, to show more especially the subcesophageal 
ganglion and its nen*es. A bristle occupies the place of the 
iBtsophasua. No. 1306 exhibits the nervous system of a 
Black Slog removed from the body. {Catalogue, Gallery, 
v6L ii.) 

Touch, — ^In the Shell-snails the sense of touch will be 
readily supposed, by any one who has observed the motions 
of a common garden-snail, to reside especially in the ventral 
disk, or foot, and the lower tentacles. In the Museum of 
the College we find. No. 1391, a specimen of Helix Pomatia 
prepared to show the different character of the surface of 
the skin in the exposed and protected parts of the body : in 
the latter ii is thin and smooth ; in the former, thick, vas- 
cular, and rugose. No. 1392 is a snail injected, slit down 
the back and eviscerated, to show the vascularity of the foot. 
No. 1393 is a snail injected, with one pair of tentacles, 
vhicb serve as special instruments of touch, extended. 
Here too the pulmonary cavity is laid open. {Catalogue, 
Gailerw^ vol. iL) 

StffAl. — In the gallery {Phyeiologieal Series) of the same 
nrh musenm is a preparation of a Helix Pomatia (No. 
1756) with the posterior tentacles or horns extended, show- 
ing the eye-specks, or ocelli, situated at the side of the 
extremity of each horn. * In this position, although desti- 
tute of appropriate muscles, the eyes have the advantage of 
ail the mobility with which the tentacle itself is endowed ; 
and by the admirable construction of the same part, they 
are defended from external injury by being retracted and 
lOTerted, together with the extremity on which they are 
fupported within the cavity of the tentacle, as in a sheath*.* 
(l%ofessor Owen, Catalogue, Gallery, vol. iii.) 

Gstteraiive Fimctions. — ^In the common shell-snails {He- 
/i», the male and female sexual organs are complete in 
one individual, but it requires a reciprocal junction of two 
individnala to produce a nruitful impregnation. The situa- 
tion of these organs is at the anterior orifice of the neck; 
and at the time of congress a sharp horny or glass- like ex- 
citatory appendage is protruded, apparently for the purpose 
of stimulus. Some assert that these appendages are aoso- 
Intely shot out from the body of one snail into the body of 
another, and engravings even exist where two snails are 
represented at a distance from each other reciprocally 

dtwribM the eyes in deteil ; but Mme are of optokm that 

■bore allnded to are not ^yes. Sir Erocard Home Ueni«d that they 

I evs^iit s aa4 to doet M. Gatpenl, who allowa the mail no aenses, 

efterie umI toadw the latter of whioh he admtta it to poeieM in an 

orMkacT. See M. Gaapaid'* * Memoir on the Hhysiokgy of 

(Mi^ofie*! Jomrnut tfe PkythL, torn. ii.. p. 895. et teq. ; and 

ef Om paper, vhb notae* by T. BeH. Em.. 2eol. Jbera., toI. i.) 

Btwrie/a paper ' On Certain Omuib of the WkOrn, tenaUy le- 

iirma.lEe.* (ZeelL /Mm., toL Ii.) 

P. Ce No. 737. 




darting these spioula amoris, some of which are seen 
actually in the intervening space, and others on the ground. 
With all due submission, we do not believe that the spiculum 
amoris is ever thrown : we have had opportunities of ex* 
araining the common garden shell-snails frequently when 
engaged in the reproduction of the species, and have never 
seen the hard excitatory appendage thrown firom the body 
of the snail. Col. Montagu, it appears, is of the same 
opinion. He admits the existence of the spicula in the 
animal of Helix aspersa, as well as Helix nemoralis (or at 
least some of them) ; but ' that they are missile darts,* he 
continues, ' we have much reason to doubt, though it is 
natural to suppose the animals are furnished with them for 
the purpose of stimulating each other to love, because it is 
onlv at that season they are found to possess them. If 
such are ever discharged at each other, we have been ex- 
tremely unfortunate in our observations, for in no one 
instance could we ever find the dart penetrated, though at 
the time the animals are close the point may irritate ; but 
it is neither sufficiently strong nor sharp pointed to pene- 
trate the tough skin with which these animals are fur- 
nished; and indeed the extremely viscid secretion with 
which they arc so copiously provided adheres so strongly to 
these spiculi (spicula), when wholly projected from the 
body, that they are for a time held by it Perhaps we may 
be told hereafter, that this tough excretory fluid is used as 
a cord to regain these darts after they have been dis- 
charged; but such we should hold equally fabulous with 
much of the accounts related by various authors. These 
celebrated love- darts are subpellucid, white, and very 
brittle, about one-fourth or three-eighths of an inch in 
long til, and somewhat triangular like the blade of a small 
sword.' {Testacea Britanmca.) Dr. Maton often observed 
these spicula, but never saw them actually projected Urorn 
one to the other. 

Where the reproduction is by means of eggs, as it is in 
the great majority of Helicidee, these are either enveloped 
in a skin and round, as in the common garden snail, or 
provided with a hard calcareous shell, generally of a white 
or of a dirty white colour, as in Achatina and Bulinus. 
[BuLiNus, vol. vi., p. 8.] These hard-shelled eggs are gene- 
rally oval : in other instances they are round. Specimens 
of these eggs, some whole, some showing the young shell 
included, and others showing it breaking out of the ej^e- 
shell, are now in the British Museum (from Mr. Brodenp s 
collection). In the museum of the Ck)llcge of Surgeons are 
several preparations, showine the organs of generation in 
the shell-snail, now numbered from 3UU0 to 3008, but these 
numbers will be changed when the catalogue of that part 
of the collection comes to be printed, and we have reason 
to believe that it will be printed in the course of a year. 

Power of repairing Injuries. — ^Tlie power which snails, 
in common with other testaceous mollusks, possess of re- 
pairing their shells, is known to most observers, and requires 
no comment; but the extent to which these animals will 
repair lesions of the soft parts, and even reproduce some of 
the principal ones after they have been deprived of them, 
is deserving of notice. The works of SchoefTcr, Spallan- 
zani, Bonnet, and others bear testimony to the wonderful 
vis vit€B in these animals, and its energy in replacing parts, 
the deprivation of some of which must, it migbt have been 

Sreviously thought, have been followed by immediate 
eath. Spallanxani cut ofT one of a snail's horns : it began 
to bud again in about 25 days, and continued to grow till it 
was equal in length to the other. He removed part of the 
head: in course of time the part was renewed. Not that 
this was always the case in those instances where the entire 
head had been taken off; but even in these instances the 
snail often recovered, and at the end of a few months ap- 
peared with a new bead in all respects equal to the old one. 
The snails so treated retired into their shells the moment 
the operation was over, and there they concealed themselves 
for weeks and even months, covering the aperture with the 
parchment-like secretion so well known to those who have 
seen this temporary sort of operculum. When forced out 
for examination at the end of thirty or forty days, some ap- 
peared without any marks of renewal ; bu t in others, especially 
in those cases which had the advantage of warm weather, 
there was a fleshy globule towards the middle of the trunk, 
soft, and whitish- ash in colour. At this period no organiza- 
tion was detected in the globule. But in eight or ten days 
the globule became larger, rudiipents of lips were seen, and 
of the smaller horns, mouth, and tongue. A membrana^ 

•^ VoL.XH.-P 



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106 



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eeous substance was observed fixed in the upper jaw : this 
proved to be the new tooth. The parts then became further 
developed and more conspicuous, occupying a greater space, 
and in two or three months the injury was so completely 
repaired that the lighter colour only of the new head served 
to distinguish it from the old one. These experiments were 
oonfirmed by others, bv Grerardi among the rest 

Hybernation.— M. Gaspaid remarks that in our tempe- 
rate climate, as soon as the first autumnal chills are felt, 
about the commencement of October, generally. Helix 
Bnnatia becomes indolent, loses its appetite, and associates 
in considerable numbers on hillocks, the banks of ditches, 
in thickets, hedges, and such places. In a day or two the 
animals cease feeding, expel the last contents of the in- 
testines, and then hide themselves under moss, grass, dead 
leaves, or the like rubbish. Here each forms for itself, 
with the anterior part of its muscular foot, a cavity suffi- 
ciently large to contain at least ita shell : this cavity it en- 
larges and excavates by turning itself round on every side, 
then raising itself against the sides of the cavity, and at 
last against the roof formed of moss or leaves, or a small 
quantity of earth brought there by its motions. When it 
has succeeded in bringing the aperture of the shell to 
nearly a horisnntal position, it stops. The foot is soon con- 
tracted within the sliell, the snail then expands, so as com- 
pletely to cover it, the collar of the mantle, which is at this 
period very white; and then inspires a quantity of aii, 
after which it closes the respiratory hole. When this is 
done, a fine transparent membrane is formed with its 
mucus, and interposed between the mantle and any ex- 
traneous substances lying above. The mantle then secretes 
a quantity of very white fluid over its whole surface, which 
sets uniformly, like plaster of Paris, and instantly forming 
a continuous covering about half a line thick. When this 
is hardenetl, the animal separates its mantle from it by 
another and stronger mucous secretion; and after a few 
hours, expelling a portion of the air it had previously in- 
spired, it is enabled to shrink a little farther into the shell. 
It now forms another lamina of mucus, expires more air, 
and thiis retires farther into the shell. In this way some- 
times a fourth, fifth, and even sixth partition are formed, 
with intermediate cells filled with air. Such is M. Gas- 
pard's account ; but Mr. Bell remarks that it does not 
completely explain the manner in which the excavation is 
formed. ' It is not by the pressure of the foot,' says the 
last-named zoologist, * and the turning round of the shell, 
that this is principally effected* A large quantity of very 
viscid mucus is secreted on the under surface of the foot, to 
which a layer of earth or dead leaves adheres; this is 
turned on one side, and a fresh secretion being thrown out, 
the layer of earth mixed with mucus is left. The animal 
then takes another layer of earth on the bottom of the foot, 
turns it also to the part where he intends to form the wall 
of his habitation^ and leaves it in the same manner, repeat- 
ing the process until the cavity is sufficiently large, and 
thus making the sides smooth, even, and compact In 
forming the dome or arch of the form, a similar method is 
used, the foot collecting on its under surface a quantity of 
earth; and the animu turning it upwards, leaves it by 
throwing out fresh mucus, and this is repeated until a 
perfect roof is formed. As I have very often watched this 
curious process, I am certain of the facts. On removing 
very carefully a portion of the roof soon after its completion, 
I was enabled to see the formation of the operculum. In 
about an hour, or even less, after the hyoemaculum is 
covered in, the whole surface of the collar of the mantle 
instantaneously pours out the calcareous secretion in consi- 
derable quantity. This is at first as fluid as thick cream, 
but very soon acquires exactly the consistence of bird-lime, 
being excessively adhesive and tenacious ; and in about an 
hour after it is poured out it is perfectly solid.* 

M. Gaspard states that the labour of each individual con- 
tinues for about two or three days ; but that the whole of 
the month of October is occupied by the general closing of 
the shells of the species. He adds that about the begin- 
ning of April the hybernation ceases. * The mode by which 
their escape from confinement is eflected is simple and 
easily comprehended. The air which is contained in the 
different cells, and which had been expired on Uie animal 
withdrawing itself fiirther and farther into the shell after 
the formation of the operculum, is again inspired, and each 
separate membranous partition broken by the pressure of 
the hinder parts of the foot projected through tne mantle. 



When it arrives at the caleareous opereulum, the animal, 
making a last eflbtt, bursts and detaches ita most obtuse 
angle. Then insinuating by little and little the edge of tbo 
foot between the shell and the opereulam, it fStem the 
latter off or breaks it away.' (See tne Abstract of M. Gas- 
pard*s Memoir, with notes, byT. Ball, F.L.S., 'Zoological 
Journal,' vol. i, the whole of which is well worthy tho 
perusal of the student in natural history and physiology.) 

STtrailATICAI. AiaUlfOBMBNT AlTD NaTUKAL HlfTORT. 

We now proceed to give a sketch of the views of sya- 
tematists with regard to this numerous tribe of animals. 

The genus Idmax (Slugs) is placed by Linnaeus at the 
head of the MoUueea in his last edition of the ' Systema 
Naturss,' and is numbered 282. The genus Helix is num- 
berad 328, and oonsequentlv is widely separated by bim 
from Limax. Both land and firesh-water testaceous gastro- 
pods wera assembled under this genus, which stands between 
Turbo and Neriia. 

Cuvier's Pulmonis Terrestres, or Terrestrial PuJmonife- 
rous MoUushst consisted of the Slugs, Limaces {Limax of 
Linnaeus, including Vdsrinulus, Testacella^ and J^trjna- 
cella), the Eseargots (Helix), the Nompareilles {Clausilia, 
Drap.), and the Agatines(Achatinci,Lam»). 

Under Helix, Cuvier arranges Helix, Vitrina (Helioo- 
limax), Bulimus, Pupa, Chondrus, and SucdnecL 

Then come the Clausilia (Turbo perversus. Turbo bidens^ 
Linn., &c., &c.). 

The Achatince, including Liguus and Polyphemus of D« 
Montfort, follow. 

Lamarck defines his ColimacSs to be air-breathing Tra- 
chelipods (TrachSlipodes atricoles), provided with or de- 
prived of an operculum, and having cylindraoeous tentacles. 
Their shell he characterizes as spirivalve, having no pro- 
jecting parts on its exterior except the striss and riblets 
(costules) of growth, and whose aperture is often recurs e<l 
or reflected outwards. He divides this, the firat family uf 
his Phytiphagous (plant-eating) Trachelipods, into the fol- 
lowing sections and genera : — 

(a) Four Tentacles. 

Helix, Carocolla, Anostoma, Helicina, Pupa^ Clausi/ia^ 
BtdimuSf Achatina^ Succinea. 

<b) TwoTenUcles. 

Auricula and Cyclostoma, 
M. de F^russac makes the fourth and fifth orders of Gas- 
tropods, consist of the Pulmoniferous Gastropods without 
an operoulum (Pulmones sans opercule), aud the Pulmo* 
niferous Gastropods with an operculum (Pulmonis Oper* 
culcs). 

The fourth order consists of the following suborders and 
genera : — 

1st Suborder. Geophila. 

The 1st family of this order consists of the different ge- 
nera of Slufi^s, and of ParmaceUa, Testacella, &c 

The 2nd family embraces the following genera of Smmls 
— Helicarion, Helicolimax, Helix, Verttgo^ Paritda. 

2iid Suborder. €rehydrophila. 

3rd Family (Les Auricules), Caryehiunt, Scarabus, An- 
ricula, Pyramidella, TomateUa, Pedipes. 

3rd Suborder. Hygrophila. 

This suborder consists of the Limneans or Waier^Snails, 
such as Limneea, Planorbis, &c. 
The fifth order contains two families :— • 

1st. The Helicinians (Helidna), 
2nd. The Turbicinians (Cyelosioma}, 

' The Pulmobranehiaia form the fint order of M. de Blain- 
ville*s Paracephalophora Monoica, the second subclass of 
the second class (Parcephalophora) of his Malaeozoa, 

M. de Blainvdle gives the following description of the 
Pulmobranchiata .-— 

Organs of respiration retiform or aSrian, lining the roof 
and floor (plafond) of the cavity situated obliquely from 
left to ri^ht on the oriein of the hsuck of the animal, and 
communicating with tne ambient fluid by a small rounded 
orifice, pierced on the right side of the swollen (renfl^) 
border of the mantle. All these animals are moce or less 
framed for breathing air ; the eraater part are terrestrial ; 
some live on the banks of fresh watery and others on the 
sea-banka (rivage dt« mers.) None bury fliemaelvea in 



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107 



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the miid» yfiOk the exception of the Limnaoeans, during the 
rigoroue season; all are phytiphagooa. Some of them are 
known in all lands. 

M. de BlainvUle divides the Ptdfnobranehiaia into the 
£>Uowing families and genera: — 

1st FmmilTi the Lmnacecmi* (LimnaOf Physot Pionor- 
bis.) 

2nd Fam^ the Auriculaoeans. (PedipeSf Auricula, Py- 
ramideiia,) 

3rd Fam^ the Limacinians. (Succinea, Bulimw, Acha' 
tinot ClatuiUa, ^tpa^ Tomogeres, Helix, Helicolimax : — 
Testacellot Parmacella, LimaeeUcL, Limax, OnchidiumJ) 

M . Latreille divides the Pulmonii, his fourth order of his 
4r<l section of Gastropods (the HermaphroditesX into the 
following families and genera : — 

1st Fam^ Nudilimaces. (The Slugs* and ParmaeeUot 
Tettacella, &c) 

2nd Fam*, G^ooodilides. (Helicarionf Vitrine (Heli- 
colimaxX Suodn^th Helixp Carocolhi^ Anostoma, Pupa, 
Chondnu (Chrenaille), Ciausilia, Bulimua, AchoHnot Ver- 
tigo, PartuUL} 

3rd Famn limnoeoohlides. (Carychium^ Scarabus, Au- 
rieulOf Conovukit Coinduk^ Lirmuea, Phyia, PUmorbis, 
Ancuht9,y 

The teeond section, the Dicedous Gastropods, consists of 
his fifth order (Pnei^xnnes), and contains two families : — 
1st. The Helidnides (Helicina). 2nd. The Turbicines 

iCuelostomaX 

M. Ranff in his 'Tableau M6thodique' makes the Lima' 
fans of Ferussao {Trachelipodes colimaeis of Lamarck; 
Idmaeinis of De Blainville; GSocochlides of Latreille) the 
second iamilv of the Pulmoncs inoperad6s of F6rus8ac 
{PutmuibranJies of De Blainville). 

M. Rang, following De F^russac, thus, with some slight 
altentiona^ defines and arranges the family: — Animal 
elongated, having the body distinct from the foot, and 
fi>nning a twisted spiral, rarely fiimished with a cuirass, but 
alwavs showing a fleshy collar which closes the shell. Ten- 
taeula to the number of four, rarely two, the upper ocellated. 
Pulmonary cavity placed forward, and opening^ in the thick- 
ness of the collar. Organs qf generation umted in front ; 
Tent near the respiratory orifice. Shell always spiral, very 
variable in form, receiving the animal more or loss com- 
pletely. Terrestrial. 

t Tbtracksous. 
A* A cuirass and a collar. 
Genera. Vitrina, Draparnaud (Helicolimax and He- 
liearion of Ferussao). 

B. A collar without a cuirass. 
Genera. HeHx, Muller {Helix, Suecinea, Amphibu- 
limMS, Acatms, Pohdontes, Tomogeres, Anostoma, Caro- 
colla, Bulimus, Achatina, Polyphemus, Pupa, Clausilia, 
&C &C., F^r.). 

(t) Redundantes. 
t Volutatm* — Helicoides, 

L Subgenus. HehcophaniOt F^nissac. 

Peristome simple. 

Ist Group. Vitrinoides, F. (Helix brevipes, &c.) 

Peristome thickened and subrefleoted. 

2nd Group. Vesicular, F. (H. Cq/ra, &c.) 

tt EvohUata .'-^Coehloides, 

II. Subgenus. Coehlohydra, F. (Suceinea, Drap. ; Am- 
phibuUma, Lam. ; Amphibulimus, Montf.) 

(tt) Inclusee. 
t Volutata: — Helicoides, 

m. Subgenus. Helicogena, ¥6r. (Helix^ Linn.) 
Gi^umella solid and twisted. 

Ist Group. Columellaite, 
a. Peristome simple. (Helix naticoides,%LC.) 
$. Peristome reflected or thickened. (Helix Jamaieensis, &c.) 

Shell perforated. 

2nd Group. Psfforata, F. (HeUx ligata, &c.) 

Shell umbilicated : umbilicus entirely covered. 

a. Shell globulose or subtrochoid. 

3rd Ghroup. Acaioi (Helix aspersa, &c.). 

Shell imperforate. 
fi. Shell somewhat aepressed (surbaiss^e). ' 

4th Group, ImperforaUg, F. 
• Month rounded ; pedstome open. (Helix guttata^ 



2. Mouth sinuous; peristome strongly reflecteol. (Hehx 
squamosa, &c.) 

3. Mouth turning over (versante); columellar border 
sinuous, flattened, and subdentated. (Helix cognata, 
&c.) 

IV. Subgenus. Helieodonta, F. (Tomogeres, Montf.; 

Anostoma, Lam.) 

1st Group. The Grimaces, Personatee, F. (Helix dentiens, 

&c.) 

Aperture defended by one or more elongated and in- 
ternal lamin&B. 

2nd Group. Lamellatce, F. 
. * Man^ laminm. (Helix carabinata, &c.) 
** A sm^le lamina. (Helix labyrintkica.) 
Peristome fbmished with large teeth, one of which at the 
base of the columella forms a gutter. 

3rd Group. Maxillatm, PolydonUs, Montf. (Helix im- 

perator, &c) 

Mouth reversed, furnished with elevated folds, the im- 
pressions of which are visible outwards. 

4th Group. AnosiomeSf F.; Anostoma^ (Helix ringens, 

&c.) 
Interior border of the aperture furnished near the peri- 
stome, with elevated, longitudinal folds, the impressions 
of which are visible outwards. 

5th Group. Impresses. (Helix cepa, &c.) 

V. Subgenus. Helicigona, F. 

Umbilicus covered. 
1st Group. Carocolla, Montf. (Helix angistoma, &c.> 
Umbilicus masked or visible. 
2nd Group. Vortices, Ok. (Helix marginata, &c.) 

VI. Subgenus. Helicella,¥. 

Peristome reflected. 
1st Ckoup. Lomastomes, LomMtoma, F. (Helix carasca- 

lensis, &c.) 

Peristome simple. 

2nd Grou]). Aplostomes, Aplostoma, F. 

* VerticUU. (Helix lineata, &c.) 

** Hyalime. (Helix olivetorum, &c.) 

*** Fasciaia. (Helix Candida, &c.) 

Peristome bordered. 

a. Shell horn-colour or brown, nearly uniooloured, rarely 
fasciated, often hairy; peristome rather spread; epi- 
dermis caducous. 

3rd Group. Hygromanes, F. (HeUx dnctella, &c.) 

^p. Shell white or reddish, very much ornamented with 
bands or small vivid-colouied lines ; epidermis insen« 
sible, never hairy ; sometimes carinated ; peristome 
bordered but not spread. 

4th Group. Heliomanes, F. 
* Shell somewhat depressed or globulose. (Helix groyana, 

&c) 

" Here it ia Uiat the new genus StrepUuis aboQld be inserted. Mr. Gray, who 
estabUshed it, states (Loudon's Maga^MifNatMratHiMtorv, vol- U Ntw Striu), 
that the Antique lamp (Htlix rmgent, I^m.)» en which Lamarck established 
his genus Jmittoma, had been long known and valued, on aooount of its rarity 
and strange form ; the animal tunung up the last whorl befon It oompletea its 
growUi, so that tlie mouth of the shell is even with the outer snzftoe of the 
spire. A similar farm, Mr. Gray remarlis, has been laldy observed among the 
fossil shells, which on aceoont of its reaemblanoe to the QidoifMaoCa by the 
roundness and simplicity of its mouth, M. Deshayes has separated into a genus 
under the name of Strophoitoma. (See Post, Fenutima, p. 109.^ Mr. Gray in 
his paper on the stnicture of sliells {Phil Tnmt.. 1838) pointsa oat that some 
lana SDeUa» as Htli» eonttua, when they arrive at a certain period of their 
growth, throw their whorls out of the regular series, as if the sheU had been 
crushed, producing what may be considered as a natural f ^stortioi. Having 
■ince that time h^ the opportunity of observins several other species of a 
similar structure, and ftndiug that they sU agreed m the general form and posi- 
tion of their mouth, Mr. Gray was inaueed to consider them as forming a pe- 
culiar group, for wlUch he has proposed the name of StrwfUuni. One of the 
spedes, lie states, forms, during the dry season* a hard, uiin* calcareous epi- 
phragma, differing considerably in structure flrom any that has hitherto been 
observed among the HtHddm ; but this, be observea, may be only a peenliarity 
of the species, though the epipkrojfma in this family <»ten forms a good sub- 
sidiary cWaeter. llie following is Mr. Gny*s deflnifion of StrtpttuiM :— 

AMnalVOuHeHMr 

SMi ovate or oblong ; when yoong, Bub*hemispherical, deeply umbQIeated, 
with rapidly enlarging whorls. At length the nenuMmate whorl is bent to* 
wards the ngbt and dorsal side of the asds. ana the umbiUcns becomes oom- 
pruasod and often nearly closed. The mouth Innate ; the edge aUghUy thickened 
and reflezed, and often with a single tooth on the outer nde of tne inner or 
hbMlerlip. 

Mr. Gray gives six speeieef which he sabdividea into Ave aections, and says 
that these shells inhabit the tropical nezts of Africa and South America ; and 
that two of the species of theee two distant countries appear to be very nearly 
allied. He ftother observes* that the animals of these shells, like the Anm^ama, 
fcc, must remain sstisSed with the site of the shell after they have onee formed 
its month, as they cannot alter it by reabsorption, as many of Uie titUeet do* 
wfthontramovtBg the whole of the hut whorl; for* if anew wboii were added 
to it, it wooU •Btiiely illM the foim of U&e sheU. 

Pa 




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106 



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•• Shell trochoid tad a little cftrinalod. (IWt* ffrmm- 

data, &c.) 
VIL Suhgenus. Heiiroifyia, F. 
Columella ttrait ; pomlome simple ; shell subdeprested. 
iBt GfDup. AplratomM, Api^atoma. F. {Helix miselia, &c.) 
CalurooUa twiited, truncated as it were at iU baic. or fur- 
niftbcd wilh an internal spiial rib, formini? a gutter anU 
appearing under the form of a tooth or callo'^ity. 
2nd Group? Canaliculatof. V. (Helix deUcaiula, &c.) 
Columella flattened, without either tooth or lamina, form- 
ing a sort of gutter at ite intersection with the penul- 
timate whorl ; peristome reflected. 
3rd Group. Marginatif, F. (H^hx studenum, &c.) 
•ff Kvolutats. Ofchlmdet, 
• Mouth generally toothless. 
1. Columella solid, 
a. En JUet, not truncated at its base. 

VIII. Subgenus. 0»chlottyla, F. 

Peri.slome re!K'cted. 

Isl Group. Lumantom* f. F. ilhhx tneta/urmis^ &c.) 

Peristome simple. 
2nd Group. Ajhiiomn, F. (Helix Dufretnii, &c) 
fl. Columella si»Ud. tUtienetl, and truncated at lU base, 
t Shell conic or very veniricose ; aperture enlarged. 

IX. Subgenus. Cochlitoma^ F. 
Shell conical ; mouth short ; anterior border advanced. 
Ut Group. The Buban$. F. (Heiix exarata, &c.) 
Shell veniricose ; mouth very large ; cxtcniol border m a 

vertical dire**lion. 

*ind Group. A^htittfue. 
i-y Shell ovoid or turnculated; niouih elongated and 
narrow. 

X. Subgenus. C-jchlicopa, F. 
Sholl ovoid ; mouth long ; exterior border in a verticsl 

IM firiup.* The T/./y/iA^^Jr. Montf. {Helix PWjiotm*, &c ) 
Shell lurriculated, mouth short, external border a little 

advnnre«l. ^ , . » x 

'\m\ Group, Styloiiles F. {HeUx fuimtnea, &c.) 
2. Shell perforated or umbilicated ; umbdicus masked 

or unro\cred ; peristome simple. . . r 

a. WhoiU of the spire equalised; the laat whori shorter 

than the otbera united. 

XI. Subgenus. CoMicello^ F. 
Only group. Turrita, F. {Helix conoi(Ua,Su.) 

p. La«»t whorl of the soire generally Urger and longer 
thnn the others united. 

XIL SubgeQUt. CoMogena, F. 

t Peristome simple or thickened, bat with sharp edges. 
m. Shell umbilicated, columella straight 

1st Group. Umbilicatef, F. {Helix /hmmaia, Ue^) 
^ Shell perforated, columella twisted. 

2nd Group. Per/oraUt^ F. 
* Shell oblong. {Hehxfcuciolaia, fce.) 
•• Shell otoid. {Helix eoMtulata,U,c.) 
tt Peristome reflected or dentated. 
Mouth cfeeoent-shaped, without either teeth or folds ; 
pmstome roflected and regular ; columella twisted, perto- 
ratctl ; lea whorl of the spire sometimes shorter tlian the 

otbetaitAited. 

3rd Group. LomoitomeM, F. 

• La*t whorl of the spire larger and longer than the 
others united; shell ornamented with vivid colours. 
(//WtxKiroivtfi, &c) 
** Last whorl shorter and lens than the others united ; 

shell anieoloofwd. {Helix Beticaia, &c.) 
Mouth short, crescent-shaped ; peristome simple or 
thirkrned and regular; columella twisted, more or less 
pr<»)c«tmg and bwit, or furnished with a plait which turns 
uiiun tt and make* it appear subtruncated ; umbdicus 
maskf^ or easctly closed ; Ust whorl of the spire soom- 
time* thorter than the others united. 

4th Group. HelicUrte, F. ; Achatim^Ua, 8w. 
• Shell coniform. {Helit vulp^na. fcc.) 
** Shell tofDculated. {Heltx immUlla,Ut,) 
*** Shell o^oid. ( Helix tntits, fcc) 
Mouth angtiUr al iu eitreaitie^ or ortifoid sapwiorlfi 



often narrowed by the sinuositiea of the «Umal bord^- 
columella large, more or less spiral, and forming a nU 
more or less projecting in the aperture. Peristome tb.rk 
and reflected ; last wliorl of the spire longer and mw cuu- 
vex than the others united. 



5th Group. Slomotoidee, F. {H^x Aurit Liptn$,h^>} 
Mouth crescent-shaped, rather anguhur at iuextrenitica* 
most frequently furnished with short teeth at the penstome, 
which is bordered or a little opened out or reflected ; neter 
any lamin© ; columella twisted. hoUow, **"«»^ *• •'» 
base, or forming a protuberance ; generally perforateo. 

6th Group. DontoikmeSf F. 
(•) Laat whorl of the spire larger and longer than the 

others united. {Helix Auru Bopsr, &c) 
r*) Whoris of the spire equaliied, often preeaed 

row. {Helix turgefu^ &c) 
C«) Mouth generally IhmUhed with teeth or 

1. Without gutters ; peristome genendly note 

XIIL Subgenus. Coehlodomla. F. 

Shell cylindrical. 
1st Group. Pupa, YAHelix Uva, fee.) 
Shell fusiform. 
2nd Group. Cereal e$, F. {Helix McficfmS, fc«.) 

2. One or two gutters; peristome generally conttnoooa. 

XIV. Subgenus. CoModina^ F. 

(^) Shell right-handed, 
t Mouth without teeth or laminv. 
Peristome not continuous. 
1st Group. Pfijioides, F. (Helix Carimmla. fcc.) 

Peri»tome continuous, 
ond Group. Tracheloidef, F. {Helix Sloami, fce.) 
•tt Mouth armed with great plaiU or elongated teeth 
{Helix Uarganttta,) 

(••) Shell left-handed. 
Mouth without any lamina. Balett, ^'^t 
3rd Group. AnnmaleM, F. (Helix perver ea, fc f. ^ 
Mouth armed (with laminv, one of which perfoma t-e 
part of an elastic operculum). • #» •, 

4th Group. Claueilia, Urapamaud. (//e/i.r icrheoUte^ icr i 

DtCKROUS. 

Genera. VerUgo. (MuJler.) 
Animal elongated, demi-cylindrical with a rather Saqf* 
spiral body and a collar closing the shell ; only two tentac^-^ 
lone, obconical, retractile, rounded at thjwr extrrm m . 
orifice of the pulmonary cavity upon the eollar and t*» tf« 
right, approximated by that of the vent ; organs of gr«rr . 
tion united and showing ihcir orifice near the light tcnuc.«>. 

^*!sAW/*%liudrical. very spiral; aperture straight, mV^ 
direction of the axis, short, often dentated; peruiuine «ft. 
sinuous and reflected ; right or left banded tdeitra. ■ 

sinistral). . «* 

Partula. (Frmssac.) 

Animal v\ ,ngated. demi-cyhndrical with a rather b-y- 
spiral body ; a collar closing the shell and ^^^ ^^ 
orifice of tlie pulmonary cavity on the right and at tfar t^ 
temal anale of the aperture; two tentarke only, cylr-ln. . 
and rctracule, ocellated on their summit ; «K^ ol gn-s- 
ration uuiied ? sliowing their orifice near the ngM tAtac.- 

Ovo viviparous. , , _ . 

SMI oval, pointed ; spire conical, last whorl ««»^ »"* 
longer than the others united, whorls of the spue ^^'f^ 
six; aperture straight in the direction of the ans. sfcsn. 
sooietimes dentated or famUhed with fWyayJ Inor.--^ . 
ptrUtome cuinmonlj very much .refleeied. wit^ t»e 
the same vertical plane ; columellar aide or 1^ <^ 
lU base ; dextral or sinistral. 

M. Hang's 3rd fiunily of inopercuUte . , 
luskuconsnU of the AwrieuUM of Fety saae <^"^?^^^ *''* " 
De Blainville ; AunctUid^ of Gray ; iiwaufinaiiiw t ^ -- 
Her) of Latredle). These are either «f "J**™^ »arrs 
and one has been announced aa fluviatil e. T^ •«r 
hend the genera CafyeMum. Ayir itto CAr sy ••> ' 
fiovu/o. Lam. ; MelampuM. MontCK '^'*pVl*i*}l~ 
To these may be added Chilima, Gray ; JcM IUrt»a.- 
■nd Marinuk King. None of theae can he 
belong to the Hehctddt. properly so eaOed. 

The 4th fomily. the LimiMOt ^ !«■»» t 



Brb- H-a> 


im«i. /..■■mv--^'iif 


' f^sllrnH -. ,-Mllartijrl.ut | tiialo "ic;" fW'lia'dl ti\ si.'filBPulie.nn tlf^«!H4^^* (ilMle* ^^H 








. d. ^B 








1Mb. ^H 
















iu^^ ^m 








■"n H 








^^H 




K" 




.3 ■ 




k': 








^■V'' 


.rUlntUlni. 

■ lliirutiu Ii'iiU,-1ll* 


M ■ 




^^K< 1. 








Hnit> 


















lUijecf, tra muu __. 




^B>. ' 


. ., ^„ 


I'lut-.'i'l \i} Mr. Unj ill II.C -Aiis.ii> ot PliOonphy' ^^H 






1 hnad 


T^mtthsK ^^^H 






. .J ilie 












^^C*'' 


' luru* 


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..... .-■A.i.-toi ^^M 









BEL 1 

MuuoD dtat, at pTMnit. OBij ■ few g«n«ra, u Anon >nd 
Helicarion, Ytx., Nanina, Onj, and Slenopu*, GuildinR, 
oan t>e referrad with oertaintf to the Arionidm; but ho 
Ihiukt it very probable that, Then the Bniinak of other 
ahelli are known, many of them may be found to belmig to 
that thmily. 

Geogn^Meal Distribution and Habitt,— The H»liad<a 
are moat widely diffused over the surfoce of the earth ; 
scarcely any countriei but thoie where the climate is tur- 
patsingly rigorous are without aome speciei of the family. 
Many of the shells are (trikiDgly beautiful in form and 
colour, and tbew are mostly the inhabitant* of intertropical 
countries. Sorae of the genera {Achaiina, for instance) 
attain a very large siie, and lay ega^ in proportion. Helix 
atpersa, the common Harden -snail, is distributed over a 
large portion of the globe. It is found, for instanoe, at the 
foot of Chimbora^, in the forests of Guiana and Braiil, 
and OD all the coasts of the Hedilerranean in Europe, Asia, 
and Africa. Helix Pomatia has been naturalized with lu, 
nnd is still found in some countries. The flnt importation 
i>i attributed by some to Sir Kenelm Digby. Merrett men- 
tions it ai a British inhabitant belbre his time. A moist and 
rather warm state of the atmosphere seems most congenial 
to this family. To avoid great dry heat they get under 
stones, under old trunks of trees, leaves, &c. Sec., and some 
of the apeoiea will burrow into the earth for protection 
■gainst it. A shower will bring them forth in such num- 
bers lomelimes, the smaller species especially, as to induce 
the belief in some cases that it has been raining snails. 
Kmt of the speciei hvbemate. 

Utility to Man. — The Helicidiv, from their voracity, are 
very injurious to the esriculturist and horticulturist; but 
there can b« no doubt that the larger species are good food. 
We know that they were a Civourile dish with the Romans, 
who had their coekUaria. where they were regularly fat- 
tened with new wine boiled down and meal Uapa el farre, 
&C.). (Pliny, Hiet, lib. ii., c. 56.) Heiix Pomatia is 
used as food in many parts of Europe during Lent, and the 
snails are kept in an eicargotoire (snaillery), which is ge- 
nerally a large place boarded in, having tlie floor covered 
half a foot deep with herbs, where the animals fatten. 
Many are familiar with the passage in Pliny Uoe. eit.), who, 
on Uie authority of Varro, relates the incredible size to 
which the art of fattening had brought the snails. There 
must, one should think, he some mistake in the text, which 
says, 'Cujus arlii gloria in eam magnitudinem perducta sit, 
ut octoginta quadranles caperent singulamm calices.' Pen- 
nant, referrinr to this and to Varru{Z>« Se Rutlica), says, 
' If we should credit Varro, they grew so large that the 
shells of some would hold (en quarts! People need not 
admire tba temperance of the supper of the younger Pliny 
(Epiit^ lib. i. ; Epiil. xv.), which consisted of only a let- 
tuce B-piece, throe snails, two eggs, a barley cake, sweet 
wine and snow, in case his snails bore any proportion to 
those of Hirpinus.' 

Tlie following cuts, and those given under BtiLiHtiLua 
and Bi'LtNUS, will afford the reader an idea of some of the 
forms of the Helieidtt .* — Anostoma, Slreplaxis, CarocoUa, 
Balea, Partula, Vertigo, Clausilia, Cyclosioma. 





H E L 



111 



H E L 





t, dtoaOk MacMCftreiMb ; h, the iam«, Inokeo, to thow the elaouum, e. 







;<i^.^uni\jj 




«. Cvdoeloau involToloe ; h^ Cydeeloma elegaas, with the animal : e, Cycloe- 
lD<aa ektfaaa ; ahowiog the alteniate ooatracUon of the two sides of the 
aaimal's fiioC. 

Fossil HsugidjE. 

Fossil species of Helicidee are by no means rare. Thus 
M. Deshayes enumerates thirty-five species of Helix* two of 
Anostoma, one of HelicinOj three of Pupa, two of Clausilic^ 
three of BuUmus^ three of Achatina^ seven of Pedipes, and 
six of Cyclostomat &c., as fossil (tertiary), mostly in the 
Pliocene period of Lyell, and many of them as both living 
and fossil. 

The student should consult especially the great work of 
F^ruBsac, and the writings of Cuvier, De Blainville, Des- 
hayesy Drapamaud, Gray, Lamarck, Linnoeus, De Montfort, 
Montagu, Rang, Sowerby, Swainson, &o. &c., and the 
works of Bonnet, Gaspard, Reaumur, Redi, Sch(Bffer« Spal- 
lanxani, and Swammerdam. ite will find many new species 
recorded in the * Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 
London,' and in Miiller's ' Synopsis Testaceorum * (Berlin, 
1S36). He should also consult M. Bouillet*s ' Catalogue 
of the Terrestrial and Fluviatile Testacea of Auvergne, 
both recent and fossil ;* among the latter are two species 
of Vertigo, 

HELICI'NA. [Hklicid*.] 

HBLICOLI^AX. [Helicida.] 

HELICOSTEHJUES. [FoRAMimFKRA, voL x., p. 348.] 

HELICTIS, Mr. Gray's name for a genus of quadru- 
peds, which inhabits eastern Asia and has the general 
appearance and colouring of Mydaus, combined with a den- 
tition resembling that of Oulo or Musiela, but differine 
from both the latter genera in the l&rge internal centra! 
lobe of the upper carnivorous tooth. The genus is thus 
characterised by Mr. Gray : — 

Dental Formula:— Incisors (primores) -; Canines (lani- 

6 



arii) 



1 — 1 
TIT' 



molars 



5-6 
5-6 



Head elongated. Feet short; soles of the feet nearly 
naked to the heel; toes 5—5; claws strong, the anterior 
ones long and compressed. Tail cylindrical and moderate. 

Mr. Gray exhibited to the Zoological Society one species, 
HelidU moschata, the entire length of which was 23^ 
mchcs» of which the tail measured 8. Inhabits C!hina and 
smells strongW of musk. For further particulars see Zool. 
Proe^ 1831. lGulo, vol. xi., p. 483.] 

HELIER, ST. rJxBSET.J 

HELIOCENTRIC (having the sun as centre), a term 
applied to the place of a planet, as seen from the centre of 
the sun« in opposition to its geocentric place, as seen from 
iivb centre or the earth. [Parallax.] 

HEUODCyRUS, was bom at Emesa in Syria, in the 
fourth century of the Christian sDra. He was bishop of 
Tricca in Thessaly, and is said to have introduced into his 
diocese the custom oS deposing from their office all priests 
who lived with their wives after their ordination. 

He wrote in his youth a romance in the Greek language 
entitled ' Athiopica,' which contains an account of the won- 
derftil adventures of two lovers, Chariclea, the daughter of 



Hydaspes, king of Ethiopia, and Theagenes, a noble Thessa- 
lian. It has been remarked that the work of Heliodorus 
served as a kind of model to the subsequent Greek writers 
of romance. Though not without merit m point of style and 
animated description, it belongs to that kind of works of 
fiction which deal in improbabilities and strange adventures, 
and in no respect approaches to that class which fix our at- 
tention and nold mst our sympathies by exhibiting a por- 
trait of human life and its accidents. This work was pub- 
lished fbr the first time by Obsopoeus, 4to., Basel', 1534 ; af- 
terwards by Commelinus, 8vo., 1596; Bourdelotius, 8to., 
Paris, 1619 ; Parens, 8vo., Frankf., 1631 ; Schmidius, 8vo.» 
Leip., 1772; Mitscherlich, 2 vols. 8vo., Bipont edition; but 
the best edition is by Coray, 2 vols. 8vo., Paris, 1 804. The 
' ^thiopica ' has been translated into most of the modem 
European languages :— into French by Amyot, Paris, 1549, 
1559; anonymous, 8vo., Paris, 1623; anonymous, 8vo., 
Lend. (Paris), 1743, Paris, 1757; by Quenneville, 3 vols. 
12mo., Paris, 1803 :— into Spanish by Ferdinand de Mena, 
12mo., 1616: — into Italian by Ghini, 1556, frequently re- 
printed : — into Grerman by Meinhard, 2 vols. 8vOh Leip., 
1767 ; and by Gottling, 8vo., 1822, said to be a good trans- 
lation: — into English by Underdowne, 4to., 1587; Lisle, 
4to., 1622; Tate, 8vo., 1686 and 1753; anonvmous, 2 vols. 
l2mo., 1791: — into Dutch, 12mo., 1669; and into Polish, 
8vo., 1606. At least half a dozen other Greek writers of 
the name of Heliodorus are mentioned. 

HELIOGABA'LUS. [Elagabalus.] 

HELIO'METER (^Xtoc, the * sun,' and filrpov, ' measure') 
is the name given by M. Bouguer to a micrometer invented 
by himself about 1745, by means of which the diameters of 
the heavenly bodies may be measured with considerable 
accuracy. In Bouguer*s construction the tube was of a 
conical form, and provided with two object-glasses of equal 
focal length, which were so adjusted as to admit of being 
moved in a direction transverse to the axis of the tube. By 
this contrivance the two images which are formed in the 
focus of the eye-glass may be made to diverge, coincide or 
lap over each other, b^ merely varying the distance between 
the centres of the obiect-glasses, and this distance is indi 
cated by a graduated scale attached to the tube. When 
the two images coincide, the angle subtended by the observed 
objects will be eaual to that subtended by the centres of the 
object-glasses, wnich being known, the magnitude of the 
observed object may readily be computed when its distance 
is given, or the distance determined when its magnitude is 
given. As this instrument does not differ in principle 
from the divided object-glass micrometer, the reader is 
referred to the article MicaoMETSR ; and for further in- 
formation relative to the invention, see the ' M^moires de 
I'Acad^mie Roy ale des Sciences,' 1748, p. 11. [Bououvii*] 

HELIO'POLIS. [Baalbkk; Egypt.] 

HELIO'PORA, a genus of stonv Polyparia, established 
by Blainville, from observations of MM. Quoy and Gaimard 
on a recent species called by Lamarck Pocillopora cserulea. 

Generic Cnaracter, — ^Animals short and cylindrical, pro- 
vided with a simple circle of thick tentacula, fifteen or 
sixteen in number, contained in vertical or diverging cylin- 
drical cells; cells immersed, internally crenulated by im- 
perfect radiating lamellss, united into a calcareous mass, 
which is r^;ularly porous in the intervals of the cells. The 
Coral is found attached to various bodies. 

Three recent species are mentioned by Blainville, all from 
warm seas. One of the fossil species (Heliopora porosa, 
Bl. ; H. interstincta, Bronn) abounds in strata of the Si- 
lurian system; others occur in the chalk and in tertiary 
deposits. {Manuel d^ActinologieJ) 

HELIORNIS, Bonaterre*s name for a genus of water- 
birds iGrcbifoulques of Buffbn) which have lobated feet like 
the Coots and Grebes, but with a greater development of 
tail and sharper claws. [Podoa.] 

HELIOSCOPE (a Greek term signifying literally ' sun- 
observer ') is a kind of telescope adapted for making obser- 
vations upon the sun without the eye being injured by the 
intense brightness of the solar rays. Dr. Hooke wrote a 
treatise in 1742 expressly on the subject of helioscopes, 
wherein he recommends four reflecting-glasses to be so 
placed within the tube of the telescope that the solar rays 
may suffer four reflexions before they strike the eye ; and 
thus, he observes, their intensity will be reduced to the 
256th part of their original intensity. Hevelius and other 
philosophers preferred the use of coloured glasses, which 
IS the oommon practice of the present day ; while Huygcna 



HE L 



112 



H EL 



nwely Uaektlied the iniwr tide of ths «ye-gUM by holding 
it over the smoke of a lamp or candle. (Dr. Uooko*s 
treatise, above mentioned.) 

HELIOSTAT (^Xmc, the 'sun/ and the root irro. ^la, to 
*put or place') is the name given to an instrument em- 
ployed in optical experiments to fix the position of the solar 
ray. 'Experiments upon the physical properties of light are 
usually made in a room so darkened as only to admit the 
solar rays through a single aperture. The solar ray thus 
admitted is in two respects unfavourably circumstanced for 
being operated upon. In the first place, from the ordinary 
elevation of the sun« the ray enters the room obliquely, is 
immediately thrown upon the floor» and thereby that por* 
tion of its length which can be experimented upon is incon- 
veniently limited ; secondly, from the rotation of the earth 
the ray can only be admitted during a few hours in the day, 
and even during that time the position of the ray will be 
constantly changing, and will thus require a corresponding 
change in the position of the lens or other object employed 
in the experiment. To remedy these inconveniences is the 
object of the heliostat, invented by s'Gravesande, by means 
of which the solar ray may be fixed at pleasure in any de- 
aired position. It consists of a plane metallic mirror pro- 
vided with a vertical and horizontal movement, and of a 
clock, the index of which moves in a plane parallel to that 
of the equinoctial. The extremity of the index is connected 
with the hinder part of the mirror by means of a long cy- 
lindrical rod adjusted perpendicularlv to the plane of the 
mirror. Tho subordinate parts, which are numerous and 
complicated, are explainea in Desaguliers's translation of 
s*Gravesande*s * Natural Philosophy,' vol. ii., p. 1 07, ed. 1 74 7 ; 
and in Biot's ' Physique Experimentale,* torn, ii., cap. 4. 

HELIX. [Hblxcid.«.] 

HELIX. rScRKW.] 

HELLA'NiCUS, one of the early Greek prose writers, 
was born at Mitylene in the island of Lesoos, b.c. 496 
{GelL, XV. 23). Accordine to Lucian {Macrob., c. 22) he 
•lived to the age of 85. I^iidas says that he lived at the 
court of Amyntas, king of Macedon, together with Herodo- 
tus ; but this statement is inaccurate, since there was no 
king of Macedon of the name of Amyntas during the lives 
of Hellanicus or Herodotus. 

He wrote several works, which are frequently quoted by 
antient writers; of which the most important appear to 
have been, a ' History of Argos,' arrangea in chronological 
order, according to the successive priestesses of the temple 
of Hera in that city ; a ' History of Attica, Cyprus, i£olia, 
and Lesbos ;' an account of Phosnicia, Persia, Scylhia, and 
other Eastern nations ; and some geograplilcal pieces. Hel- 
lanicus is mentioned bv Thucydidos (i. 97), 

The fragments which remain of the writings of Hellani- 
cus were published by Sturz, 8vo., Leip. 1 787 ; 2nd edi- 
tion, 1626; and in the 'Museum Criticum/ vol. ii., p. 90- 
107, Camb. 1826. 

HELLEBORE, WHITE. [Vbratrdm Album.] 

HBLLE'BORUS, a genus of exogenous plants belonging 
to the natural order Ranunculaccso, among which it is 
known by its having eieht to ten very short tubular petals, 
permanent sepals, and from three to ten leathery follicles. 
The most remarkable species is that which produced the 
' Black Hellebore,* a dangerous acrid poison, much used by 
tlie antient Greek physicians in mania, epilepsy, and dropsy. 
This plant, the Helleborus ori^talis of botanists, was found 
by Sibthorp abundantly in mountainous broken ground in 
Greece and the Levant, where it is still used medicinal! v 
under the name oi scarvhe (Srap^ii). It has a thick black 
rhizoma, pedate leaves aowny on the under side, and corym- 
bose purple flowers. Except in the colour of the flowers and 
downy leaves, it resembles the Helleborus niger, or Christ- 
mas rose, an alpine plant now common in gardens, where it 
tluwera about Cliristmas time, whence its common name. 
Other species are H. viridis and fcetidui, two herbaceous 
plants with green flowers; of these the properties are 
nearly the same as tho^ of /f. orientalist but less energetic. 
Their leaves are emetic and purgative, and are recom- 
mended as an active vermifuge. 

HELLE'RORUS OFFICINAIJS (Salisbury), H. 
Orientally (Dec.), has been substituted in the Pharmaco- 
puMa for the H. N iger, from a belief that it is more powerful. 
It 11 a perennial species, growing in mountainous places in 
the East, and used to be collected hy the antients in Eu- 
booa, BoBotia, on Helicon, (Eta, and in the island of Anti- 
oyn; by the moderns it is g&thtred in Greece and the 



Levanti at mtnUoiMd in the previous articl«b Tb« r<vit« 
which is the part employed, is black» the caudex thick, liio 
fibres cylindrical: it is extremely acrid. 

The root of H. Niger will long continue to beemployed as 
the officinal one, and it is to be regretted that many other 
roots, especially those of Aetna spicata and Adonia lem-t- 
lis are often intentionally or acciaentally sold in ita stemL 
These may be discriminated by physical characters (parti- 
cularly the internal structure) and by chemical tests. The 
activity of Hellebore seems to reside in its re^ous matter, 
for which rectified (not prooO spirit k the proper menstruum. 

Like most ranunculaceous plants hellebore can occasion 
rubefaction and inflammation of any surface wiih which it 
is brought in contact: when taken Into the stomach id a 
moderate dose it gently stimulates it and the other viscera 
of the abdomen ; out in large doses it is a fatal poison. It 
was celebrated in antient times as a cure for various fv^rnis 
of insanity, which it sometimes accomplished by ita dra»iic 
action on the bowels; and it has been employed occa&ionaUy 
in this and some other diseases in modem times. It u bou - 
ever a dangerous medicine, and one which it is rarely ne- 
cessary to have recoune ta 

HELLE'NES. [Grxkcb.] 

HELLESPONT. [Dardanelles.] 

HELMET, an antient armour of defence for the head, 
still worn by the officers and soldien of some of our ca\alr> 
regiments. Its original name was Helm, possibly borrowcU 
from the Latin (of the lower age) helmus. Skinner how- 
ever derives it from the Anglo-Saxon verb hilar^ to bide. 
' Helm' certainly occurs both in Ca)dmon*s ' Paraphraiie* 
and in the Saxon Gospels, as well as in iElfric*s 'Glosaar>/ 
Helmet was probably adopted, in the middle ago, from iLcs 
Italian elmetto. 

As a part of defensive armour the helmet is of high anti- 
quitv: some sort of covering of this description for the 
heou appears to have been worn by the warriors of eicry 
country. Helmets were found even among the inhabiianu 
of the South Sea Islands when discovered by Captain Cook. 
Among the oldest specimens now remaining are probably 
the two helmets found on the field of Canne in 1752, prv- 
served in Sir William Hamilton's collection in the Bnti^h 
Museum. Another antient helmet, bearing an inscription, 
found at Olympia, was presented to the British Museum l> 
Kinff Greorge iV. 

The form of the Greek helmet and its general descripti lu 
may be collected from various passages of the Greek wnicra 
from Homer downwards, and more especially from the u>c- 
dais and marbles on which it is represented. [Athene, 
p. 13, and the Library qf Entertaining Knowledge (lU^t.*: 
and Totmley Marbles), published by the Society for tl»c 
Diffusion of useful Knowledge.] It does not appear th.it 
the Greek or Roman helmet usually protected the f;i< o. 
Both the helmets found at Canno nowever protect the 
face, and have projecting nasals. Lipsius's treatise IJ" 
Militia Romana (iii., c. 5) contains a full accotint of the !<o- 
man helmet, with which the reader may compare the platc^t 
and descriptions in the third volume of Count de Ca)lu<«.\ 
Recueil d*Antiq, For the helmets in more modem use 
Grose's Treatise, and Meyrick's Critical Account, qf" An- 
tient Armour must be referred to. Among the varieties 
which had separate names we find theChapelle de Fer, tl»c 
Bacinet, the Burgonet, the Castle, the Huflcen, the Morion, 
the Salade, and the Skull. Tlicse were almost invariably 
of steel. There was also the Justing Helmet, used in tour- 
naments, which was sometimes of leather. 

The nasal, the venfaih; or moveable fh>nt, the m»r, 
lifted up by pivots, and the beror, to allow of drinking* were 
the names of parts of certain helmets introduced at differ • 
ent periods, and not always used. 

As ornaments over the shield or coat of arms, helmets 
are still used in heraldry. The f\ill-faced helmet with ».\ 
bars, all of gold, damasked, is for the sovereign and prmrvs 
of the blood; the full-faced helmet of steel lbrmaraui^> 
and dukes ; earls, viscounts, and barons have a proole <c 
side-standing helmet of steel ornamented with bars ; ti.c 
full-faced helmet of steel, with the visor or beror opeu. :* 
for baronets and knights ; the profile helmet, stc«l. with 
the visor closed, for an esquire. 

HELMONT, VAN. [Cheihwrv.] 

HELM8TEDT, a town in the district of Scbonmgen 
in the duchy of Brunswick, 52' IS* N. lat. and 11* K. lon^^ 
has about 6 3 DO inhabitants, who carry on a pretty consider- 
able trade. Holmstedt was formerly the scat ot a untier- 



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113 



H EL 



rfly, whieli was fimnded in 1575 by Duke JuLua of Brans- 
wiek, and wu supported at the joint expense of the prin- 
ctpaliiies of Wolfenbuttel and Galenberg. It was one of 
tbe most fiourisbing universities in Grermany, till the fonn- 
dstion of that of Gottingen in 1734. In 1735 the elector 
of HanoTer, as sovereign of Galenberg, ceased to contribute 
bis share towards its support, and m 1809 Jerome Bona- 

Sirte. king of Westphalia, suppressed it entirely. Besides 
e fine buildinff formerly occupied by the university, and 
now appropriated to the district tribunal, there are the gym- 
nasium, the church of the Holy Sepulchre, and tbe town- 
hall. The old town had a rampart, with four gates, now 
eoQverted into a promenade with an avenue of lime-trees. 
In the neighbouring romantic forest of Marienberg are 
much frequented medicinal springs ; and on the Cornelius- 
berg are the Liibbensteine, or four enormous altars of 
Thor and Odin, surrounded with a circle of single stones. 
(Kunhard's Beitrdge zur Oeschiehie der Umverntat H, ; 
and Ludwig's GesMchie und Beschreibung der Stadt H. 
1821.) 

HEL0I8B. [Abblard.] 

HEIXyNIAS. [Cbyadilla.] 

MELO'PIDiB (Leach), a famUy of Coleopterous insects 
of the section Heteromera and subsection Stenelytra. Dis- 
tinguishing characters: — head short, obtusely terminated 
anteriorly; mandibles notched at the apex; antennsD placed 
near the eyes, generally filiform, or nearly so, or slightly 
thickened at the apex, where the joints are short; the basal 
joint of the antennse hidden above by a projected margin 
of the head ; tbe third ioint long ; terminal joint of the 
maxtllaiy palpi large and securiform ; eyes emarginated an- 
teriorly ; legs moderate ; the penultimate joint of the tarsi 
generally simple or but slightly emarginated ; claws simple ; 
body usually convex, and of an oval form. 

Toe larvB of these insects live in rotten wood, upon which 
Vbev feed ; tbey are of a cylindrical form, hard to the touch, 
smf have six small legs, attached, two to each of the thoracic 
Mgments. The perfect insects are, like the larva, also 
found in rotten wood, or under the bark of trees ; they are 
raher slow in their movements, and generally adorned with 
metallic colours. 

In the genus Helops, as it is now restricted, the joints of 
the antennas are somewhat compressed ; the two basal joints 
are short, the third is long ; the two or three terminal joints 
are short and obconic, the last joint is the shortest ; the in- 
termediate joints are moderately long and nearly cylindrical. 
Tbe thorax approaches to a square form, or is slightly at- 
tenuated behind, and is closely applied to the elytra : the 
bodv is of an oblong oval form. 

6eUjps Carabdides^ an insect very abundant in various 
parts of England, will afford an example of this genus. It 
js father less than half an inch in length, of an oval form 
ind deep brown colour, having a bronze gloss in certain 
Uzhts ; the upper surface of the body is finely punctured, 
and so are the strisD of the elytra. This insect is usually 
found under the bark of trees, near the root. 

Helopi C€Bruleui is another species of this genus, which 
ii common in many parts of England. This insect is nearly 
three-quarters of an inch in length, and of a violet-blue 
flolour. It is generally found in old pollard willow-trees. 
The larva is cylindrical in form, of a yellowish-white colour, 
ind has two recurved hooks on the terminal segment of the 
bodv. 

u pwards of sixty species of the genus Helops are enume- 
ratea in catalogues, and these are chiefly confined to 
Europe and North America. 

HELOTS. [Sparta.] 

HBLSINGFORS, the capital of the Russian govern- 
ment of Finland, at the mouth of the Wanna, in 60"" 10^ 
N. lai., and 26* O' 15'^ E. lone. It has now about 10,000 
mhabitants, and a considerable export trade in com, fish, 
iron, and deals ; and important manufactures of sailcloth, 
ncking, and linen. The town was built by Oustovus I. 
of Sweden, and burnt in the Russian war in 1728. The 
fine harbour is defended by several forts„ especially the 
V strong fortress Sweaborg. Finland having been taken 
by the Russians in 1808, and ceded to them at the peace in 
1809, DO pains have been spared by them to render it an 
impcRiant naval station. Since 1815 a plan for enlarging 
the town has been carrving into effect. Masses of rock 
have been blown up and inequalities levelled in order to 
obtain a site fbr the new btuldings. Among the public 
sdifioea the most remaikal^le are the palace of tho go- 
P C» No« 738. 



vemor and the barracks ; and Hkewise the magnificent 
building for assemblies, on the Esplanade, which was 
finished in 1833. After the destructive fire at Abo, the 
tmiversity, called Alexander's University, was transferred by 
an ukase of 21st December, 1827, to Hebingfors. It is 
divided into Ibmr fkculties, with 22 professors ; and has a 
library and botanic garden. There are now above 400 
students. 

HELSTON. [Cornwall.] 

HELVELLYN. [Cuhbkrland.] 

HELVETIUS, CLAUDE-ADRIEN, was bom at Paris 
in January, 1715, and was educated at the Jesuits College 
of Louis-le-Grand, where his earlier years were fkr from 
betokening those talents of shrewdness and observation 
which his writings subsequently exhibited. Having passed 
through a course of legal study, Helvetius was sent to his 
maternal uncle d'Armancourt, directeur des/ermes at Caen, 
in order to acquire a practical knowledge of finance, and 
he shortly afterwards obtained the lucrative appointment of 
fermier-gtniral, through the influence of the queen Marie 
Leczinsky, to whom his father was physician. But dis- 
gttsted with the oppressive nature of its auties, which how- 
ever he discharged with singular lenity, he resigned this 
situation, and purchased that of chamberlain to the queen's 
household. At this period Helvetius led a disorderly life, 
without having any elevated or moral end in view, though 
his general conduct was relieved by occasional acts of the 
noblest generosity. Into these excesses he appears to have 
been led by an inordinate vanity atbjrst for universal admi- 
ration. Thus, in order to gain the applause of the theatre, he 
danced on the public stage in the mask of Javiller (for masks 
had not yet been exploded by Voverre), and his temporary 
study of mathematics was stimulated by the honours ana 
attention which were lavished by the highest circles at Paris 
upon Maupertuis after his return from a scientific visit 
to Lapland. Aspiring to rival the dramatic fame of Vol- 
taire he composed the tragedy ' La Conjuration de Fiesque,' 
and upon the appearance of Montesquieu's work, ' L'Esprit 
des Lois,' Helvetius declared that he too would raise a mo- 
nument worthy to stand by the side of that of the philoso- 
phical legist But Helvetius was as kind-hearted as he 
was vain, and an act of beneficence was as dear to him for 
its own sake as the applause which he courted so eagerly. 
When Saurin the academician married, Helvetius not only 
made him a free gift of 200/. but also settled upon him an 
annuity of 80/., and when Marivauxt to whom he allowed 
a yearly pension of 120/., forgot the decencies of gratitude, 
Helvetius mildly observed, * How would I have answered 
him if he had not, by accepting my favours, laid me under 
an obligation to him r 

In 1751 Helvetius married the beautifid and accomplished 
daughter of the Comte de Ligneville and niece or Mad. 
de Grafligny, by whom she had been brought up. From 
this time he lived chiefly in retirement at a small estate 
at Vor6, enjoying with his wife and children the pure plea- 
sures of domestic life and ameliorating the condition of 
his tenants and vassals. He is said to have been very jea- 
lous of the ^me on his estates, and very severe against 
violators of the game-laws. In 1 758 he published the treatise 
' De I'Esprit,' which, while it was fovourably received by 
the self-styled philosophical party, was denounced by the 
court and the Jesuits as dangerous to society and to religion, 
and as being nothing less than a summary of all the evil 
doctrines of the 'Encyclopedic.' A strong passion for 
praise is usually accompanied by a keen sensibility to cen- 
sure : to regain the favour of the court Helvetius thought 
no concession too great, and he successively published three 
letters of (q>ology which gradually advanced m humility and 
submission. Notwithstanding the confession which they 
contained of a Christian faith and his disclaimer of all opi- 
nions inconsistent with its spirit* the doctors of the Sor- 
bonne drew up a formal condfemnation of the work, which 
they declared to be a compendium of all the evil contained 
in all the bad books that had yet appeared. It was publicly 
burned, according to a decree of the parliament of Paris. 
As to the literary merits of this work, the style is vicious 
and declamatory, but the argument is well sustained 
throughout, and enforced by great felicitv and copiousness 
of illustration. In 1764 Helvetius visited England, and in 
the following year Germany, where he was received by 
Frederick the Great with marks of the highest considera- 
tion and esteem. Helvetius died at Paris, 26th Deoember, 
177 if leavisg bdiind him « work entiUed ' De I'Homma^ 



H B M 



114 



HEM 



de let Faculty et de son Education,' which Was puhliahed 
the same year at London by Prince Gallitzin. This treatise, 
which may be considered as a continuation of and commen- 
tary upon his earlier philosophical work, is vastly superior 
to it in style and diction. Among the earliest works of 
Helvetius is his poem * Sur le Bonheur,* which, however 
secondary as a poetical composition, evinces all that nice 
observation of men and manners which forms at once the 
truth and the charm of his philosophical essays. These 
may be considered to constitute the practical portion of the 
sensuous system which in this part was left incomplete by 
Condillac, who confined himself to the exposition and deri- 
vation of the cognitive faculties. By ' esprit' Hclvetius 
understood as well the mental faculties as the ideas acquired 
by them. Both faculties and ideas he reduced to simple 
sensation, and he accounts fur man's superiority over the 
brutes bv the finer organism of his seniles and the struc- 
ture of Lis hands. Man, he considers, is the work of 
nature, but his intelligence and virtue are the fruits of edu- 
cation. The end of virtue is happiness, and utility deter- 
mines the value of all ailions, of which tliose are virtuous 
which are generally useful. Utility and inutility are how- 
ever merely relative and there is consequently nothing 
which is either absolutely good or absolutely evil. Tbe 
happiness and enlightenment of the people be makes to be 
the true end of all human government; and, denying a 
Divine Providence in the government of the world, he 
declares all religion to be a cheat and a prejudice. {CEuvres 
d^HehetiuSy 3 vols., Paris, 1818.) 

HELVIN, a crystallized mineral of which the primary 
form is a cube. Cleavage parallel to the planes of the re- 
gular octohedron, indistinct; fracture uneven; hardness 
6*0, 6*5; scratches glass ; colour pale-wax and greenish- 
yellow ; streak white ; lustre resinous, vitreo-resinous ; trans- 
lucent; transparent on the edges; specific gravity 3*166. 
It is found at Schwarzenberg in Saxony. 
Before the blowpipe or charcoal it melts with efferves- 
cence into a globule of the same colour as the mineral ; in 
the oxidizing tiame the colour becomes deeper aud the 
fusion is more difficult; with borax it yields a transparent 
glass often coloured by manganese. 
Analysis by Gmelin— * 

Silica • , • .35*272 

Glucina • . . 8*026 

Alumina and Glucina • 1 * 445 
Protoxide of manganese . 29 '.'M 4 
„ iron . 7*900 

Sulphuret of manganese • 14*000 
Loss by calcination . 1 * 1 S5 



97*232 
HELVOETSLUYS. [Hollani>.] 
HBMATIN, the colouring matter of the Hirmatoxylon 
(xunpeckianum, or logwood, discovered by Chevreul. It is 

Srepared by evaporating a watery infusion of logwood to 
ryness, treating the residue with alcohol, filtering tbe 
spirituous solution, and evaporating it to the consistence 
of a syrup. If a certain quantity of water be added to this, 
and evaporation be performed with a gentle heat, the he- 
matin crystallizes, and requires only to be washed with a 
little alcohol and dried. Hematin crystallizes in small 
crystalline laminae of a reddish colour. The taste of he- 
matin is at first sweet and astringent, and afterwards bitter. 
It is decomposed by heat, and ammonia being one of the 
products, proves that it contains azote. Water dissolves he- 
matin, ana the solution is of an orange red, at 212® Fahr., 
but becomes yellow on cooling. Acids saturated with 
oxygen turn its colour first to yellow and afterwards to red ; 
the alkalis in small quantity render hematin purple, and 
when in excess violet-blue, and eventually decomposing it, 
make it yellowish-brown. 

This colouring principle is a constituent part of all the 

colours prepared with logwood, and the changes which it 

undergoes by the action of acids and alkalis render it useful 

OS a re-agent to detect their presence. 

HEMBL HEMPSTEAD. [Hbrttordsrirs.] 

HEMBRALCyPIA, a word which is now used to signify 

'night-blindness,' though in fact it means * day-seeing,* 

bein^ similarly formed to the genuine Greek word ' nycta- 

(yvffraX«»iria), which means ' night-seeing.* Much 

^n has arisen in regard to the use of the two words, 

eouence of an error committed either by Hippocrates 

of hif Mdj edilon. In the find book of his * Pn»- 



dicta,* he sajrs, ' We nail those nyctalooM who see by nigKt :' 
but in the 4th and 6th books of his * Epidemics.' the d*-* i-<- 
which he speaks of under a similar term appears to be th t ; 
in which tbe patients are bhnd at ni^ht ; and his trut; ; .• 
tors, Paulas ^gineta, ifitius, and Galen, quote ^ar. ^ 
authorities to show that those onl^ are properly r:.)!* 1 
nyctalopoi who are affected with nisht-blindness. It y 
have been followed by Bontius. Sir G. Blano, and tna: > 
naval surgeons, who apply to the present disease the ii:)' - 
of nyctalopia, or dysopia tenebrarum. LinniDusand V ,. \ 
however define nyctalopia to be night-vision, and call tn^ . t - 
blindness, hemeralopia ; and as their meanin^^s have \> 
since received by Scarpa, Lawrence, and all the rl..> . 
writers on diseases of the eyes, they will be adopted hvu. 

Night-blindness is a common disease amongst seaman .ri 
the East and West Indies, the Mediterranean, and in »A 
hot countries, and affects in a slighter degree soldii rs tn i 
the natives in the same parts of the globe. To per"- '.<« 
affected by it, all objects appear at sunset as if covered v • *. 
an ashcoloured veil, which becomes gradually dcnM.T. n: i 
at last involves them in complete darkness. In slight r .. .• « 
they can see by bright candle-light or by nioon-ligbt ; l- • 
after the disease has lasted a i^cw days, even the lar^'*-^' 
objects are invisible after sunset, and the patients hu\c :> 
grope their way even where the moon or candles are ahw,. .^ 
brightly. The disease will daily increase in sevcrit) il' t ; 
judiciously treated, till the sight becomes wcuk by d m- 
light, and so disordered that total blindness might l'« :; > 
prehended, though it very rarely follows. The pupiW a. .• 
generally dilated, and at night cannot be made to runti.: ; 
even by a brilliant light. 

The most probable cause of this disease is the cxbanvi ^ 
of the retina, produced by the continued glare of a bn. / i 
sun, either directly transmitted to it, or reflected (r n 
the clear waters of the tropical seas, or the bright sami^ f 
their shores; a condition of which one may form an v' i 
from the inability to perceive objects in a dimly li'^h' •! 
room aAcr leaving one where there was a glare of li^hi. 1 :. 
many cvlsqs it is connecte<l with a disordered condittou vf 
the digestive organs, and in others itith scurvv. 

The disease will generally get well, though it mar t \:^; 
for weeks or months. The most successful treatment t.- 
the repeated application of small blisters to the tem]!«^v 
Mr. Bampfleld cured by this means upwards of 3ou ra%*-^. 
This treatment never failed; but in some instaniv» lU 
effects were accelerated by the administration of purga- 
tives and other medicines adapted for the coincitlt-i; 
symptoms of scurw or of disordered digestion. The U-t 
description of the disease is in Mr. Bampfiold's 'E&«a\ • :i 
Hemeralopia,' in the 5th vol. of the 'Medico-Cfainit,^. .1 
Transactions.' 

Nyctalopia, night-vision, or day-blindness, probably r,c\ . r 
ooeurs as a separate disease. It is oAen a symptom 
scrofulous ophthalmia and other diseases where the c\c t« 
so irritable that the stimulus of day-lii^ht cannot be h>. 
as well as of those conditions in which great dilatat'oa • i 
the pupil is requisite for vision, as in commencing caiar- t, 
or opacity of the centre of the lens or its capsule. 

HEMICA'RDIUM. [Ck)NCHACKA, vol. viii.. p. 42:.l 

HEMICYCLO'STOMA, M. Do Blainvillc's name f r 
the fourth iHmily of his order AsivhonabranchiMta, •.-.» 
latter being the second order of the first subclass {Pur: ■■ 
phalophora Dioica) of the class Paracrphalopfiora^ il • 
second class of his Malacozoa, [Nbritid.e.1 

HEMIDA'CTYLUS. [Gkcko. vol.xi. p. 103.] 

ILEMINGFORD. WALTER, sometimes called IlE- 
MINGBURGH, a canon regular of the Austin Prior> -f 
Gisebum, or Gisboroui^h, in Yorkshire, where he dic»i . •• 
1347. His history, which begins ft*om the Norman Cn- 
quest, continues to the reian of King Edward IL It a < 
first published by Gale in his • Scriptores V..' foU Oxf.-r ".. 
1687; and again by Heame, in 2 vols. 8vo., Oxford, i:::i. 

HEMIO'PIA (from ^fii, 'half,' and wf, Mhe e>c') u a 
disease in which the patient sees only a part of the o^^jt^ t 
he looks at; the middle of it, or its circumference, or i:* 
upper or lower part, or more commonly one lateral hn u 
bemg completely obscured. In some cases it arises frc.m .i 
partial mecnanical obstruction to vision, as when part of li -.-^ 
transparent tissues of the eye become opaque, or when t'-.t* 
upper eye-lid falls over half the pupiL But more freque: : y 
it is the result of a morbid and partial insensibilitv i>f the 
retina, produced by the excessive stimulus of a bright htrlit, 
and will eeue afler a night's rest; somethnes it b » cva- 



HEM 



115 



HEM 



tequeueo of disordered digestion ; and sometimes a symptom 
of rommenctn^ amaurosis, or gutta serena, and terminates 
in complete blindness. 

A very interesting account of this disease is given in the 
'Philosophical Transactions' for 1824, by Dr. AYulhiaton, 
vho bimaelf suflTered from it on two occasions. He endea- 
voured to explain it by the semi-decussation of the optic 
ner\-cs [Eys] ; and it is remarkable that the appearances 
fjund in his bra^'n after death were such as on that theory 
loight have been anticipated. But in a large proportion of 
the cases the affection is too transient to admit of the sup- 
P^iitioa of any organic disease. 
HEMIPLE'GIA, [Apoplbxy.] 
HEMIPO'DIUS. |Tetraonid.«.] 
H EMISPHERE, the half of a sphere. [Spuerb.] 
HEMI'PTERA (from jjfit, haJf^ and tti^ov^ a trti^),one 
of the orders of the class Insecta. 

The order Hemiptera, according to the twelfth edition of 
tho * Systema Natune ' of Linnnus, contains insects which 
a.pt3e in having incomplete metamorphoses {i.e, the larva 
and pupo both possess the power of locomotion, and bear a 
great resemblance to the perfect insect), and also in having 
the superior wings generally coriaceous, and the inferior 
ravmbranous. Thus Linnsus included in this order the 
C'f-kroachei, Locustt, Grasshoppers, Bugs, Cicadof, &c. 
T!ic last-mentioned insects, the Bugs and Cicade, however 
jitTer very materially from the former, inasmuch as they 
l>>j^«ess a suctorial instead of a masticatory mouth ; and as 
ihc»c latter characters have been considered of great im- 
I .trtance by all the more modern entomologists, the term 
llemiptera has been restricted to such insects as have im- 
f ^rfcct metamorphosis and a suctorial mouth. 

This definition will include the Linnsan genera Fulgoria, 
Cicada^ Notonecia, Nepa, Cimex^ Aphis, Chermes^ Coccus, 
and Thrips^ and theses with the addition of the genus 
PuIeXt constitute the order to which Fabricius applies Hib 
i.ame ot JRtptgota, Without the last-mentioned genus they 
CLi nstitute the order Hemiptera according to Latrcille, Bur- 
m twister, and most of the foreign entomologists; and the 
orders Hemiptera and Homoptera according to Leach, 
Stephens, MacLeay, and several other British authors. 

The Hemiptera are divided by Latreille into two sections ; 
t J the first he applies the name of Heteroptera, and to the 
s4.^ond that of Hotnoptera, The Heteroptera are charao- 
'w^rized by having the rostrum attached to the fore part of 
t'uc head; the elytra coriaceous with the extremity mem* 
branous, folding one over the other when at rest, and the 
:'r^l segment of the trunk (or the prothorax) the largest, 
aud funning the most conspicuous part of the thorax. The 
>c:ond section, Homoptera (which by many of the English 
ebtuzn jlogists is regarded as an order), is distinguished by 
luc pruboscis being attached to the lower portion of the 
U.&d. near the chest ; the elytra almost always of a uniform 
M.riaceous texture, with their inner margin straight and 
CvQtiguous : the three segments of the thorax are united in 
a maj»s, and the first is frequently shorter than the second. 
All the insects of this section feed exclusively on vegetable 
juices: their structure is more fully described in the arti- 
tie IIouopTBRA. We shall at present confine our remarks 
t • tine first section, or to the true Hemipterous insects. 
^ la the greater number of the Heteroptcrous Hemiptera 
'lie lic^ i& small, situated on the same plane as the thorax, 
f nearly so ; the fore part is somewhat produced ; the eyes 
irv of moderate size, very convex, and hence project rather 
suddenly from the sides of the head : between the eyes there 
ire, ill many species, two ocelli, or simple eyes ; the antennn 
a:« of moderate size, composed of long joints, few in number, 
mi situated in front of the eyes: the part usually termed 
tLe thorax in description^ but which is in fact the prothorax, 
i\ vf moderate size, often broader than long, and very fre- 
«f uently produced on each side, so as to form an angular 
D« rjjtx-tion ; the scutellum is large, generally triangular; 
Ivit in some (the Scutellerce, for instance) it assumes the 
form of the body, and is so large that it completely covers 
*l«at part; the body itself is often Hat or concave above ; 
'^it'«cxand more or less distinctly keeled beneath: when 
tii£ V lugs are closed, the upper psirt of these insects gene> 
rjlly presents a flat or slightly convex surface* and is 
y M'.'iu very convex. The legs are of moderate size, or not 
jjifrv«|uently long. In certain groups (the Coreides) the 
\'<f^wtioT thighs of the males of many of the species are re- 
;^.rka.bly large, and many have the tibio also large, often 
li%»;bd and comi)ressed. 




The proboscis springs from the fore part of the head, and 
when not in use is suddenly cur\'cd downwards and back- 
wards, and lies close to the under surface of the thorax and 
between the fore pair of legs. It consists of a jointed pro* 
cess (a), which is grooved upon the upper side, and in this 
groove there are four setso (6), or bristle-like organs, whica 
are covered above, at their base, by another appendage ((^. 
which is supposed to be analogous to the upper lip or la- 
brum of mandibulate insects; whilst the four setee nrobably 
represent the mandibles and maxillee, and the jointed process 
the labium. In the figure, the setse (b) are represented, as 
disengaged from their sheath (a), and the labrum is lifted 
up. \Vnen in the ordinary position these organs form to 
gether a tube, by means of which the juices of plants or 
animals are extracted and conveyed to the cesophagus. 

The Heteroptera are divided by Latreille into t^o families ; 
the first, or the Geocorisia, are characterized as liaving the 
antennm free, longer than the head, and inserted between 
the eyes and near their anterior margin. The tarsi are 
three -jointed, but the first ioint is sometimes very short. 
The second family, to which the name .of HydroooribSD is 
applied, have the antennes enclosed and hidden in a groovy 
beneath the eye ; the tarsi have but two distinct joints,* 
and the eyes are generally very large. 

The species of the family Geocorisse are for the most pait 
found on the leaves of trees or small plants ; some there are 
which do not quit the ground, and there are others which 
live upon the surface of the water. The genera Hjfdrome- 
tra, Gerris, and Velio, afibrd examples of this mode of life. 

[H YOROM ETRI DJS.] 

The insects belonging to the second ikmily {Hydroooriste^ 
live, as their naihe implies, in the water^ and they prey 
upon other insects^ 

The two families which have just been characterized are 
by most entomologists regarded as sections or subseetioni 
rather than families; the latter is in fact an aberrant 
group, the former containing by fhr the greater portion of 
the species. Regarding them therefore as seetionsi they 
may be divided into the following families : 

Qeoeoriste, 



Family 1. Scutellerld®. 

2. PentatotnidtD. 

3. Coreida?. 

4. Acanthiidco. 



Family 5. Cimicid*. 

6. ReduviidcD. 

7. Hydrometridoo. 



HydrQCoris€e. 

Family 1. Nepidse. Family 2. Notonectidio. 

HEMITONE, an interval in antieat music, the ratio of 

which IS rrr* 
zoo 

HEMLOCK. [CoNiuM] 

HEMP. [Caxxabis.] 

HEMP. Our supplies of this article are almost wholly 
brought from Russia. Of 586,032 cwt. imported in 1836 
into the United Kinj^om, 556,458 bwt were shipped at 
St. Petersburg and Riga. Some trifling shipments are made 
at ports in the north of Germany and the Netherlands, and 
a smaU supply is brought from India. The total quantity 
of hemp imported in each of the ten years from 1827 to 
183(5 was— 



1827 • • 573,393 owt 1832 . . 593,564 ^wf. 

1828 . • 504.120 „ 1833 . • 627,459 

1829 , . 374,932 „ 1834 . • 673,810 

1830 . . 006,770 „ 1835 • « 687.558 

1831 • • 530,820 „ 1836 , . 586,032 



•t 
ft 

%9 



The price of hemp fluctuated exceedingly during the war. 
While the ports in the Baltic were closed against us it be- 

• The (liird Joint b td be flboad (at least In toiAe oftbo fpedM, if not a2Q 
within the apex «r tke tn>i». 

Q2 



HEN 



116 



HEN 



Cime axorbiUntly detr. In the year 1792 the price was 
85/. per ton, and in 1 808 bad riaen to 1 1 8/^ under the restric- 
tions imposed on Uie trade of this country by the Milan 
and Berlin decrees of Napoleon. By this advance the in- 
genuity of mercantile men was so stimulated, that the ob- 
stacles raised by the governments then subject to the dicta- 
tion of France were overcome, and the importations, which 
in 1808 had been only 259,687 cwt., were increased to 
858,875 cwt. in 1809, and 955,799 cwt in 1810, when the 
price fell to 58/. per ton, which rate was below the cost, in- 
cluding the exorbitant freight to which it was subjected* 
Since the peace in 1815 the price has fluctuated between 
24/. and 50/. per ton; during the last few years it has 
scarcely ever gone beyond 30/. per ton. 

HBMSTERHUYS, HBSRIUS, son of a French phy- 
sician, was bom at Groningen, A..D. 1685. He entered the 
university of that town in his I4lh year, and studied theo- 
logy and philology under Braun, Oriental literature under 
Schultens, and mathematics and philosophy under Ber- 
noulli. He afterwards went to Leyaen to hear the lectures 
of Perisonius on antient history ; where he was engaged to 
put in order the MSS. belongins to the university library. 
in his 1 9th year he was appointed professor of mathematics 
and philosophy at Amsterdam, and shortly afterwards 
undertook to comolete an edition of Pollux which Lederlin 
had left unflnisheo. Bentley in two letters to Hemsterhuys 
pointed ont the fkults of this edition ; which so much dis- 
couraged Hemsterhuys that he did not open a Greek book 
Ibr two months afterwards. Conscious of his own deficiencies 
he resolved to acquire an accurate knowledge of the Greek 
language, and for that purpose read througn all the Greek 
writers in chronological order. In 1720 he succeeded Lam- 
bert Bos at Franeoker as professor of Greek; and in 1740 
removed to Leyden, where he was also professor of the same 
language. He died 7th April, 1766. 

Hemsterhuys did not write nuich ; but he was an accu* 
rate and laborious scholar, and it was principally owing 
to his reputation and exertions that the study of the Greek 
lan^^uage, which had been greatly neglected in Holland, 
•gain became general in that country. He introduced what 
lias been called Uie analogical system, which prevailed in 
tiie universities of Holland fbr a long time, and which is 
Mly developed in the writinss of Lennep. Hemsterhuys 
was not only a good olassieal senolar, but be was acquainted 
with several of the Oriental languages, and had a eonsider- 
nble reputation for his knowledge <» mathematics and phi* 
loeophy. 

The principal works of Hemsterhuys are: the latter part 
of the edition of' Pollux' by Lederbn, 1706 ; ' Luciani Col- 
loquia et Timon,* 1708; *Plutus* of Aristophanes, 1744; 
' Latin Ontions,* published by Valckenaer, 1784 ; Latin 
Translation of the 'Birds' of Aristophanes, in the edition of 
Kuster; ' Notes and Emendations on Xenophon of Ephesus,* 
inserted in the 3rd volume of the ' Miscellanea Critica' of 
Amsterdam. He also edited the earljr part of the edition 
of Lucian, which was completed by Reitx. 

Hie life of Henisterhu>'s has been written by Ruhnken. 
This work has been reprinted at Leipxig, together with the 
life of Wyttenbacb, edited by Lindemann, 8vo., 1822. 

HE'NAULT, CHARLES JEAN, born at Paris in 1685, 
was the son of a fennier-g6n6ral. He showed at an early 
age a taste for literature* and wrote several poems. Being 
made intendant-general of the queen*s household, he be- 
came by his pleasing address and suavity of manners a great 
Ikvourite with the high society of the capitaL He was also 
appointed president of the Court of Enqu^tes. In 1723 he 
was made a member of the French Academy. At the age 
of fifty he withdrew from the fiuhionable world, and pve 
himself up entirely to study and to practices of devotion; 
but his devotion was firee ftom moroseness or superstition. 
He died at Paris in 1770. Not many years before his death 
be wrote to Voltaire, with whom he had been on intimate 
terms, a serious letter representing to him the impropriety 
and bad taste of his continual sarcasms and invectives 
against religion. iCorreipofukmce de MadL du Deffand, 
the 23rd letter of those addressed to Voltaire.) The work 
for which Henault is best known is his ' Abrifige Ghnmo- 
logique de I'Histoire do France,' which is a very good model 
of works of that kind. It has sone through numerous 
editions, and has been translated into sevenl languages. 
In two small volumes the author has registered under 
eaefa year every event of any importance in the annals of 
the Aeach mooarchy, ftom ita ml oitabliahiaei^t to tbo 



death of Loub XIV. ; vnth a hapoy conciseness of expres 
sion he has cleared up many doubtftil or cootrovertf^ 
points, and he has introduced many wise, mond, and poli- 
tical reflections on the character of men and times. Tho 
arrangement is clear, and the hand of a man deeplv rer<e«1 
in the laws and the records of his country is visible tbroucU- 
out the work. At the beginning of evenr reign he exhibiu 
in a tabular form the dates of the birth, accession to th«; 
tbrone, and death of the monarcli, the names of his wife « r 
wives, and children, those of the contemporary Eoropeuu 
sovereigns, and those of the ministers, generals, chanreltors 
and men of learning who lived during that period; au>l at 
the end of every dynasty he adds an interesting dissert at i n 
on the social, civil, and intellectual condition of France r.t 
the time. A good index completes tho work. H^iaiur 
has bad many imitators and continuators, one of iv horn t* 
the compiler of the 'Revue Clironologique dc rilistoirc It? 
Fimnce de 1789 jusqu'au 1819.' 1 vol. 8vo., Paris, Itil. m 
which all the multifarious evcnU of those thirty ycar^ ar- 




deTh^&tre,' 1 vol. 8vo. 1770. 

HENBANE. [H yoscy amus.] 

HENDECAGON, a figure of eleven sides. For tbc 
regular hendecagon see Rkoular Figures. 

HENLEY on Thames. [Oxfordshirk.] 

HENLEY in Arden. [Ardkn; Warwickshiris.] 

HENNA. [Lawsonia.] 

HENNEBON. [Morbihan.1 

HENRI L of France, son of king Robert, and gnml- 
Bon of Hugues Capet, succeeded his father in July, I c ' : , 
being then about twenty-seven years of age. His motlu r. 
Constance of Provence, who wished to favour ber >uun/ir 
son Robert, excited a civil war, in which Eudes, count k,{ 
Champagne, and Baldwin, count of Flanders, took her v^» t. 
while the duke of Normandy assisted HeurL Peace v i«> 
made by Henri giving to his brother Robert the duchy • f 
Burgundy, which was the beginning of the first ducal Ikiu^*^ 
of Burgundy. In the year 1035. Robert le Diable. duke U 
Normandy, died ; and his son William the Bastard, who m.'* 
ceeded him, was assisted by Henri in defeating several riv J* 
who claimed the dukedom. A new pretender howe\ e r a r '.t-^ 
some time aAer in the person of William of Aiqucs, rvti>.:t 
to the late duke ; and Henri of France, who had now U - 
come jealous of the power of William the Bastard, a^si-i. I 
his competitor, who however was in the end defeate<l lu iUj 
Bastard about the year 1 04 7. Henri married, iu 1 U-4 4, A a u . 
daughter of Jaroslav, duke of Russia, by whom he U ^ i 
sevml sons, the eldest of whom, Philip, was cro\«iirti .it 
Rheims in 1 069, at seven years of age, by order of hu fai Ik r. 
who died in the following year, leaving Philip 1. undrr iKt- 
guardianship of Baldwin, earl of Flanders. [Baluwi?( 1 V 

HENRI IL, born in 1618, succeeded his father Fran- 
cis I. in 1647. In 1660 he concluded the war which ^4* 
then pending with England, which gave up to him B<)u- 
logne for the sum of 400,000 crowns. Aoout this Lice 
Mary Stuart, the queen of Scotland, then a minor* came lo 
France, under the guardianship of her uncles of Guimt, 
and was betrothed to Francis, son of HenrL In 1662 Heiin 
assisted Maurice, elector of Saxon v, and Albert, marqui<i li' 
Brandenburg, who had united for the defence of therchf^ioL* 
and civil liWties of Germany against Charles V. Ilcnn 
in^-aded Loiraine and took Mets, Toul, and Verdun, whic U 
were from that time annexed to France. It is curious t > 
seethe French government, which persecuted ProteslantuMD 
at home, taking up arms for the professed purpose of ^uy- 
porting the Protestants of Germany. After the abdicat i.<'i 
of Charles V. the war continued between his succe5*4;r 
Philip IL and Henri, whose troops, under the oommanl 
of the Constable Montmorency, were defeated by the 
Spaniards at the battle of St Quentin in 1667 ; the Frcucl) 
arms were likewise unsuccessful on the side of Italv, whc.o 
the duke of Alba commanded tbe Spaniards. Hie «.r 
ended in 1669, by the peaoe of Chfiteau Cambresi^, h\ 
which Calais, which had been taken the year befi>re by ibo 
dukeof Guise^ remained in the hands of the French. At 
the same time a double marriage was oonduded between 
Elisabeth. Henri's daughter, and Philip IL of Spain ; aiid 
between Margaret, Henri's sister, and the duke of 8a\o>. 
The festivals given on this oeeasion had a tragical end 
Henri was aooidMitally wounded at a tounMunent by tho 
count of Uontgomeryi with (bo ihaft of his broken ipear. 



HEN 



117 



HEN 



which itmek the king on the right eye. Henri died shortly 
Wier, July 10» 1559. -By his wife Catherine de* Medici he 
had four sons, of whom three reigned in succession after 
him, beginning with the eldest, l^ancis II. He also left 
several oatural children by various mistresses. He had 
none however bv his principal female favourite Diana de 
Poiiieis, whom he made Duchess of Valentinois, and who 
survived him. The great influence of the Ghiises began 
under his reign. [Guise, Dukes of.] 

HENRI IlL, bom at Fontainebleau in 1551, was the 
third son of Henri H. Under the reign of his brother 
Charles IX.. when he was called the Duke of Anjou, he 
fini^ht courageously at the battles of Jamac and Moncontour 
against the Huguenots. In 1573 he was elected king of 
Poland and the successor of Sigismund Augustus. Henri 
was crowned at Cracow ; but a few months after, upon hear- 
ing of the death of his brother Charles IX., he sudden I v 
Quitted Poland and returned to Franco, where he assumed 
f ne title of Henri III. His reign was a reip^n of unworthy 
favourites. A mixture of bigotry and debauchery, of vice and 
Iblly, characterized his court Under his weak administra- 
tion factions and civil and religious wars desolated France; 
and instead of checking party spirit he was himself the leader 
of a party, and that party not the strongest. The king's party 
stood between the other two parties, that of the Ligueurs 
under Henri of Guise, and that of the Huguenots under 
Henri of Navarre, and the war which ensued was appro- 
f»iat«ly called the war of the three Henris. At last Paris 
revolted in Ikvour of the Guises, and Henri had recourse to 
aanssination, bv causing the Duke of Guise and his brother 
the cardinal to be murdered. Most of the towns of Prance, 
iadifi^ant at this base act, rebelled ; the parliament of Paris 
instituted his trial ; and the pope excommunicated him. In 
this emergency Henri felt for a moment his old spirit re- 
\ive; he applied for assistance to his generous enemy 
Henri of Navarro, who joined him with his army, repulsed 
the Duke of Ma}-cnne, the leader of the League, and tlie two 
Vings laid siege to Paris. During this siege a fknatical 
Domnucan monk, named Jacques CI6ment, excited \^ the 
declamations of the ligueurs, assassinated Henri III. at 
Sl Cloud. Henri died on the 2nd of August, 1589. He 
left no issue, and In him terminated the dynasty of Valeis, 
which had reigned in France since the accession of Philip 
VI., in 1328. 

HENRI IV., king of France and of Navarre, bom at 
Pau hi the B^am, the 15th December, 1553, was de* 
s^euded in a direct line from Robert, count of Clermont, 
sixth son of Louis IX., who married, in 1272, Beatrix of 
Burgundy, heiress of Bourbon, and assumed the arms and 
the name of Bourbon. [BoiTRBOif.l Henri*s father, Antoine 
de Bourbon, married Jeanne d'Albret, only daughter and 
heiress of Henri d'Albret, king of Navarre, after whose 
dcsth, in 1 535, Antoine became king of Navarre in right 
of his wife. Henri IV., during his youthfhl years, was 
trained up to hardiness and privations in his native moun* 
Tains, after which he was sent to the French court till 
1566, when his mother Jeanne d* Albert re(»lled htm to 
Pau and had him instructed in the Calvinist communion. 
In 1569 he was acknowledged at La Rochelle as the 
leader of the Odvinists, and ft>ught at the battles of Jar* 
nac and Moncontour in the same year. After the peace 
of 1570 he was invited to the French court, and two years 
after he married Margaret, sister of Charles IX. By 
the death of his mother, June, 1572, he became king of 
Navarre. At the massacre of the St. Barth^lemi, which 
fbllowed dose upon his marriage, Henri's life vras spared 
on condition of his becoming a Roman Catholic; but as the 
oi>urt did not trust a conversion which was extorted by 
fiear, he was kept under vratch as a state prisoner ibr about 
three yeafs, naving escaped in 1 576, he put hnnself again 
at the head of the CaWinists, and began a series of haaard- 
oos and hard-fought campaigns, interrupted by short cessa- 
tions of arms whenex^r Henri III. of France made pro- 
mises of peace and toleration to his Calvinist subjects,— pro- 
raises which he or the Guise never fkiled to break. Henri 
won the battle of Cootras in Giiyenne, October, 1587, in 
which hts antagonist the Duke of'^Joyeuse was killed. In 
1589 he made his peace with Henri HI. and joined him 
against the League. Henri lU. before he expired named 
the kinf^ of Naiarre as his successor, telling him at the 
same time that he wished him a quieter reign than his own 
had been. Henri however was opposed by one half of the 
kingdom, which obeyed the Pake of Ma^enne, whom the 



parliament of Paris had appointed Lieutenant-General, and 
he was obliged to raise the siege of the capitaL 

He soon after gained the batties of Arques and Ivry« 
received some reinforcements firom Elisabeth of England* 
and pursued the war with renewed vigour. At last in 
1 593 Henri began negotiations with several of the leaders 
of the League, and as a preliminary condition of their sub* 
mission he was induced to make a public profession of the 
Catholic Mih at St Denis on the 25th of July of that year. 
In March 1 594 Paris opened its gates to him, and Rouen 
and other cities followed the example of the capitaL 
Charles, duke of Guise, likewise made his submission. In 
the following year the Pope acknowledged Henri, and in 
1 596 the Duke of Mayenne submitted. It was not however 
till 1 598 that all France acknowledged Henri, nine years 
after his assumption of the crown. The peace of Vervins, 
concluded in that year, put an end to the interference of 
Spain in the affairs of France. From that time till his 
death Henri enjoyed peace, with the exception of a short 
campaign against the Duke of Savoy in the year 1600« 
which terminated in favour of the French arms. 

The king applied himseli' to reform the administration of 
justice, to restore order in the finances, and to promote in- 
dustry and commerce. He established new manu&ctories ; 
he introduced plantations of mulberry-trees and the rearing 
of silkworms, and he began the botanical garden of Mont- 
pellier. He embellished Paris, and founded the hospital of 
La Charity Chr^tienne for invalid officers and soldiers; 
he added to the collection in Uie royal library, and encou^ 
raged and rewarded men of learning, among others Grotius, 
Isaac Casaubon, Joseph Scaliger, De Thou, Malherbe, &c 
In his foreign politics he was the ally of England ; he sup- 
ported the independence of Holland, and took the part of 
the Protestants of Germany against the encroachments of 
Rudolf II. Henri was censui^ for his change of religion, 
and by none more earnestly than by his faithful friend and 
connsellor Duplessis Momay. On the other hand, many of 
the Catholics never believed his conversion to be sincere. 
But the truth probably was that Henri, accustomed from 
his infknoy to the Ufe of camps and the hurry of dissipation, 
was not capable of serious religious meditation, and that be 
knew as little of the religion which he forsook as of that 
which he embraced. In his long conferenoe at Chartres in 
September, 1593, with Duolessis Momav, which took plaoe 
after his abjuration, he. tola his friend that the step he had 
taken was one not only of prudence, but of absolute necoK- 
sity; that his afiections remained the same towards his 
friends and subjects of the Reformed communion, and be 
expressed a hope that he should one day be able to bring 
about a union between the two religions, which, he observed, 
differed less in essentials than was supposed. To which 
Duplessis replied, that no such union could ever be effected 
in France unless the Pope's power were first entirely abo- 
lished. {MSmoirei et Carrespondance de Duphssig Mornay 
dgpms Pan 1571 juaqu'en 1623, Paris, 1824-34.) 

By the Edit de Nantes, promulgated in 1598, Henri gave 
what he thought a full redress of the grievances under 
whidi his Protestant subjects had so long laboured, and such 
it would have proved, had the provisions of the edict been 
honestly and fully carried into effect, and had not the king*s 
intentions been frustrated in great measure by the intole- 
rance of the different parliaments and Courts of justice. 
Henri found the finances of the kingdom in a most wretched 
condition; of 150 millions of livres taken from the people 
only 30 millions reached the king's coffers. His able mi- 
nister SuUy had the task of restoring order in this financial 
chaos. He adopted the method of letting the taxes by public 
auction ; he entered into a rigorous examination of the 
accounts of former receivers-general and other agents, and 
introduced fonns of acooonts which were to be filled up and 
aeoompanied with the neeeasary vouchers, so that no pretence 
was left for obscurity or omission. During a ministry of 
fifteen years he reduced the taiUe five millions of livres, and 
other imposts one half: he redeemed 135 millions of debt, 
while he added four millions to the king's revenue, and left 35 
mflUons in the treasury, besides a value of 12 millions in arms 
and ammunition, five millions expended in fortifications, and 
above 26 millions on public works and royal gratuities. ( Bn^ 
um^HiitoireFinanci^rede la France^ Paris, 1829.) The sym- 
pathy which Henri felt and showed for the humbler classes 
of his subjects, whom his predecessors had looked upon as 
an inferior race of beings, would alone be sufficient to ao- 
count for his popularity with the French people* a populii* 



HEN 



118 



H B N 



rity which has 'surviyed all tho event^l changes in that 
country. He is the only king of tho old monarchy whose 
memory is still popular in France. Hia brilliant qiialities, 
hift tastes, even his failings, such as his excessive gallantry, 
were national, and they flattered the self-love and the vanity 
of the people. * Ho was,' says the President Hdnault, * his 
own general and his own minister. He united to a blunt 
frankness the most dexterous policy, to the most elevated 
sentiments a delightful simplicity of manners, and to an 
undaunted courage a most touching feeling of humanity 
and benevolence.' He often forgave, and when forced to 
punish, as in the case of Biron. he did it with extreme 
regret. His life was repeatedly attempted by assassins 
who were stimulated by the old fknaticisra of the League; 
and at last he was stabbed to death in his carriage, by Ua- 
vaillac, on tho 14th May, 1610. He was succeeded by his 
son Louis Xlll. under the guardianship of his consort 
Maria de* Medici. The grief for his death was deeply felt 
all over France. {Mcmoirea de Sufly; Henault and the 
other French historians; Thomvi^ Essai sttr /f*s Eh*(ei ; and 
a collection of Henri's most remarkable sayings and doings, 
entitled L Esprit de Henri IF., Paris, I/'gd.) Lcnglet du 
Fresiiny, in the 4th vol. of his Jnurnnl de Henri III., has 
published many letters of Henri IV. When the royal tombs 
at St. Denis were ransacked in the time of the Revolution, 
179.3, tho body of Henri IV. was found in very good pre- 
servation : his features appeared hardly chanjrea. 

HENRY I., King of England, surnamed Bcaurlerc, 
or the Scholar, was the fourth and vouncfcst son of Wil- 
liam the Conqueror, by his queen Matilda of Flanders, 
and was born in 1068 at Sclby in Yorkshire, being the only 
one of the pons of the Conqueror who was an Englishman 
by birth. His surname attests that he had received a more 
literary education than was then usually given cither to the 
sons of kings or to laymen of any rank ; and this advantage 
was seconded by natural abilities of a superior order. From 
an early age he and his next brother, William, appear to 
have mono}X)lized the favour of their father to the exclusion 
of his eldest son, Robert Richard, the second son, died in 
his youth); and Robert's first recourse to arms is even 
attributed to his indignation at having one day had a pitcher 
of water thrown down upon his head, in mockery or sport, at 
the town of L*Aigle in Normandy, by his two younger bro- 
thers, and at his fathers refusal to punish them for the in- 
sult. If this incident took place at all it must have been 
when Henry was a mere child, not beyond his eighth or 
ninth year: — his brother William was about twelve years 
his senior. In the last days of their father's reign jealousies 
arose between these two brothers ; and in this new family 
quarrel tho father seems to have attached himself to the 
one who was on the whole most like himself in character. 
At his death in 1087, the Conqueror expressed his wish 
that William should be his successor in the crown of Eng- 
land, and only left Henry a legacy of 50(ic»/. of silver. 
With 3000/, of this however Henry soon after obtained, from 
the facility of his brother Robert, the whole of the district 
of Cotentin, comprehending nearly a thiitl of Normandy. 
Although in the first instance a quarrel between the two 
arose out of this bargain, they were afterwards reconciled ; 
and in 1090, when the intrigues of William, now king of 
England, had excited a revolt of the Norman barons against 
Robert, Henry came to the as^^istance of the latter, and was 
chielly instrumental in putting down the insurrection. 
Upon this occasion Henry gave a striking proof of the 
relentless determination of his character. Conan, a rieh 
burgess of Rouen, one of the most active and powerful of 
those who had taken part in the treason, having fallen into 
the hands of his enemies, Duke Robert thought it pllni^h- 
ment enough to condemn him to perpetual inij/risonrnent ; 
hut Henry, deeming it expedient to have boiler security 
against his future attempts, led the unfortunate man, on 
pretence of giving him a view of the surrounding country, to 
the highest tower of the castle in which he was confined, and 
threw him over the battlements. When Robert and Wil- 
liam made peace the ft)llowing year, they turned their 
united arms against Henry, who was soon compelled to 
evacuate even liis last stronghold, the fortress built on the 
loflv rock of St. Michael, after which lie wandered about 
for some two years in a state of nearly complete destitution. 
At lengih, on the invitation of the inhabitants of the town 
^Vont, he as-unicd the government of that place ; and 
•ppear that from this point d^appui he gradually 
self to the repossession of nearly all the territory 



that he bad lost He also became reconciled to Rofoji, n' •! 

was in England and in the New Forest with that ktn^ w) i ti 

he came by his death (2nd August, ad. 1100). That •:. \- 

den and mysterious event (which very poHsibly bis banil • .* 

his contrivance may have caused, and into which at 1.- t 

he never instituted any inquiry), made Henry king of K • 

land. His reism is reckoned from Sunday the .In! • f 

August, on which day he was crowned in' Westniin-'. r 

Abbey by Maurice, bishop of London. Tho next di>> 1 .« 

published a charter confirming the rights and liberties >. ... 

of the church and of the nation, and promising the re^:. . i- 

tion of the laws of the Confessor, with only sudi alterati«> i- 

as had Iwen made in them by his father. All the cii «'.••♦ - 

stances of Henry *8 accession furnish strong evidence of f.' •- 

great importance which the Saxon population had aln. ' y 

recovered since the Conquest. Henry firom the fii^^t p t 

forward his English birth as one of his chief claims X'* :♦ *- 

ceptance with his subjects; and he hastened to strenjUM ri 

this title by an act which almost amounted to a tacit ndi.. - 

sion that the rights of the old Saxon line were not > ct ♦ \ 

tinct, his marriage with Maud, or Matilda, daughter of M \ 

colm, king of Scotland, and niece of Edgar Atheling, w h r h, 

after a delay occasioned by the reluctance of the princi'^N ••» 

unite herself to the supplanter of her house, and b> fl:* 

circumstance of her havmg been at least designed to pi- ^ 

her days as the inmate of a nunnoi-y, if she had not actu.i . i . 

taken the veil, was at last celebrated on Sunday the lltii 

of November. As soon as he assumed the crown Hfi r> 

affected a complete change of manners, laj-ing aside t'^ 

open licentiousness in which he had heretofore indnl;;«-«j, 

and with much apparent zeal clearing the court of the i.j- 

tresses and profligate minions of the late king; but \\'. < 

show of reformation, like most of his other professions, v * 

soon found to be merely an expedient adopted for the p ,:- 

poses of the moment. 

The history of the reign opens with the contest hetwt . .i 
Henry and his elder brother for the crown. At tho ij> .- 
ment of the death of Rufus the gallant and thought!- ^^ 
Duke Robert, after a brilliant career of arms in the \\'.^ 
Land, was lingering on his return home in the south . :' 
Italy, detained there by the fascinations of the beaut, .il 
Sibylla, daughter of the count of Con versano, whom K. 
eventually married and brought with him to Norma. ■!» 
After his arrival in his own territories he threw awa) uw, : 
time in a succession of festive displays ; but at la>t ho pr t • 
pared to make a descent upon England. He landed w:K i 
considerable force at Portsmouth, soon after Whit.^^unti !••. 
A.U. 1 101. But this effort ended in nothing : Hcnr\. hi*. ♦ 
ing an army assembled at Peven^ey, marched forwarl, mi 
overtook his brother before he could reach Winchester. . / 
which it was his object to obtain possession. After >- r- 
negotiation the two princes met in a vacant space l>ctwi> .; 
the armies, and in a few minutes agreed to make up tN ' 
differences on the terms of Henry retaining Endand. :.. ! 
Robert Normandy, with the proviso thai, if either «!. : 
without legitimate issue, tho survivor should be hi> 1 r 
The easy temper of the one brother and the ciaft uf ' 
other arc emially conspicuous in this treaty, by which Hc:i . 
extricated himself, at little or no co^t, from all the inc.;:r. • 
niences and hazards of his present position, while R. ' . ; 
at once relinquished the whole object in di^putc. bol . ,- 
only what rart of it he may hnvc conceived wa^ mud»' <>» • 
to him in nis qualified and precarious rcvcrsionaiv r.. : 
It was by no means Henry's intention however tliti 1.. 
should escape even at this satrifice. Several of the Et .. 
lish barons who possessed estates in Nonuandy, anxiou^ ' •: 
their own inteie-ts to secure the union of the two couiili; 
had taken part in Robert's attempt: it was one of the -:.' 
pulations of the treaty that a full pardon bhould W < v- 
tcnded to all the subjects of cither brother who might Ih. 
liave gone over to the other; but no sooner was the di 1 • 
returned to Normandy than Henry procee<led to take *.%♦ 
tematic measures for effecting the ruin of the leading ban .• 
who had de-^erted him. In this way he s«>on provoke! •. 
series of petty insurrections in England, which he e.,- \ 
crushed, extinguishing thereby, one after another, all t: . 
persons that were most obnoxious to him, and acquiru.; 
their e*^tates to distribute among new men that wero h ^ 
devoted adherents. These proeoedings coidd not fail t . 
rouse the indignation of Robert; and Henry was not m.o* 
in taking advantage of the courses into which his irrit.ii^ I 
feelings drove him, to declare that the peace between xWin 
was fbr over at an end. Circumstances were now in c\ vi v 



HEN 



119 



HEN 



mjr macb more ftiTourable ibr the English kin^than when 
be ^rtnerly contrived to avoid a contest of arms with his 
brother : on the one hand, some years of possession had 
i ^tabli:»hed him more firmly on his throne ; on the other, 
the strength of Duke Robert was broken and wasted, and 
\iU extravagance and misgoTernment had both dissipated 
hl^ means of every description and loosened the very tenure 
uf his sovereignty. Henry, in the first instance, called 
upou him to cede the duchy for a sum of money or an 
annual nension : he then (a.d. llOd), on this demand being 
scornfully rejected, crossed over to Normandy at the head 
I r an army, and speedily made himself master of many of 
tlie chief places of strength. 

The following year the English king, who had returned 
honie, again crossed the seas with a more numerous fon^e 
nnn before. About the end of Julv he commenced the 
vicse of the castle of Tenchebrai ; Robert, after some time, 
a<U-aDced to its relief; and on the 2Sth September a long 
inl sanguinary battle was fought between the two brothers 
before the walls of that fortress, the result of which was the 
uticr ruin of Robert and liis cause. He himself, after a 
IjNt splendid display of the heroic valour which he had 
aU%ays shownj was taken prisoner, with 400 of his knights. 
He was condemned by his brother to confinement for life. 
.Vrrording to Matthew Paris, an unsuccessful attempt 
V* l.ich he soon after made to effect his escape was diaboli- 
c^lly punished, on the order of his merciless brother, by the 
*'\tinctionof his sight: u basin of iron made red-hot was 
r.eld before his eyes, which were kept open by force, until 
ihcy were burned blind; and in this state the miserable 
prince survived for twenty-eight years, dying in Cardiff 
C'isile, at the age of eighty, in February, 1 1 35, not quite 
t't rive months before Henrj', Immediately after the vic- 
i rytif Tenchebrai Henry was, without opposition, acknow- 
U dged their duke by the Norman barons. About the same 
nmo also was terminated by a compromise, for the present, 
^\: dispute with Anselm, the archbishop of Canterbury, on 
lite subject of investitures, which had been proceeding ever 
^inee the commencement of the reign. [Anselm] 

The next six or seven years passed without any events of 
iiiurh moment. In 1113 however Henry was attacked in 
Normandy by Louis VI. of France, and Fulk, earl of Anjou, 
•« img^ in confederacy in support of the interests of Wil- 
li i;3. styled Fitz-Robert, the son of Duke Robert, who had 
•>'*aped the vengeance of his uncle, and became from this 
tiuc a rally in g-point for the friends of his father^s house 
2nd the enemies of the English king. The war lasted for 
th jut two years, and was on the whole adverse to Henry; 
.>ui he then managed, with his usual dexterity, to bring it 
•u a close by a treaty, which restored to him all that he had 
1 M. and for the present wholly detached the earl of Anjou 
f.om the cause of his young prot6g6. It had been agreed 
■h<it a marriage should take place between William and the 
' iH's daughter Sibylla. That project was now given up, 
r.'l it was arranged instead that Matilda, another daughter 
f tlie carl, should be united to Henry's only son, Prince 
\rilliam of England. But Henry seems to have made this 
( n^aeement with no intention of ever fulfilling it : as soon 
.^ It had served its immediate purpose, he showed in the 
:]>'<t open manner his disregard of every stipulation of the 
: * at\. The consequence was the formation against him of 
1 •:« ■: <nd Continental confederacy, in which tlie earl and 
•h • k.n^ of France received the active and zealous co-ope- 
■ -'.uin of Baldwin, earl of Flanders. Another war of about 
*^ J }ear& followed, in which success inclined sometimes to 
ilii> one side, sometimes to the other ; but the death of the 
« or! of Flanders of a wound re( eived at the siege of Eu, 
the ^ocession of the earl of Anjou, again drawn off by a 
renewal of the proposal for the marriage of his daughter, 
(re intrigiies of Henry with the disaffected Norman barons, 
'-D«U finauy. the mediation of the pope, brought it also, in 
t : li\ to a tcrmiuatioa entirely favourable to the English 
king. 

Immediately after this peace Henry's brightest hopes were 
tunted to sud^n night by the frightful calamity of the loss, on 
Fn<Uy, the 25lh November, of the ship in which his son had 
embarked at Barfleur for England : with the exception of 
cno individual, a butcher of Rouen, all on board perished, 
to the number of nearly 300 persons, including the prince, 
b:^ half brother Richard, his half-sister Marie, and the earl 
c/Qiesier, with his wife and her brother, who were the niece 
Sfld nephew of the king» among 1 40 of the members of the 
doit oobk houses of England and Normandy, of whom 



eighteen were females. Henry is said never to have been 
known to smile after this blow. It did not however extin- 
guish his spirit of ambition. Two years before this he had 
lost his consort, the good Queen lifaud; and a daughter, 
Matilda, married in 1114 to the Emperor Henry V., was 
now his only legitimate progeny. In the hope of male 
offspring, he now (2nd February, 1121) espoused the young 
and beautiful Adelais, or Alice, daughter of Geofifrey, duke 
of Lnuvaine. Scarcely had he entered into this alliance 
when he found himself called to meet a new revolt in Nor- 
mandy, excited by the restless Fulk, earl of Anjou, who 
now having lost all hope of the English marriage, had re- 
newed his connection with Fitz-Robert, and again affianced 
to him his younger daughter Sibylla, putting him in the 
mean time in possession of the earldom of Mons. But this 
movement was very soon put down by Henry, who also 
contrived once more to gain over the fickle and venal earl 
of Anjou, and so to deprive the Norman prince of the hand 
of the fair Sibylla, when he had it almost in his grasp. 

When four or five years of his second marriage had 
passed without producing any issue, Henry determined 
upon the bold enterprise of endeavouring to secure the suc- 
cession to his dominions for his daughter, the empress Ma- 
tilda, who had become a widow by tne death of her hus- 
band in 1125. On Christmas-day, 1126, she was unani- 
mously declared his heir, in a great council of the lords spi- 
ritual and temporal assembled at Windsor Castle. The 
following year, in the octaves of Whitsuntide, she was 
married to Geoffrey, sumamed Plantagenet, the son of 
Fulk, earl of Anjou, to whom, although only a boy of six- 
teen, his father had renounced that earldom on his departure 
for the Holy Land, where he was a few years aftenvards 
elected king of Jerusalem. Soon after this settlement of 
his daughter, Henry was relieved of a source of perpetual 
annoyance and apprehension by the death of his nephew 
William Fitz-Robert, which took place 27th July, 1128, in 
the twenty-sixth year of bis age. This prince had not been 
abandoned by King Louis of trance, who, after giving him 
in marriage Joan of Morienne, the sister of his queen, had 
first put him in possession of the countries of Pontoise, 
Cliaumont, and the Vexin, and then, on the murder of 
Charles the Good, had invested him with the earldom of 
Flanders. The intrigues and the money of Henry however 
speedily stirred up against him a revolt of a party of his 
Flemish subjects, who putting Thiedric, or Thierrj', land- 
grave of Alsace, at their head, endeavoured to drive him 
from the country; and it was in a battle with Thierry, 
under the walls of Alost, that, in the moment of victory, 
he received the wound of which he soon after died in the 
monastery of St. Omer. It was not however till March, 
1 1 33, that Henry's longings for a grandchild were gratified 
by the birth of Matilda's first child, Henry, styled Fitz- 
Empress, afterwards Henry H. Two other sons, Geoffrey 
and William, were bom in the course of the next two years. 
These events had been preceded by such dissensions between 
the ex-empress and her husband as at one time occasioned 
their separation ; and now that they were again living 
together, Henry and his son-in-law quarrelled about the 
Norman duchy, of which the latter wished to be put in 
immediate possession, according to a promise which he said 
had been given on his marriage. From these family broils 
Henry was only delivered by his death, which took place at 
Rouen on Sunday, the 1st December, 1135, being tho 
seventh day of an illness brought on by eating to excess of 
lampreys, after a day spent in hunting. He had completed 
the 67th year of his age and the 35th of his reign. 

Besides the son and daughter bom in wedlock that have 
already been mentioned, the genealogists assign to Henry I. 
the following natural children:— 1. Robert, earl of Glou- 
cester, who died, after a distinguished career, in 1146, 
by Nesta, daughter of Rhees-ap-Tudor, prince of South 
Wales,; 2. Richard, drowned in 1120 with Prince William J 
by the widow of Anskil, a nobleman of Berkshire; 3. Re- 
ginald, earl of Cornwall, who died in 1176, by Sibylla, 
daughter of Sir Robert Corbet, and wife of Henry Fitr- 
herbert ; 4. Robert, by Editha. daughter of Sigewolf, a 
Saxon nobleman; 5. Gilbert; 6. William, sumamed do 
Tracy ; 7. Henry Fitz-Herbert, who was killed in battle in 
1197, also, according to one account, by Nesta; 8. Marie 
(otherwise called Maud, or Adela), countess of Perche, ano- 
ther of those who perished in the shipwreck of 1 1 20 ; 9. 
Maud, married to Conan the Gross, earl of Brittany ; 10. 
Juliana, married to Eustace of Breteuil, earl of Facie la 



HEN 



J2U 



HEN 



Normandy; 11. Constance, married to Rosoeliu, Viscount | 
Beaumont in France; 12.. another daughter, married to I 
William Goet, a Norman ; 13. another, married to Mat- 
thew Montmorency, the founder of the illustrious French 
family of that surname; and 14. Sibylla (otherwise called 
Elizabeth), who was married in 1107 to Alexander I. of 
Scotland, and died in 1122, by Elizabeth, wife of Gilbert 
de Clare, earl of Pembroke, and father by her of the famous 
Strongbow. (See accounts of these persona^^es and their 
descendants in Fisher's Companion and Key to the History 
qf England, 8vo., London, 1832.) 

The character of Henry is sufficiently indicated by the 
facts that have been detailed. In a moral point of view it 
was detestable, but in the line of policy and craft it evinced 
superlative ability. In the midst of all his profligacy and 
unscrupulous au*bition however he cherished a love of let- 
ters, and in his hours of leisure was fond of the society of 
learned men. It must be admitted also that his govern- 
menl, though still arbitrary and tyrannical in a high de- 
gree, appears to have been on the whole a considerable im- 
provement on that of his father and his elder brother. He 
may be said to have led the way in the reformation of the 
law and the constitution by his re-establishment, partial as 
it was, oC the Saxon laws, and by his charter, the example 
of that series of subsequent royal concessions, the same in 
form though much more extended in amount, which lie at 
the foundation of the national liberties. There can be no 
doubt that the country made considerable social progress in 
his reign, undisturbed as it was by any internal commotion, 
and enjoying, notwithstanding much upnression on the ^art 
of the crown, probablv a more regular ciispensalion of jus- 
tice between man and man, and more security from disorder 
and violence, than it had known since the coming over of 
the Normans. Henry I, was succeeded on the throne of 
England by Stephen. 

HENRY II., surnamed Fitz-Empress, was the eldest son 
of Geoffrey Plantagenet (so named from a sprig of broom 
— in I-atin, planta genista^in French, piante genet ^ 
which he used to wear in his cap), earl of Anjou, and of 
Matilda, daughter of Henry I. king of England, whose first 
husband had been the Emperor Henry V. [Henry I.] He 
was born at Le Mans, the capital of his father's dominions, 
in March, 1133- In the struggle between Stephen and 
Matilda for the English rrown [StephbnI, Matilda's 
husband Geoffrey had, by the )ear 1141, reduced nearly 
the whole of Normandy, and his infant son Henry had been 
acknowledged by the majority of the nobility of that country 
as their legitimate duke. In June of the following year 
Matilda's great supporter, her bastard half-brother Robert, 
earl of Gloucester, passed over to Normandy, and returned 
to England in December, bringing Prince Henry along 
with him, together with a small body of troops, obtained 
from the earl his father. Here the boy remained for 
nearly five years shut up for safety in the strong castle of 
Bristol, where his education was buperintcnded by his ex- 
cellent uncle Gloucester, who was distinguished for his 
scholarship and love of letters. He returned to his father 
in Normandy about Whitsuntide, 1147. In 1149 however, 
being now sixteen vears of age, he recrossed the seas, and, 
at an interview held on Whitsuntide in Carlisle with his 
uncle David I. of Scotland, received from that prince the 
honour of knighthood, and concerted measures with him 
and his other friends for recovering his grandfather's throne. 
He returned to Normandy in the beginning of the follow- 
ing year, and was a few months afterwards, with the con- 
tent of his father, formally invested with that dukedom by 
Louis VII. of France, the portion of the country called the 
Vexin being ceded to Louis as the price of his consent 
to such arrangement Bv the death of his father, 10th 
ScDtcmber, 1151, Henry became carl of Anjou, Touraine, 
ana Maine. On Whitsunday of the year following, within 
six weeks after she had been divorced from her first hus- 
band. King Louis of France, he married Eleanor, in her 
own ri^ht countess of Poitou and duchess of Guienne or 
Aquitame, an alliance which made him master of all the 
western coast of France, with the exception only of Brit- 
tany, from the Somme to the P}'renee8. Soon after this 
Henry sailed for England at the head of a small but well- 
appointed force. He and Stephen, having advanced, the 
one from the west, the other from the east, came in sight of 
each other at WaUingfbrd, and in an inter^-iew which they 
\ there^ stmnding on opposite sides of the Thames, agreed 
truce. The aetth of Eustace, Stephen's eldest son, 



havinz removed the chief obstacle tea peraunent atranae* 

ment oetween the two competitors a peace was fioally &<! 
justed in a great council held at Winchester, 7th Nurem- 
ber, 1153, in which Stephen, adopting Henry for his aon, 
appointed him his successor and gave the kingdom of Bug- 
land, after his own death, to him and his heirs for cvt-r. 
Tlie death of Stephen, 25th October, 1 154, made Henrir. lu 
conformity with this agreement, king of England viinout 
opposition. 

The commencement of the reign of Henry II. is reckoncvl 
from his coronation at Westminster along with his queen, 
I9th December, 1154. His firstproceedingswcrestrikiuj^:* 
indirati\e of the system of combined energy and polii y 
which continued to characterize his government He dt^* 
missed the foreign troops which Stephen had brought int*i 
the kingdom ; razed to the ground nearly all the numeruu ^ 
castles that had been erected throughout the country bv the 
barons in the preceding twenty years of anarchy ; aua ti* 
sumed with remorseless determination all the lands that h^iX 
been alienated from the crown since the death of HeuQ K 
the grants only excepted that had been made to the chun h 
and to William, the second son of Stephen. This last art n 
rigour, the most daring upon which he adventured, uas un- 
dertaken with the express concurrence of the great coun< A 
or assembly of the immediate tenants of the crown. IK* 
next proceeded to settle the succession, and for that purp<i^o 
a great council was assembled at WalUngford. soon aAcr 
Easter, 1 155. which ordained that after his death thecrou n 
should descend to his eldest son William, now in his thinl 
year, and incase of the death of William (which in del t^)ok 
place the following year), to his vouneer brother Hcnrt^ 
who was as yet only a few months ola. Oaths of feahy 
were at the same time taken to both the young princev : 
* and we may undeniably infer from this,* obsen*es L)c d 
Lyttleton, ' as well as many other fiusts, that no right s^f 
birth, how indisputable soever, was thought in those da> v a 
sufficient title to convey the suceession, without a parlia- 
mentary acknowledgment of it, followed and confirmed by 
feudal engagements? Such ratifications were at least rv- 
yarded as an important security, if not as essentiaL It was 
in another council, or parliament, as some writers call it, 
held at London after these arrangements had been mad^, 
that Henry, in conformity with the now established practice, 
granted a short charter, confirming, for himself and hi« 
heirs, to the clergy, the nobility, and the oommoualtv. al. 
the rights, liberties, and customs (con^utf/udii'iiet) which had 
been conceded by his grandfather Henry I. 

His presence was now called for across the seas by the 
attempt of his younger brother Geoffrey to wrest from hiu 
his paternal inheritance of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine, on 
the pretence, as stated by some authorities, that the wdl ot 
tlieir father had directed that Henry should resign the^? 
earldoms as soon as ho should have obtained possession of 
the English crown. After a very short contest Gt^oflTrov 
was forced to give up his claim in exchange for a pensi^m 
of 1000 English and 2000 Angevin crowns, which he en- 
joyed little more than a year. He died in 1158 at Nantcs 
the inhabitants of which city had chosen him for their go- 
vernor, in consequence of which circumstance the pUi^ 
was immediately claimed by Henry, as having devohed to 
him as his brother's heir. Partly b^ force, partly by ma- 
nagement, Henry succeeded in acquiring through this claim 
first the virtual and eventually the actual possession of the 
whole of Brittanv ; the only portion of territorr that «a> 
wanting to complete his sovereignty over all the wcatern 
coast of France, and indeed over nearly the entire half of 
that kingdom. Conan, the hereditary count or duke of 
Brittany, who was also earl of Richmond in England, w«s 
now in the first instance induced, or compelled, to sign a 
treaty by which he bequeathed the country alter liis dcetb 
to his daughter Constantia, an infknt, whom he aflUnoed to 
Henry*s voungest son Geoffkey. At the same time the neu- 
trality of'^Louis of fVance was secured bv another arrange* 
ment, according to which it was agreed that Henry*8 eldest 
son, William, should marry that king's infknt daughuc 
Maigaret (her mother was Constance of Castile, vhora 
Louis had married aAer his separation fVom Eleanor), thrt^ 
castles in the Vexin beinsr made over along with the pnncrsi 
as her dower. Henry haa already recovered from the vounc 
Malcolm IV. of Scotland the northern counties whicn had 
been taken possession of by his predecessor David I«, and 
the cession of which in perpetuity had been one of Henry's 
engagements with his uoolein 1149; be had also ^biwi 



HEN 



121 



HEN 



l)ack the Welsh ttom those parts of the English territory 
vhich they had seized during the reign of Stephen, and 
even, as it would appear, compelled the princes of North 
and South Wales to acknowledge him as their feudal su- 

Serior. His next attempt was upon the great French earl- 
om of Toulouse, which he claimed in right of his wife 
Eleanor, whose grandfather William, duke of Aquitaine, 
had married Philippa, the only child of William, the fourth 
earl of Toulouse. He was here opposed hoth hy Raymond 
de St. Gilles, the descendant of a brother of earl William, 
in whose line the principality had descended for nearly a 
hundred years, ana by Louis of France, whose sister had 
married Raymond, and to whom, besides, the progressive 
aggrandizement of his ambitious vassal was every day be- 
coming a subject of more serious alarm. Henry's expedi- 
tion to France in support of this claim is memorable for the 
introduction of the practice of commuting the military ser- 
vice of the vassals of the crown for a pavment in money, an 
tonov^ktion the credit of which is attributed to Thomas k 
Bcckei, recently elevated to the place of chancellor of the 
kingdom. [Escuaos.I The contest which ensued was sus- 
pended hy a peace in May, 1 160, by which Henry was al- 
lowed to retain a few places he had conquered in Toulouse ; 
and although it soon broke out anew, it was after a few 
months put an end to by a second peace, concluded in 1 162 
by the mediation 6f pope Alexander III. 

The history of the reign of Henry II. for the next eight 
years is principally that of his contest with the haughty and 
intrepid churcnman, who, from an obscure origin having 
advaoced through the degrees of royal favourite, prime mi- 
TiL»ter, and chancellor, to the ecclesiastical sovereignty of 
archbishop of Canterbury, forthwith proceeded to assume 
the bearing of a rival monarch, and made his former master 
feel that he was only half king in the dominions he called 
hu own. [Becret.J This struggle ibr supremacy between 
(he church and the state was not even terminated by the 
murder of Beckct, 29th December, 1170: the blood of the 
mariyT crying from the ground was found to be still more 
powerful than had been his living voice. In 1174 Henry 
performed an abject penance at his tomb fur having been 
The unintentional instigator of his slaughter; and two years 
after, the famous constitutions of Clarendon, passed in 1164,